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THE    HITTITES 


INSCRIPTIONS  AND  THEIR  HISTORY. 


VOLUME    II. 


JOHN  CAMPBELL,  xM.A.,  LL.l). 

Professor  in  the  Presbyterian   College,  Montreal. 


TORONTO : 
WILLIAMSON    cV-     CO. 

NKW  YORK : 
A       D.     F.     RANDOLPH      cV     CO 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUxME  11. 


GhapUr  IX. 
The  Hittites  in  Eoyit  (Contiuned)     -----  1 

Chapter  A'. 
The  Hittites  in  Ecypt  {Cu^iclnded)  -  -  -  28 

Cliapter  XL 
The  Hittites  at  the  Tigkis  and  Eiphkates  -  -  -         57 

Chapter  XII. 
The  Hittites  at  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  (Continued)  81 

Chapter  XIII. 
The  Hittites  at  the  Tigris  ami  Eiphrvtes  (Goncbided)     -  -       109 

Cltapter  XIV. 
The    Hittites    in    Palestine    and    the    Xeighbotking    Countries 

before  the  rise  of  the  assyrian  empire  -  -  13u 

Chapter  XV. 
The    Hittites    in    Palestine    and    the    Neighkoukinc;    Countries 

liEEORE    THE    RiSE    OF    THE    ASSYRIAN    EmPIRE    (Ci>liti uued)  -  153 

Chapter  X]'I. 
The    Hittitks    in    Palestine    and    the    NEKiHiiouKiN,;    Countries 

FJEKORE    the    RisE    OK    THE    ASSYRIAN    EmPIRE    (C'liiii nVrd)         -  181 

Claipter   XVII. 

The     Hittites    in     I'ai.kstune    and    the    NKKiiip.ouRiM:    Cointhif.s 

liEFoitE  tjie   Rise  of  the  Assyrian   Emi'IRE  (Cnwhidid)  -       2(K5 

chapirr  xvm. 

The   HiiTFrEs   in    Con)'a(  r  with  the  Assviuan    Emimkk  2l'7 


IV.  CONTENTS   OF   VOLUME    II. 

Chapter  XIX. 
The    Aryan    Struggle    for    Supremacy    over    the    Hittites   of 

Western  Asia  -------      256 

Chapter  XX. 
The  Western  Dispersion  of  the  Hittites  -  277 

Chapter  XXI. 
The  Eastern  Mkjration  in  Asia         -----       304 

Chapter  XXII. 
The  Hittites  in  America  -  .  .  .  340 


THE    HITTITES: 

THEIR  INSCRIPTIONS  AND  THEIR  HISTORY. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

The  Hittites  in  Egypt  (Continued). 

ZoHETH  had  the  good  fortime  to  many  Sherah,  the  <hiughter 
of  Beriah.  She  is  said  to  have  built  Beth  Horon,  the  nether  and 
the  upper,  and  Uzzen  Sherah.  The  Hebrew  word,  to  build  up, 
is  used  to  denote  the  founding  of  a  family  as  well  as  of  a  house 
or  city,  but  ever  since  the  days  of  Cain,  who  built  a  city  and 
called  it  after  his  son  Enoch,  the  custom  of  commemorating  the 
birth  of  an  illustrious  child,  by  imposing  its  name  on  a  town 
continued  to  obtain,  so  that  Beth  Horon  and  ITzzen  Sherah  may 
be  taken  to  represent  at  least  two  of  the  sons  of  Zoheth  and 
Shei-ah.  They  are  the  Horus  and  Achencherses  who  iuniiedi- 
ately  follow  Amenophis  in  Eusebius's  version  of  Manetho's 
eighteenth  dynasty.  To  the  name  of  Achencherses  the  note  is 
appended  :  "  Under  him  Moses  led  the  Jews  in  their  Exodus 
from  Egypt."  The  wives  of  Seti  Menephthali  were  Twea  and 
Tsire,  the  last  being  the  Sherah  of  the  Kenite  record.  Josephus 
calls  her  Acencheres,  but  wrongly  places  her  after  Horus.  although 
two  masculine  Acencheres  are  placed  after  her.  Uzzen  Sherah 
as  Achencherses,  Acencheres,  Cencheres,  Concharis,  and  in  the 
Iri.sh  annals  Cingcris,  is  nlways  connected  with  the  Exodus  of 
Israel  or  sf)me  singular  calamity  that  belell  E<:;;ypt.  In  Gi'eek 
tradition  he  was  Cenchi'ias  son  of  l\)S('idon,  and  Cenchreae,  the 
])oi-t  of  Coi"inth  on  the  Sai'onic  gulf,  commemorated  him,  while 
the  gulf  itself,  ]ik(;  tlif  Italian  Surn-ntum  and  the  Aurunei,  bore 
tlu-  naiiH'  of  his  t!ld('i'  br(jtlicr  Ibiroii  oi-  Choi'on.  But  the  most 
familiar  (ii'i'ck  form  of  his  name  was  ('inyras.  who  liy  \arious 
(1) 


2  THE   HITTITES. 

writers  is  made  the  father  or  grandfather  of  Adonis,  or  is 
identified  with  him.  Adonis  is  the  god  Atin-re  of  the  Stranger 
Kings  of  Tell  el  Amarna  in  Egypt,  among  whom  Eesa  or  Ishi 
appears,  and  as  a  man  represents  his  ancestor  Othniel.  He  was 
worshipped  at  Byblus  in  Phtenicia  and  m  many  parts  of  Greece, 
his  rites  being  celebrated  by  priests  who  shaved  their  heads  after 
the  fashion  of  the  Egyptian  priests  of  Isis.  Lucian  says  that  the 
ceremonies  lasted  two  days.^  On  the  first  all  the  people  went 
into  mourning,  coffins  were  placed  before  every  door,  and  pro- 
cessions filled  the  streets  in  which  the  images  of  Venus  and 
Adonis  were  carried  to  the  sound  of  mournful  music  and  the 
loud  wailing  of  their  votaries.  Many  of  these  carried  boxes  or 
vases  in  which  they  had  reared  half-grown  herbs,  emblematic  of 
the  immature  age  of  the  god,  and  these  gardens  of  Adonis  they 
carried  at  the  close  of  the  day  to  the  neighbouring  sea  or  stream, 
into  which  they  cast  them  amid  great  lamentation,  to  perish. 
But  tlie  second  day  was  one  of  rejoicing,  in  which  they  celebrated 
the  resurrection  of  Adonis  from  the  dead.  The  story  of  the 
death  of  Adonis  is  that  he  was  a  prince  beloved  by  Venus,  who, 
in  spite  of  her  entreaties,  exposed  himself  in  the  chase,  until  at 
lenoth,  having  wounded  a  wild  boar  of  unusual  strength  and 
ferocity,  the  animal  turned  upon  and  slew  him.  This  is  supposed 
to  have  happened  at  the  Adonis  river  in  Phoenicia,  which  in  the 
words  of  Milton  : 

''  Kan  i»urple  to  the  sea,  supposed  with  blood. 
Of  Thanimuz,  yearly  wounded." 

The  wild  boar  is  a  fable,  for  the  fate  of  Adonis  was  always 
associated  with  water.  Not  only  was  the  river  artificially 
coloured  by  his  priests  so  as  to  appear  to  flow  with  blood,  but,  as 
has  been  told,  the  eml)Iematic  gardens  were  thrown  into  the 
water  to  die.  Ludian  also  says  that  a  head  formed  of  papyrus, 
or  a  vessul  of  papyrus  containing  a  letter,  was  annually  thrown 
into  the  sea  at  Alexandria  in  Egj'pt  and  floated  to  Byblus,  and 
l)y  its  arrlNul  there  informed  the  women  of  Byl)lus  that  Adonis 
wats  ffjiind.  Athenaeus  and  /Elian  describe  a  fish  called  Adonis 
which  was  e(jually  at  home  in  the  sea  and  on  land,  spending  half 

'    Luci;in,  de  Deii  Syria. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   EGYPT.  3 

its  time  on  the  shore,  and  the  naturalist  thought  it  was  so  called 
because  Adonis,  the  son  of  Cinyras,  was  in  love  with  two 
goddesses,  one  of  the  land,  the  other  of  the  sea.-  In  another  place 
^^lian  mentions  a  large  lish  found  in  the  Red  Sea  which  the 
Arabians  called  Perseus.^  Now  Cynurus  was  a  son  of  the  Greek 
Perseus,  so  that  all  these  particulars  relate  to  the  overthrow  of 
the  Pharaoh  of  the  Exodus  in  the  Red  Sea.'*  The  spectacle  of  the 
Egyptians  whom  Israel  saw  dead  upon  the  sea  shore  long  dwelt 
in  the  memor\"  of  the  coast  tribes,  and,  when  the}^  saw  the 
singular  lishes  basking  on  the  rocks  or  sandy  beach  from  which 
the  waters  had  receded,  it  was  but  natural  to  name  them  after 
the  lord  of  the  submerged  host. 

There  is  much  confusion  in  the  Greek  accounts  of  Cinyras 
and  Adonis.  Apollodorus  places  at  the  head  of  his  genealogy 
Cephalus.followed  by  Tithonus,  Phaethon,  Astinous  and  Sando- 
chus  the  father  of  Cinyras,  whose  sons  were  Oxiporus  and  Adonis, 
and  whose  three  daughters  died  in  Egypt.^  Tithonus  is  also 
made  a  son  of  Laomedon,  whose  name  as  Ulam  Bedan  is  repeated 
in  that  of  Phaethon.  There  is  evidence  of  a  union  of  the  family 
of  Leophrah  and  that  of  Bedan  the  Zimrite  in  the  Assyrian 
record  of  the  Patinians,  some  of  whose  kings  are  called  Lubarna  ; 
and  in  the  geographical  nomenclature  of  Palestine,  where  the 
transported  Canaanitic  Beth  Horon  the  upper,  was  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  tomb  of  liedan  the  Pirathonite.  Astinous  is,  therefore,  a 
disguise  of  the  name  of  Ishgi,  who  nnist  have  married  a  daughter 
of  Bedan.  His  wife's  name  on  the  monuments  is  Taia,  of  whom 
M.  Lenr»rmant  says  :  "  This  (jueen  was  not  an  Egyptian ;  the 
monuments  represent  her  with  light  hair,  blue  eyes  and  rosy 
cheeks,  like  the  women  of  northern  climates.  An  insci'iption 
preserveil  at  the  Cairo  Museum  mentions  her  fathe)'  and  mother 
]»y  names  which  are  not  Egyptian,  ami  not  even  belonging  to  any 
fortjiuii  riiyal  famil}'."'*  Sandoclius  the  son  of  Astinous  is  Zolieth. 
l^rot'es<or  Sayee  has  exhil»ited  the  Ciliciaii  eonnections  of  this 
nann'.  and  the  (  'ilicians,    l»e    it    remembere(l,   are    the    Charashim 

-    At!i'-ti:fus,  \iji.  5  ;   Ailiaii,  (!<■  Aiiiinaliiius,  i\.  'M'>. 

I  ><■  Aniiiialilius,  iii.  l.'s. 
*    l'aw~aiii.-is,  iii.   2. 
■■    A|..,!l.,'loru>,  iii.  11,  ;<. 
'•    I.iiicpiiiiaiit,  .\l,tini,-il,  i.  lil{S. 


4  THE   HITTITES. 

whose  valley  in  Moab  Josephus  calls  that  of  the  Cilices.'^  Sandes 
was  a  Cilician  orod,  and  Sandochus  is  said  to  have  e^one  to  Cilicia 
from  Syria  and  to  have  founded  Celenderis  there.  On  the 
Assyrian  Tnonuments  two  Cilician  kings  are  mentioned,  bearing 
the  names  Sanda-sarvi  and  Sandu-arri.*^  Stephanus  of  Byzan- 
tium states  that  Adana  and  Sarus  founded  the  city  Adana,  and 
that  they  were  g'ods,  along  with  Ostasus,  Sandes,  Cronus,  Rhea, 
Japhetus  and  Olymbrus.  These  are  chiefly  Ethnanite  names, 
Adana  being  Ethnan  or  Othniel ;  Sarus,  Seraiah  ;  Ostasus,  Isghi 
in  an  Astinous-like  form:  Sandes,  Zolieth ;  and  Olymbrus, 
Leophrah.  The  change  of  Zoheth  to  Sandes,  Sandacus,  Xanthus, 
Zacynthus,  is  analogous  to  that  which  transformed  Hod  into 
Hind  and  Bedad  into  Pandu  and  Pandion.  Pausanias  associates 
Zacynthus  with  Eryx  and  Archon,  who  is  Rakeni  the  uncle  of 
Bedan.-'  The  Irish  annals  also  connect  his  father  Ishgi  jvitli  that 
Zimrite,  making  him  as  Ith  the  son  of  Breogan,  and  representing 
Taia  the  wife  of  Ishgi  by  Tea  the  grand-daughter  of  Ith  and  wife 
of  HeremonJ"  The  Latin  version  mediates  between  Rakom  and 
Bedan  by  calling  Ishgi  or  Acestes  the  founder  of  Segestae  near 
Eryx  in  Sicily,  and  representing  him  as  the  son  of  Egesta  and  the 
river-god  Crinisus  ;  while  Egesta  is  the  daughter  of  the  Trojan 
Hippotas  who  sent  her  away  to  Sicil}',  lest  the  monster  who 
ravaged  Ilium  in  the  time  of  Laomedon  should  do  her  an  injury.^^ 
Butes  is  called  the  son  of  Eryx,  so  that  a  marriage  of  Bedan  with 
the  daughter  of  his  uncle  Rakem  may  reconcile  all  the  accounts, 
anfl  this  is  confirmed  by  the  statement  of  Pausanias  that  Lamedon 
of  Sicyon  niari'ied  Pheno  the  daughter  of  Clytius,  which  Clytius 
as  denoting  the  Gileadite  family  can  have  been  no  other  than 
his  uncle  Rakem. ^'- 

Apollodorus  gives  to  Sandochus  in  marriage  Thanacea,  or, 
as  some  editions  read,  Pharnace,  the  daughter  of  Megessareus  or 
^legessaras,  names  which  it  is  hard  to  connect  with  history,  unless 
Megessaras  be  an  amplification  of  the  name  Sherah,  and  Thanacea 


'  Trans.  Self.  l')il).  -Vi'cli.  \u.  2sri  :  JoHeiilnis,  .\nti<initirs,  xiii.  15,  4. 

•*  S'-c  .Saycc,  ^loiiuiucnts  of  t\w  Hittites,  Trans.  Scic.  Bib.  Aix'li.   \"ii.  28."i 

'■'  Pausanias,  viii.  24. 

'"  Kcatiiif,',  14(i. 

"  Virt^Hl,  A\ni-\<\,  \ar.  Inc. 

1-  I'ausanias,  ii.  (i. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    EGYPT.  5 

a  corruption  of  Taliath,  thus  inverting  the  nomenchxture  of  the 
Kenite  and  monumental  lists.  She  was  the  mother  of  Cinyras, 
who  married  Metharrae,  daughter  of  Pygmalion  of  Cyprus,  and 
was  by  her  the  father  of  Oxiporus  and  Adonis.  Panyasis,  accord- 
ing to  Apollodorus,  had  a  ditierent  story  which  made  Adonis  the 
son  of  Thoas  king  of  Assyria  and  liis  own  daughter  Myrrha. 
This  is  the  story  that  Ovid  has  versified,  but  he  replaces  Thoas 
with  Cinyras.  From  many  sources  Sir  Lsaac  Newton  recon- 
structed a  stor}'  of  Cinj/^ras  by  which  he  attempted  to  explain 
the  fall  of  Vulcan  from  heaven.^^  Thoas  married  Calycopis, 
daughter  of  Othreus  king  of  Phrygia,  and  acquired  the  name  of 
Cinyras  from  his  dexterity  in  playing  on  the  lyre.  Bacchus, 
having  entered  his  home  and  intoxicated  the  king,  injured  him  in 
his  marital  relations,  but  as  a  solatium  made  him  lord  of  Byblus 
and  Cyprus,  where  he  grew  enormously  rich  and  lived  to  the  time 
of  the  Trojan  War.  Adonis  was  the  son  of  Calycopis.  Here  is  a 
plain  confusion  of  Zoheth's  union  with  Sherah  and  that  of  Hadar 
with  her  cousin  Mehetabel,  for  Othreus  is  Hadar.  Much  might  be 
reported  of  Cinyras,  but  the  contradictory  stories  would  only 
confuse,  and  their  contents  are  not  to  edification.  He  is  not  the 
father  of  Adonis,  but  the  same  person,  for  Cinyras  was  a  name  of 
that  divinity.^*  Thoas,  who  is  called  his  father  by  Panyasis  and 
others,  denotes  not  Tahath  but  Zoheth,  and  is  thus  the  same 
person  as  Sandoclms.  His  mother  Sherah  is  a  Pharaoh's  daughter, 
but  Mehetabel,  her  cousin,  whose  father  was  Thothmes  II.,  is  the 
saviour  oii  Moses.  As  Myrrlia  Sherah  appears  to  have  been  the 
accomplice  or  victim  in  an  act  of  the  vilest  incest,  recalling  the 
story  of  the  daughters  of  Lot.  The  Greek  ti'aditions  are  only  too 
true.  M.  Lonormant  says  oi  Rameses  II.:  "This  Sun-king  of 
Egypt  increased  the  royal  harem  to  an  unprecedented  extent. 
])urinLi:  the  sixty-seven  years  of  his  reign  he  had  170  children, 
59  of  tlioii  sons.  Considering  himself  superior  to  all  moral 
laws,  Ik;  (-ven  went  so  far  as  to  marry  one  of  his  own  daughters, 
t\\('  [iriiic(/ss  Bcnt-Anat." '•'  Mr.  Osbuni  (|Uotes  an  inscription  in 
\\hich  ;i  Pharaoh,  whom  he  calls  Thothiiiosis,  is  styled  the  brother 

'■'■    ' 'l]i"ii'iliit(y  of  Aiiriciit  Kini^'iluiiis. 
■'    '  i  ii/iiiaiit,   Ri'li^fioii- ill'  rAiiti(|uiti'-,  ii.   l."p. 
■     F,'n"riii:ilit,   .Maiiu:il,  i.  2.")Ci. 


6  THE   HITTITES. 

of  his  mother,  and  between  this  Thothmosis  and  his  father  and 
grandfather  Mesphi-es Thothmosis  he  places  the  name  Acencheres.^^ 
The  same  horrible  story  is  told  of  the  Indian  Prajapati  and  his 
daughter  Sarawati,  who,  represented  by  a  river,  was  said  to  flow 
with  blood  ;  it  is  repeated  in  Irish  tradition,  which  makes  Aongus 
Tuirmheach  the  father  and  grandfather  of  Fiachadh  Fearmara  ; 
and  in  the  British  legend  of  Vorti^ern.^"  Professor  Max  Mtiller 
has  identified  the  Vedic  Sai'anyu  with  the  Greek  Erin}-^,  those 
avengers  of  evil  deeds  who  came  to  represent  the  remorse  of  an 
accusing  conscience.'^  The  two  Horons  are  their  originals,  Horon 
the  Tachatton  and  Horon  the  Elyon  or  Gelyon,  whence  came 
Aurunca  and  Suessa  Aurunca  of  the  Italian  Aurunci,  the  Hiranya 
Aksha  and  Hiranya  Casyapa  of  Indian  mythology.  Sons  of  the 
injured  Zoheth,  they  were  the  natural  avengers  of  his  honour  and 
their  mother's  shame.  In  the  evils  that  befell  Uzzen  Sherah  or 
Acencheres,  and  for  his  sake  fell  upon  all  the  land  of  Egypt,  the 
ancient  world  saw  the  hand  of  divine  retribution  and  gave  to  it 
the  name  of  those  most  wronged. 

Leaving  the  history  of  Zoheth  and  his  sons  for  later  consider- 
ation, we  must  retrace  our  steps  and  take  up  the  main  Egyptian 
line  after  the  death  or  abdication  of  Mezahab.  Taliath  or  Thoth- 
mes  II.,  who  married  his  daugher  Hatred  and  introduced  the 
Zoroastrian  creed  of  which  Mithra  was  the  centre,  does  not  seem 
to  have  done  any  memorable  deeds  beyond  commencing  some 
buildings  in  Ethiopia  wdiich  were  completed  by  his  successors. 
We  have  seen  that  Saul  or  Osortasen  III.  and  LeophvaU  or  Amen- 
hotep  II.  were  his  contemporaries,  the  latter  at  Elephantine  and 
the  former  at  Abydos  and  in  Lowei"  Egypt.  When  Saul  died  and 
Ophrah  met  his  fate,  there  was  a  time  of  anarchy.  The  Cymro- 
Zerethite  dynasty,  which  had  powei'ful  allies  in  Chaldea  and 
Mesopotamia,  took  possession  of  all  Southern  Palestine  and 
Ai'abia  Petraea,  and  probably  made  common  cause  with  the 
representatives  of  the  Ammonian  line  in  Thebes.  In  Lycopolis 
or  Siout  in  Central  Egypt  the  name  of  a  king  Rekamai  has  been 


"•  Monunicntal  ITistDi y  of  K^'vpt,  ii.  302. 

1"  Muir's  Sanscrit  Texts,  i.  ;   Keating  :  (ieotfrcy. 

'**  Chips  ii.  Coiniiarative  Mj-tliDlogj'. 

'"  Ji>s<'iilins  against  Ajiion,  i.  'J6. 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  7 

found,  who  represents  wliat  was  in  the  time  of  Jabez  the  vice- 
regal family  of  Mareshah.  The  son  of  Mareshah  was  Chebron 
or  Hebron,  who  as  Chebron  or  Chebros  follows  Amosis  or  Mesha, 
with  whom  he  was  really  contemporary,  in  the  beginning  of 
Manetho's  eighteenth  dynasty.  A  son  of  Chebron  was  Rekem, 
who  maj''  be  the  Rekamai  of  Lycopolis,  suppo.sed  to  be  a  Shepherd 
king.  The  descendants  of  Rekem  in  succession  were  Shammai, 
Maon  or  Magon,  and  Beth  Zur.  The  latter  name  in  Hittite  was 
Zur-vuna,  and  in  geographical  nomenclature  was  Saravcne  in 
Northern  Commagene.  It  was  probably  the  original  of  the  divine 
name  Serapis,  whose  fanes  in  Greece  Pausanias  connects  with  the 
Argive  .Egyptus  and  with  Alcon  son  of  Hippocoon,  who  is 
Rekem.  The  Serapium  in  Lower  Egypt  marks  another  stage  in 
the  fortunes  of  Mareshah's  family,  and  their*  tinal  stand  in 
Eg\'pt  was  made  at  the  Serbonian  marsh  that  extends  almost  to 
the  river  of  Egypt  called  Arish  after  Mareshah  himself.  Lycon 
or  Lycopolis  may  have  received  its  name  from  Rekem,  and  the 
facts  that  Zur-vuna  was  in  Egypt  and  that  the  Deltite  kingdom 
of  the  Anubite  Ammonites  continued,  are  indicative  of  the  support 
that  the  obstinate  Thebans  received,  not  only  in  repelling  the 
three  kings,  but  in  retaking  the  short-lived  empire  of  Saul. 
Typhon  had  not  yet  taken  refuge  in  the  Serbonian  bog.  It  was 
the  southern  Pharaohs  who  tied,  as  .Tosephus  tells  us  from 
Manetho.  His  account  is  that  Amenopliis  collected  the  lepers 
and  impure  people  of  the  land  (probably  the  Aadtous  or  Jahdaites 
whoi^e  name  is  translated,  the  impure),  and  set  them  to  work  in 
the  (juarries,  at  the  same  time  granting  at  their  re(|uest  the  city 
of  Avaris  as  their  residence.  There  a  priest  of  On  or  Heliopolis 
united  them  and  other  ti'ibes  in  Egypt  ami  Canaan  in  a  confeder- 
acy. This  Osarsiph,  who  may  possibly  l)e  Zur-vuna,  gave  his 
people  new  laws  oppose<l  altogether  to  those  of  tlie  Egyptians, 
requiring  them  to  destroy  the  sacred  animals,  and  ha\e  no  fellow- 
ship with  any  tribes  beyond  the  bounds  of  tlieii'  oonl'ederation. 
Marching  .s(juthward  to  the  number  of  2()(),()0(),  tlie\'  i-a\aged  the 
countiy,  setting  towns  on  tire,  profaning  the  temples,  and  making 
the  ])riests  c<jok  the  sacre(l  uiiimuls  with  the  wooden  idols,  after 
which  th(;y  stripjx-d  them  and  drove  them  out  ot"  the  land. 
Amenopliis  sent  his  son  Sethos,  surnaiiie(l  llaiiieses,  to  a  iVieiid  of 


8  THE    HITTITES. 

his  in  Ethiopia,  and  marched  against  Osarsiph's  host  with 
300,000  of  the  most  warHke  of  the  Egyptians.  But  his  courage 
failed  him,  and  he  retreated  into  Ethiopia  without  an  engagement. 
"  For  the  king  of  Ethiopia  was  under  an  obHgation  to  him,  on 
which  account  he  received  him,  and  took  care  of  all  the  multi- 
tude that  was  with  him,  while  the  country  supplied  all  that  was 
necessary  for  the  foou  of  the  men."  Concerning  the  anarchy 
and  historical  difficulties  of  this  period,  M.  Lenormant  writes  : 
"  Everything  shows  us  a  time  of  trouble,  of  continual  revolution, 
and  of  civil  discord.  No  doubt  part  of  the  disturbances,  of  which 
the  monuments  bear  traces,  must  have  been  contemporary  with 
Har-em-Hebi,  and  have  lasted  during  the  whole  of  his  official 
reign.  In  that  period,  we  repeat,  there  are  obscurities  still 
impenetrable  in-  the  present  state  of  knowledge,  and  which  new 
discoveries  alone  can  dissipate."  -'^ 

The  Greek  traditions  confirm  the  statement  of  Josephus. 
Tyndareus,  who  was  now  Hadar,  tied  from  Tentyra  and  Abydos 
to  the  representative  of  the  line  of  Aphareus  or  Ophrah,  and  had 
an  asylum  granted  him  in  Talmis,  opposite  which  a  new 
Dendur  soon  arose.  x\nd  Danae,  with  the  infant  Perseus,  and 
perhaps  the  aged  Tahath  his  father,  found  their  way  also  to  the 
court  of  Dictys.  Thus  the  Elephantine  kingdom  became  the 
refuge  of  two  monarchs,  and  its  king  Ishi,  a  third  Amenhotep  or 
Amenopliis,  might  justly  arrogate  to  himself  the  title  of  King  of 
Egypt.  The  same~  account  is  given  in  the  Indian  scriptures  of 
the  Might  of  tlie  royal  line  before  the  Kshattriyas  or  Achash- 
tarites,  and  of  the  birth  of  Parasara,  Parasu  Rama  and  Urva,  the 
avengers  of  the  slain  in  after  years,  in  exile  and  deep  distress.-^ 
Here,  liowevei-,  the  real  difficulty  begins.  Manetho's  list  of  the 
eighteenth  dynasty  is  teri'ibly  confused,  yet  he  recognizes  only 
one  Thotlniiosis  and  one  Rameses,  while  modei-n  workers  among 
the  inoimments  hud  four  Thothmes  and  three  Rames(.'S.  Mr. 
Sharpe  jtroves  by  monumental  evidence  that  Thothmes  II. 
mairifd  (^ueen  Mytera  or  Nitocris,  the  successor  of  Menthesuphis, 
in  the  language  of  the  contemporary  Kenite  scribes,  Matred, 
•laughtei-  of  Mezahab.     This  Mezahab  is  Har-em-hebi,  the  golden 


Maiiiinl,  i.  L>40. 

-Muir,  Saii.-ci'it  Texts,  i. 


THE    HIITITES    IX    EGYPT.  9 

Horns,  father  of  Mutretem  or  Miitneteni,  and  M.  Lenormant  says 
that  Raineses  I.  was  the  grandson  on  the  mother's  side  of  Har-eni- 
hebi."  According  to  Mr.  Sharpe,  that  gi"andson  was  Thothnies 
III.--*  According  to  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson,  Raraeses  I.  traced 
his  descent  from  Anienophis  I.,  or  the  Kennezite  Meonothai  son  of 
Hathath  and  Abiezer.-^  The  name Rameses,  the  son  of  the  Sun, does 
not  occur  in  the  Kenite  list  at  all.  It  is  probably  a  religious  title 
first  niaile  use  of  by  Tahath  or  Thotlimes  II.  as  the  reviver  of  the 
old  Horite  line  of  Ra,  which  descended  to  his  son  Beriah  and  to 
Uzzensherah,  the  ofi'spring  of  that  monarch.  It  is  possible  that 
the  second  Tahath  married  into  the  family  of  Meonothai,  and  thus 
counted  his  descent  from  the  Amenophids,  but  the  honour  which 
he  accorded  to  Amun  shows  that  he  allied  himself  with  the  Jabez- 
ites  or  Amenemes.  It  follows,  however,  that  Thothmes  III.  and 
Rameses  II.  are  one  and  the  same  person,- and  that  the  forty-seven 
years  of  the  former  are  included  in  the  sixty  of  the  latter- 
Eusebius  gives  to  Rameses  a  reign  of  sixty-eight  years.  According 
to  Josephus,  the  expulsion  of  the  Shepherds  took  place  in  the 
reign  of  Thothmosis,  but  the  Bible  statement  that  the  captive 
Jews  built  for  Pharaoh  the  cities  Pitliom  and  Raamses  connects 
liim  with  the  latter  name,  for  the  Tahaths  we)-e  the  descendants 
of  Etam,  Atmos,  or  Pi  Atum,  after  whom  Pithom  was  called." 
The  name  Rameses,  although  not  a  personal  name,  and  thus 
valueless  in  the  comparative  study  of  traditions,  is  useful  as 
indicating  the  point  at  which  the  old  line  of  Ra  regained  Egyptian 
sovereignty,  and  completely  confirms  the  Bible  story  of  Egyptian 
rule  and  Israelite  oppression.  There  were  only  two  supreme 
Pharaolis  on  the  throne  between  the  fall  of  the  Hyesos  and  the 
Exodus,  the  old  king  wlio  died,  and  the  young  successor  who 
perislu'd  in  the  waters  of  the  Red  Sea.  The  old  king  was  the 
Greek  Perseus,  the  Indian  Parasu  Rama,  and  the  Kgyptian 
Thothmes  III.  and  Rameses  II.  He  was  thus  Mci'iah  of  the 
Keniti'    reeoi'd,   who   united    two     (l\'iiasties,    being    the    son     of 

Tahath  II..  the   native    Fliai'aoh,  and   of  Matred  the   daughtei-  of 

» 

Mezahi'.li,  tli(^  last  <if  the  1  lycsos-Amiiioniaii   line. 

-■-■  .Manual,  i.  L'lO. 

-■'  Hi~t..iv  nf  l':-v|>t.  i.    17. 

-■'  Rau  litisiiir>  Hi-ii.il'itns,  apii.  lik.  ii.  cli.  \iii.  (\i\tli  <i\nasty). 

'  .[..-(Iilius  a''aili>l  .Xliioii,  i.   It;    l'',\ii(lus,  i.   11. 


10  THE    HITTITES. 

The  monuments  show  that  Mehetabel,  the  daughter  of  Tahath 
II.  and  Matred,  was  much  older  than  Beriah,  thus  discrediting 
the  romantic  Greek  legend  of  Danae  which  makes  Perseus  her 
tirst-born.  With  her  pai'ents  she  found  refuge  from  the 
tumultuary  Hittites  and  Carians,  who  were  ravaging  Egypt  to 
the  very  borders  of  Nubia,  in  the  kingdom  of  Ishgi.  Although 
this  son  of  the  great  Leophrah  had  married  a  daughter  of  Bedan, 
who  even  then  it  may  be  was  acting  as  regent  for  his  kinsman, 
the  youthful  Baalhanan,  and  was  thus  associated  with  the  ally 
of  the  Egyptian  spoilers,  he  courteously  received  the  fugitives. 
The  descendants  of  Jabez  and  his  son  Mesha  were  sacred  in  his 
eyes,  for  he  called  himself  the  tirst  prophet  of  Ames  and  Isis,  or 
of  Mesha  and  Hathath.  Also  the  southern  land  which  con- 
stituted the  kinofdom  of  the  Tahaths  seems  to  have  been  left 
under  his  government,  when  the  second  of  that  name  went  to 
Thebes  to  claim  the  empire  that  had  been  guaranteed  to  him  with 
his  Theban  spouse,  for  one  of  his  officers,  Necht-Ames,  is  termed 
"  superintendent  of  the  double  storehouse  of  all  the  gods  in 
Takahti  and  the  god  Ames  in  Xenti."  At  the  court  of  Ishgi 
another  refugee  from  cruel  enemies  obtained  shelter,  Hadar  the 
son  of  Saul,  and  he  succeeded  in  gaining  Mehetabel  for  his.  bride- 
He  thus  became  a  fourth  Thothmes,  foi-  the  infant  Beriah  was 
the  third,  and  as  such  his  consort's  name  is  Mautemva,  or,  if  the 
boat-like  Hieroglyphic  at  the  foot  of  her  cartouche  be  read  hai'i, 
the  boat  of  the  sun,  Mautembari.  Her  Annnonite  descent  is  clear, 
for,  assuming  royalty  as  regent  for  her  aged  father  and  infant 
brother,  she  wrote  upon  her  monuments,  "  King  Thothmes,  she 
has  made  this  wo)-k  for  her  father  Amun."  Hence  .she  is  also 
called  by  the  TheV)an  name  Amun-nou-het.  Still  another  name 
borne  by  her  is  Thermuthis,  which  is  the  Egyptian  Toer  Maut  or 
great  mother,  out  of  which  the  Greeks  made  Andromache  and 
Andromeda.  Homei-  could  not  if  he  had  tried  been  guilty  of  a 
greater  paradox  than  that  which  converted  the  chief  enemy  of  the 
Trojans  into  their  protector  Hector,  the  husband  of  Andromache, 
for  these  are  Hadar  and  Mehetabel.  That  Hadar's  (pieen  was  as 
warlike  as  himself  cannot  l>e  averred,  although  her  monuments 
represent  her  d)'(;ssed  as  a  man  and  engaging  in  foreign  con(}uests, 
for  these  representations  may  be  attributions  to  the  (jueen  regent 


THE    HITTITES   IN   EGYPT,  11 

of  the  acts  of  her  warlike  husband.  It  was  indeed  Adi-astus  who 
led  the  Epigoni  back  against  Thebes.  Prior  to  this  conquest, 
however,  we  learn  from  the  stories  of  Ixion,  Zohak,  and  Dictys, 
that  a  struggle  had  taken  place  in  the  Elephantine  kingdom. 
The  two  sons  of  Ishgi,  probably  no  older  than  the  youthful 
Beriah,  if  indeed  they  had  attained  his  years,  were  the  puppets 
of  adverse  factions,  of  which  that  of  Zoheth  favoured  the  heir  of 
the  Theban  throne,  while  that  of  Ben  Zoheth,  whom  th(!  Egvp- 
tians  called  Zaiath-Khirrii,  and  the  Assyrians,  Sandu-arri,  was 
opposed  to,  and  desired  to  injure,  him.  The  latter  is  the 
Polydectes  who  sought  to  force  Danae  to  marry  him.  Taking 
his  father  Ishgi's  name,  he  is  the  Ixion  who  entrapped  his  father- 
in-law  Deioneus  into  a  tire  pit  to  his  destruction,  and  sought  to 
win  the  affections  of  the  wife  of  the  Pharaoh  who,  according  to 
Tzetzes,  expiated  him,  and  for  these  offences  was  bound  upon  the 
wheel.  The  descent  of  Ixion  is  from  Phlegyas  or  Bela,  or  from 
Peision  or  Pacinian,  and  his  wife  Dia  agrees  with  Taia,  the  wife 
of  Ishgi.  But  that  Ishgi's  son  Benzoheth  was  the  criminal 
appears  from  the  Persian  story,  in  which  Zohak  served  his  father 
or  father-in-law  Mirtas  the  Tasi  as  Ixion  served  Deioneus,  Ijeing 
himself  Biurasp,  a  descendant  of  Beor.'-'''  It  seems  probable  that 
the  aged  Tahath  fell  in  the  contest  that  ensued,  being  the 
Jamadagni,  peaceful  sage,  whom  Parasu»-ama  avenged  e(|ually 
with  Siphthah  or  Zabad,  and  his  three  sons,  that  fell  l»efore 
Thebes.  The  Polydectite  faction  was  subdued,  and  Zaiath-Khirrii 
•  Iriven  out  of  Egypt  to  swell  the  Hittite  horde  in  Canaan. 

Hadar  and  his  royal  consort  took  Thebes,  where  she  set  up 
two  ol)el!sks  in  memory  of  her  father  'J'hothmes,  one  of  which 
still  stands  amid  the  ruins  of  Karnak.  Seated  at  last  upon  the 
throne  of  her  grandfather  Mezahab,  she  had  her  brother  Buriah 
crowned  as  Rameses  II.,  the  second  .son  of  the  Sun  and  guardian 
of  the;  Mithriac  faith,  and  as  Tbothuii-s  III.  the  heir  of  the  ancient 
Egyptian  line  of  Tahath.  But  while  tlu'  yomig  king  was  tht; 
S')n  of  the  Sun  and  of  TlK)tli,  she  did  not  allow  him  to  forgtt  his 
mat«'i'nal  ancestry,  calling  him  .Mei  Auiuii.tlu'  bcloxed  oi'  Ainmon- 
For  fiftiM'ii  years  at  least  Mehetultel  kept  the  empire  for  liei- 
brother,   not   only    j)Ushiiig    her    border    noithwaid   and    limitiiii;,- 

-•'■    TaKari,  !I7. 


12  THE   HITTITES. 

the  region  overrun  by  the  Hittites  and  Philistines,  but  crossing 
over  into  Arabia  and  enriching-  herself  with  the  spoils  of  Yemen. 
At  Semneh  and  Amada  in  Nubia,  her  husband  Hadar,  .as 
Thothmes  IV.,  erected  monuments,  in  which  he  rendered  adora- 
tion to  his  father  Saul  as  Osortasen  III.  There  he  conquered 
the  negroes.  But  in  the  north  he  left  his  name  upon  the  Sphinx, 
that  Hittite  monument  at  Gizeh.  as  a  sign  that  the  empire  of  the 
Jachdaites  was  at  an  end.  Of  his  career  of  conquest  there  is  no 
record  beside,  save  that  the  Zerethite  Rutennu  of  Mesopotamia 
paid  him  tribute,  and  this  means  much.  It  means  that  Caphtorim 
and  Philistim  were  driven  out  of  Egypt,  hovering,  nevertheless, 
like  hungry  lions,  upon  her  north-eastern  borders ;  that  the 
alliance  made  between  Saul  and  Michael  of  the  Xoite  kingdom 
by  the  marriage  of  Helen  to  that  Anubite  prince  was  ratified  ; 
and  that  the  palmy  days  of  Beerothite  sovereignty  in  Gebalene 
were  restored.  Hadar  was  the  hero  of  the  eighteenth  dynasty, 
who  fought  its  battles  from  the. Euphrates  in  the  north  to  distant 
Yemen  and  Ethiopia  in  the  south,  while  his  queen,  as  regent  for 
Beriah,  sat  upon  the  Memphite  throne.  Already  he  has  appeared 
as  the  overthrower  of  the  Cymro-Zerethite  kingdom  on  the  shores 
of  the  Dead  Sea.  Farther  south  in  Arabia  Petn^^a  he  recovered 
the  mines  opened  by  his  ancestor  Hadad,  and  set  up  his  queen's 
name  with  that  of  her  brother  Beriah  as  Thothmes  III.,  conse- 
crating the  peninsula  to  her  as  Hathor  the  mistress  of  Mafkat. 

Beraiah  did  not  like  his  sister's  tutelage  and  would  willingly 
have  cast  it  off,  yet  dared  not,  for  Hadar  the  Beerothite  was  the 
mightier  of  the  two  men,  and  a  sino-le  word  from  him  would 
have  been  enough  to  bring  all  his  brother  Hittites,  a  number- 
less  and  valiant  host,  into  the  land  they  had  wrested  from  the 
ancestors  of  the  Thothmes  long  years  before.  There  is  a  singular 
nobility  in  Hadar's  character.  Brave  as  a  lion,  rich  and  powerful, 
he  not  only  endured  the  ill  disguised  dislike  of  the  petulant 
Bei'iah.  whose  egregious  vanity  made  him  jealous  of  his  Ijrother- 
in-law's  fame,  but  modestly  eff\iced  himself,  ascrilnng  all  the 
iioiKnir  of  his  warlike  achievements  and  great  consti'uctions  to 
his  consort  and  the  sovereign  for  whom  she  exercised  the 
functions  of  regent.  The  second  Rameses  is  saiil  to  have  reigned 
sixty-six  years,  but  his  reign  n)ust  have   been    longer,   for  his 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  13 

successor  had  only  been  twelve  years  on  tiie  throne  when  death 
overtook  him.  and  at  this  time  Moses  was  eighty  years  of  age. 
At  the  birth  of  Moses,  Rameses  exercised  regal  authority,  for  his 
was  the  edict  that  the  infant  sons  of  the  Hebrews  should  be  put  to 
death.  Prior  to  this  time  the  subjugated  dwellers  in  Goshen 
had  been  condennied  to  hard  labour  as  builders  of  the  treasure 
cities  Pithom  and  Raamses,  and  on  the  moiuiuients  of  Thothmes 
III.  and  Rameses  II.  they  are  represented  at  this  task,  the  victims 
of  cruel  oppression.  "  They  are  more  and  mightier  than  we," 
said  Phai'aoh  of  the  children  of  Israel,  nnd  this  was  probably 
true,  so  far  as  the  native  Egyptians  who  adhered  to  his  foi'tunes 
were  concerned,  for  many  of  its  Amorite  families  had  passL'd  into 
Palestine,  and  others  in  the  Arabian  desert  were  waiting,  along 
with  the  expelled  Moabites,  for  the  death  of  Hadar  or  the  decay 
of  his  power  to  wrest  Canaan  from  the  Hittites.-''  The  alliance 
of  Rameses  with  Hadar  the  Beerothite,  and  his  descent  from  the 
Ammono-Hittite  kings  of  Thebes,  did  not  please  the  families  of 
Shechem,  Gibeon,  and  Seir.  But  tor  the  support  of  Hadar  and 
the  Xoite  Michael,  Rameses  would  never  have  gained  his  throne, 
nor,  gaining,  would  have  been  able  to  keep  it.  Hadar  was  at  the 
height  of  his  career,  and  his  wife  Mehetabel  was  still  nominally 
the  regent,  when  the  infant  Moses  was  laid  in  the  ark  ()f  bul- 
rushes and  placed  among  the  papyrus  plants  on  the  brink  of  the 
Nile.  Rameses  was  still  young,  for  he  reigned  sixty-eight  ^^'ars 
after  this,  young,  tall  and  handsome,  every  inch  a  king,  but 
proud,  crafty,  vicious,  and  cruel  as  the  grave.  He  had  issued  the 
edict  to  slay  the  childixm  :  his  otticers  had  approved  it,  and  by 
none  might  it  be  gainsaid.  Yet  (jne  there  was  whose  right  royal 
mother  heart  revolted  at  the  fiendish  counsel,  and  who  expostu- 
lated, but  all  in  vain,  with  her  younger  bi-other,  to  whom  she  had 
been  as  a  mother  while  her  husl)an(rs  strong  ai-m  had  secured 
him  Egypt's  wide  ilominion,  for,  so  fai',  thei'e  is  no  recui-d  that 
Rames(.'S  had  fought  a  battle  in  person.  Pharaoh's  daughter 
saved  th(!  infant  .Moses  and  adoptecl  him,  I'oi'  hei*  one  son  Shimon, 
the  Esf(;ndiar  of  the  Pc^rsians,  was  away  at  the  wai-s  with  his 
father  liadai-,  an  Agaiin'iunoii,   king  of  men,  dear  to   the   hearts 

-'    Kxodus,  i. ;». 


14  THE    HITTITES. 

of  the  Egyptians,  who  longe'd  to  see  him  on  the  throne.^^  This 
Pharaoh's  daughter  was  Mehetabel,  and  that  is  why  the  Hebraeo- 
Kenite  record  mentions  her  name,  the  only  name  of  a  consort 
given  to  the  kings  that  reigned  in  Edom.  Josephus  calls  her 
Thermuthis  or  Toer  Maut,  the  great  mother,  probably  the  affec- 
tionate title  she  bore  among  the  Egyptians  as  mother  and  all  to 
young  Rameses  and  his  people.  Homer  may  be  pardoned  for  his 
historical  blunder  in  making  Andromache  daughter  of  Eetion, 
king  of  Thebes,  and  mother  of  Scamandrius,  the  wife  of  a  Trojan 
Hector,  on  account  of  the  beautiful  picture  he  draws  of  the  white 
armed  matron,  so  full  of  motherly  love  and  tender  solicitude  for 
her  husband's  Avelfare.  None  but  she  in  all  the  broad  land  of 
Egypt  would  have  dared  to  brave  the  tyrant  and  save  the  He- 
brew child.  Other  writers  mention  her,  but  so  confusedly  that 
their  statements  add  nothing  to  our  knowledge.  Artapanus  calls 
her  the  daughter  of  Palmanothes,  which  looks  like  an  inversion 
of  her  true  name,  and  the  wife  of  king  Chenephres,  her  name 
being  Merris.  According  to  Bar  Hebraeus,  she  was  Trimuthisa, 
called  Damris  by  the  Hebrews,  the  daughter  of  Amenophathis 
and  wife  of  Knapbra.^^  But  the  true  name  of  the  queen  regent 
and  saviour  of  Moses  survives  to  this  day  on  the  Lower  Colorado 
in  America,  among  the  Mojeves  or  Amockhaves,  who  have  a  tra- 
dition that  Mathovelia  or  Matevil  once  lived  with  them  in  a  casa 
(jraadc,  but  the  (-(n^a  vx^as  broken  down,  and  he  departed  into  the 
east  to  a  mountain  where  dead  warriors  go.^*^  It  is  strange  that 
the  lineage  of  Mezahab,  for  such  are  these  Mojeves,  should  hold 
in  honour  the  granddaughter  of  the  last  Jahdaite  Pharaoh,  seeing 
that  she  was  the  expeller  of  his  Caphtorini  from  Thebes  and 
Coptos,  and  that  her  father  Taliath  and  husband  Hadar  were 
alike  enemies  of  the  descendants  of  Jabez. 

Although  Rameses  or  Beriah  was  in  a  sense  the  lord  of  all 
Egypt,  there  were  three  monarchies  in  that  land  more  or  less  in- 
depfudeiit  of  his  sway.  Michael  and  his  brethren  held  the  eastern 
part  of  the  Delta  ;  Islii  and  his  son  Zoheth  occupied  Elephantine  ; 
and   Hadar  and  his  son  Shimon  disputed  in  a  measure  with  their 


De  L.inoy.-.  Rumcs.'s  th.'  (Jrcat,  23(1. 

(Jniy's  Anoifiit   Fnig-ineiits. 

Becker,  CfUiyri-.s  de.s  Aint'iicanistcs,  lh77,  Tmue  i.  p.  33."). 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  15 

brother-in-law  and  unclothe  sovereignty  of  the  whole  country. 
It  is  yet  difficult  from  the  joint  testimony  of  tradition  and  the 
monuments  to  reconstruct  the  history  of  the  lonfj  reiffn  of  him 
who  has  been  regarded  as  the  greatest  of  the  Pharaohs,  and 
whose  mummy  has  so  recently  been  brought  to  light.  Nevorthe. 
less  it  is  clear  that  his  reign  consists  of  three  distinct  periods. 
In  the  tirst,  he  was  under  the  guardianship  of  his  sister  Meheta- 
bel,  and  Hadar  fought  his  battles.  In  the  second,  he  was  at  times 
in  friendly,  at  others,  in  hostile,  relations  with  her  son  Shimon, 
whose  death  he  seems  to  have  compassed.  And  in  the  third,  he 
was  supported  by  the  valour  of  his  son-in-law  Zoheth,  the  Seti  of 
the  monuments.  The  first  of  these  has  been  already  illustrated. 
The  second  calls  for  information  concerning  Shimon  and  his  sons. 
Hadar  the  father  of  Shimon  was  the  first  Persian  Darius,  so  that 
Persian  history  should  tell  the  story  of  his  family.  It  does  so, 
but  with  as  much  confusion  as  that  which  reigns  in  Homer's  poem 
on  the  fall  of  Troy.  The  cause  of  this  confusion  is  the  change  of 
relation  from  enmity  to  friendship  and  from  friendship  to  enmity 
brought  about  by  the  many  alliances  of  rival  Hittite  and  native 
Egyptian  families.  Already  Hadar  as  Gudarz  has  been  found 
in  Mirkhond  warring  on  the  side  of  Thebes  instead  of  against  it, 
yet  betraying  his  true  position  as  an  Adrastus  by  the  twin  cir- 
cumstances of  a  sanguinary  defeat  and  subseciuent  glorious  vic- 
tory. His  son  Shimon  as  Esfendiar  again  is  falsely  made  the 
.son  of  (nishtasp  and  the  great  enemy  of  the  patriarchal  Rustam, 
who,  as  the  son  (jf  Zaul,  should  be  his  own  father.  A  Persian 
tradition  reported  by  /Elian  sei'ves  to  connect  the  nursling  of  the 
Siiaurgh  with  his  grandson,  for  it  states  that  Acbaemenes  was 
brought  up  by  an  eagle. ^^  Plato's  scholiasts  i-epresent  this  Achae- 
menes  as  the  ofi'spring  of  Perseus  and  Andi'omeda,  instead  of 
Perses,  who  is  generally  made  their  son.  Half  the  tiHitli  is  liere, 
for  Aiidi-oiiicda,  dauglitt')'  of  Ccpheus,  is  Mclietabcl  as  Toer  Maut, 
the  descfiKluiit  of  Me/aluilj  and  Zipli,  the  sistei'  of  I">eriali  or  Per- 
seus, iiiid  the  wife  of  iladai'.  ()tliei'  (Ireek  traditions  display 
siiiiil.'ii'  blunders.  ALiaiiieinnon,  who  is  Sliiiuoii  and  Achaemenes, 
is  riL,ditlv'  the  son   of  Ati'eus,  hut  in    marrying  (Jlyteiiinestra,  the 

■'     I  )"•  Aiiiin.-ilihu.^,  \ii.  21 . 


16  •  THE    HITTITES. 

daucrhter  of  Tyndarus,  he  is  made  to  ally  himself  with  a  daughter 
of  his  own  line,  inasmuch  as  Tyndarus  or  Tyndareus  is  a  form  of 
the  dynastic  name  Hadadezer.  But  the  story  that  Clytemnestra 
was  betrothed  to  a  son  of  Thyestes,  from  whom  Agamemnon  took 
her,  and  that  he  suffered  death  at  the  hands  of  his  unfaithful 
wife  and  her  paramour,  ^gisthus,  son  of  Thyestes,  coupled  with 
that  of  the  enmity  of  the  Persians  to  the  race  of  Zohak,  lets  in  a 
flood  of  lioht  upon  the  history  of  Shimon,  showing  that  he  mar- 
ried a  princess  who  stood  in  some  relation  to  the  Kenezzite  king- 
dom at  Elephantine,  and  that  Zoheth,  son  of  Ishi  and  Taia,  who 
replaced  him  as  the  general  of  Rameses,  was  the  cause  of  his 
death.  Further  Greek  traditions  make  Orestes  the  son  of  Agfa- 
memnon,  but  restore  the  great  enemy  of  Tro\'  in  Tisamenus,  the 
son  of  Orestes,  who  w^ith  his  four  sons  was  driven  by  the  Hera- 
clida:^  out  of  Argos  into  Achaia,  and  who  fell  fighting  against  the 
lonians,  as  Esfendiar  died  b}'  the  hand  of  Rustam.  According 
to  I'ausanias,  the  four  sons  of  Tisamenes  were  Daimenes,  Sparton, 
Telles,  and  Leontomenes.  Persian  history  gives  Esfendiar  but 
one  named  Behmen,  whose  surname  Ardeshir  explains  the  Greek 
Orestes.  But  the  Kenite  record  presents  the  true  names  of  the 
four  as  Amnon,  Rinnah,  Benhanan,  and  Tilon.'^-  Of  these  Amnon 
corresponds  to  Daimenes,  Behmen,  and  Memnon,  and  Tilon  to  the 
Greek  Telles.  To  Diodorus,  Shimon  was  Os3'-mandias,  whose 
tomb  at  Thebes  he  describes  as  the  work  of  Memnon  of  Syene.^^ 
He  tells  of  the  enormous  statue  of  his  mother,  on  whose  head- 
piece three  (jueens  were  represented,  showing  that  slie  was  the 
daughter,  wife,  and  mother,  of  a  king.  On  his  own  statue  were 
the  words,  "  I  am  O.symandias,  king  of  kings  ;  if  anyone  would 
know  liow  great  I  am  and  where  I  rest  he  must  destroy  these 
works."  Within  the  lofty  chamber  of  the  tomb  the  king  was 
represented  subduing  the  revolted  Bactrians  with  an  army  of 
400,000  foot  and  20,000  horsemen,  the  army  consisting  of  four 
divisions  commanded  by  his  four  sons,  and  by  the  side  of  (-)sy- 
Tiiandias  a  lion  marched.  Mr.  Xenrick  supposes  that  the  Rame- 
seum  is  the  monument  of  Osymandias,  whose  name  niay  relate 
to  that  of   Simandu,  called  a  son  of  Rameses  III.,  and  points  out 


•■•-■   1  Cliron.  iv.  20. 
■-■    l)i(,(l.  Sic.  i.  -2,  i 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  17 

the  similarity  between  the  pictures  in  it  and  those  described  by 
Diodorus,  in  particular  the  fortress  of  tlie  so-called  Bactrians 
surrounded  by  a  river,  and  the  king  attended  by  his  four  sons. 
The  Greek  accounts  of  Menmon  call  him  an  Ethiopian  or  a  Per- 
sian of  Susa,  the  son  of  Eos  and  Tithonus,  who  was  governor  of 
Persia  for  Teutamus  the  king  of  Assja-ia.  The  Rameseum  also 
was  anciently  called  the  Memnonium,  and  the  great  colossus  of 
Thebes  which  responded  with  musical  tones  to  the  beams  of  the 
rising  sun  bore  the  name  of  the  same  hero. 

Shimon  is  well  determined  as  Amunoph  III.,  for  that  mon- 
arch was  the  son  of  Thothmes  IV.  and  Mautemva,  the  Kenite 
Hadar  and  Mehetabel.  But  how  can  the  name  iVmunoph  or  Am- 
enhotep  be  explained  ?  The  first  Amenhotep  was  Meonothai, 
son  of  Hathath  the  Kenezzite,  and  the  second  was  his  son  Leo- 
phrah.  The  third  should  have  been  Ishi,  the  son  of  Leophrah. 
The  son  of  Hadar  and  Mehetabel  could  not  trace  his  descent  from 
Leophrah,  unless  the  second  marriage  of  Hathath  and  Mesha  was 
deemed  sufficient  to  give  Mesha's  descendant  Mehetabel  a  claim 
to  Kenezzite  ancestry.  The  solution  seems  to  be  found  in  the 
fact  that  Taia  was  the  wife  of  both  Ishi  and  Shimon.  Now  Tith- 
onus, called  the  father  of  Memnon,  is  also  made  the  father  of  Plui'- 
thon,  from  whom  came  Astinous  or  Ishi,  and  his  son  Sandochus 
or  Zoheth,  and  another  Tithonus  was  tlie  son  of  the  Trojan  Lao- 
medon.  Tithonus  seems  to  be  a  myth,  and  Menmon  is  given  as 
the  husband  of  the  widow  of  Ishi,  and  the  usurper  of  that  mon- 
arch's title  as  the  third  Amenhotep.  It  is  his  name  that  appears 
upon  the  vocal  statue.  He  was  one  of  the  greatest  builders 
among  the  Pharaohs,  and  his  monuments  are  at  once  the  grandest 
and  the  most  ])erfectly  executed  of  those  that  adoi'u  the  valle\'  of 
the  Nile.  At  Thebes  he  eidarged  tlie  temple  of  Kn.i'uak  and  built 
tin-  gi'eater  part  of  that  of  Luxoi'.  At  Syenc  and  Kle])hantin<' 
other  teiii])les  <jf  beautiful  workmanship,  hearing  his  name  and 
that  of  his  cons(jrt  Taia.  mark  him  as  the  possessor  of  tht-  Ken- 
ezzite kingdom,  whicli  had  not  ])asscd  out  of  the  hands  of  tlie 
sons  of  i\i'naz  sinci-  the  first  Sckciifii  made  his  suhmission  to 
Ajii'pi.  liis  own  naiuf  he  confcn-cil  u])on  the  i'ortihc(l  citx-  of 
Sennie'h  h<'yond  the  st-eond  entaract,  aii'l  in  the  ti'mplcs  he  their 
hnilt  were  re'Corde(l  his  victories  o\-er   tlie  negrcics,  wlinm  ln'  pur- 


18  THE    HITTITES. 

sued  beyond  distant  Napata,  and  against  whose  incursions  he 
interposed  the  fortifications  of  Soleb,  wlience  Tirhaka  in  later 
days  carried  off  the  sculptured  lions  that  adorned  them.    In  Sem- 
neh   also  he  united  with  his  name  that  of  his  uncle  Beriah  as 
Thothines  III.,  in  an  act  of  adoi'ation  to  his  great  ancestor,  the 
third   Osortn.sen  or  Saul.     At  Napata  itself  lie  left  a  temple  to 
mark  his  conquest.     But  elsewhere  his  memorials  appear  at  Sil- 
silis,  Eilithyia,  and  in  the  Serapeum  of  Memphis.    Nor  did  he  for- 
get his  mother's  dowry,  won  by  the  gallant  Hadar  back  from 
Cymro-Zimrite   foes,  the  land  of   Hathor,   mistress  of   Mafkat, 
whose  mines  Hadad  opened  when  the  world  was  young,  and  on 
which  he  impres«ed  his  royal  name.     He  was  a  warrior,  this  king 
of  men,  as  Homer  calls  him,  a  warrior  like  all  of  his  race,  Beerothite, 
Bharatan,  Parthian,  British,  and,  though  the  Briton  who  calls  him- 
self such  sails  under  borrowed  colours,  they  are  colours  of  which  he 
need  not  be  ashamed.     It  was  perhaps  no  very  chivalrous  thing 
to  conduct  a  slave  hunt  in  the  Soudan,  but  it  was  a  more  humane 
thing  to  bring  home  prisoners  than  to  return  with  the  scalps  and 
ears  of  the   slain,  as  many  a  Hittite  army  did,  in  barbarous  tri- 
umph.     Did   Beriah    as    Thothmes    III.    take   Carchemish  ?     Its 
name   is   on   Shimon's  monument  as   his  conquest.      Did   he   as 
Rameses  II.  overthrow  the  men  of  Kadesh  ?     It  is  recorded  as  an 
actio)i  of  Amenhotep  III.     It  was  he,  Shimon,  Amenhotep  III., 
who  pacified  Naharaina  or  Mesopotamia ;  and  there  is  no  foe  of 
Egypt  in  the  reign  of  the  so-called  Rameses  II.  and  I'liothmes  III., 
whom  the  .son  of  Pharaoh's  daughter  did  not  meet  victoriously. 
Little  he  seems  to  have  cared  for  the  vainglorious  and  gloomy 
despot  who  oppressed  Israel  in  Goshen,  and  held   regal   state  at 
Memphis,   wliil*'  the  strong  arms  of  his  sister's  husband  and  son 
shelteied   him   from   his  enemies.      At  Luxor  he  styled  him.self 
"  Horus,  the  strong  bull  who  rules  by  the  sword  and  destroys  all 
barbarians:    he   is   king   of   Upper  and   Lower   Egypt,  absolute 
master,  sou  of  the  Sun.     He  strikes  down  the  chiefs  of  all  lands  ; 
no  country  can  stand  before  his  face.     He  marches  and  victory  is 
gaiiKid,  like  Horus,  son  ol"  Isis,  like  the  Sun  in  heaven.      He  over- 
turns  even  their  fcH-tresses.      He  brings  to  Egypt  by  his  valour 
tribute   from    many   countries,   he,   the  lord  of  both  worlds,  son 
of  the  Snn."''^    This  was  no  emptv  bojist,  as  many  traditions  tes- 

•'*    Ijcnoriiiaiit,  Mainutl,  i.  "J.HT. 


THE    HITTITKS    IN    EGYPT.  19 

tify,  for  the  words  are  those  of  the  Persian  Esfendiar,  to  wh.om 
Gushtasp,  who  seems  to  represent  Rameses,  promised  the  succes- 
sion to  the  kingdom  on  condition  of  his  subduing  all  lands.  He 
succeeded  after  a  career  of  constant  victory,  and  Gushtasp  for 
reward  cast  him  into  prison.  When  the  enemy  returned  and 
there  was  no  bulwark  of  the  empire,  Esfendiar  was  taken  from 
the  prison  house  again  triumphantly  to  lead  the  troops  of  Iran  to 
conquest.  And  then,  seeing  with  jealous  eye  that  his  son's  fame 
eclipsed  his  own,  the  perfidious  monarch  sent  him  against  the 
great  warrior  Rustam,  by  whose  hand  he  fell.^^  Let  nephew  take 
the  place  of  son,  and  this  is  the  story  of  Ramese?  and  Shimon.  But 
he  is  Menmon  too,  the  blameless  Ethiopian  and  viceroy  of  Persia, 
who  subdued  all  the  nations  between  Susa  and  Troy,  and  fell  by 
the  hands  of  Achilles.  And  he  is  Agamemnon,  the  tall  Grecian  hero 
so  noble,  so  graceful,  and  dignitied  a  warrior  as  Trojan  Priam 
never  saw  before,  a  kingly  man,  the  far  rulincr  Aefamcmnon,  son  of 
Atreus,  wliotn  shameless  Helen  yet  judged  a  good  king  and  a  brave 
soldiei".  He  also  met  his  death  in  his  own  house,  like  Memnon, 
fabulously  slain  by  Achilles,  and  Esfendiar  by  Rustam,  for  the 
historical  Achilles,  and  Zaul,  father  of  Rustam,  was  Saul  of  Reho- 
both,  the  grandfather  of  Shimon.  The  Greek  story  which  makes 
/Egisthus,  .son  of  Thyestes,  and  Clytemnestra,  the  assassins  of  Aga- 
meiiinon,  im])utes  the  ciiine  of  Shimon's  death  to  Zoheth,  the  eldest 
son  of  his  wife  Taia. 

Shimon  must  have  been  the  protector  and  upbi-ingcrof  Moses, 
whom  his  }nother  Mehetabel  had  saved  from  death.  Arabian 
autlKji's  call  the  (jueen  who  adopteil  Moses  and  accejited  his  fnith 
xVsia,  the  daugiitei'  of  Mozahem.-"''  Rabbinical  writei's  I'epresent  the 
young  Hebrew  as  a  d  ueller  in  Ethiopia,  which,  strange  to  sa\',  they 
call  Diidiaba,  and  as  the  husband  thei'e  of  an  Ethiopian  ((ueen  in 
wiiose  service  he  wai-rc^l  against  her  rebcllicjus  subjects.'*'^  The 
langiiage  of  St.  Stephen  is  agi-eeablu  to  this  ti-adition,  for  it 
atiinns  that  .Moses  was  miglity  in  words  and  in  deeds,  and  that  he 
was  full  foi-t\'  years  old  when  it  came  into  his  heart  to  visit  his 
bi-(thi-en  the  cliilili-en   of  Isi-ac;l.'''    Tlie  monunumts   indicate   that 


FinluM,  .Mirkh'.iMi. 

KMiail,  ell.  Iwi.  Sail''.-,  note. 

I'.ariiiK'fl'Milfl,   \,i-^''n<\^  <<f  Old  'l'.-st:ilii.-lit  CliaiacliTr 

Act.H  of  till-  Apnsll.-^,  vii.  L'2-;(. 


20  THE   HITTITES. 

Mehetabel's  regency  did  not  extend  to  the  twentieth  year  of 
Beriah,  so  that  she  must  have  bequeathed  her  adopted  son  to  the 
care  of  Shimon,  and  him  the  youthful  Moses  must  have  accom- 
panied to  the  court  of  queen  Taia  at  Elephantine,  where  his  edu- 
cation in  the  learning  of  the  Egyptians  was  received,  and  whence 
he  afterwards  followed  Shimon  and  his  four  sons  to  many  fields 
of  conquest.  W^ith  them  he  may  have  been  in  Arabia  Petra^a  at 
the  mines,  at  Kadesh  in  Palestine,  and  at  Carchemish  on  the  Eu- 
phrates, traversing  on  the  way  that  land  of  Canaan  promised  to 
the  patriarchs,  his  fathers.  At  Elephantine  also  he  made  a 
princely  convert  of  the  royal  line  of  the  Sekenens,  the  Kenezzite 
Jephunneh,  father  of  Caleb,  another  like  Jabez,  more  honourable 
than  his  brethren,  who  gave  up  rank  and  fortune  with  the  abomina- 
tions of  Baal  Peor,  to  be  an  exile  for  the  love  of  God.^'^  With 
such  an  example  as  Shimon  before  him  Moses  could  hardly  fail 
to  be  a  princely  man,  but  there  is  no  evidence  that  his  protector 
shared  the  Hebrew's  faith.  The  gallant  Beerothite  reigned  thirty- 
six  years,  and  then  seems  to  have  been  succeeded  by  his  son  Ain- 
non,  the  Behraen  of  the  Persians,  and  the  Pthahmen  who  is  men. 
tioned  with  Amenhotep  III.  at  Silsilis.  The  so-called  Strange]- 
Kings  claim  alliance  with  him  in  their  cit}^  of  Tel-el-Amarna,  but 
their  ungainly  figures  and  imbecile  features,  with  the  unbounded 
servility  of  their  attendants,  ])resent  characteristics  most  unlike 
those  of  the  Osortasens,  and  indeed  those  of  the  Hittite  rulers  in 
general.  One  of  them,  called  a  son  of  queen  Taia,  who  rejected 
the  title  Amenhotep  IV.  for  the  name  Atin-re-Bakiian,  is  the 
most  idiotic  in  appearance,  yet  he  mentions  Hadar  or  Thothmes 
IV.,  and  pays  divine  honours  to  Shimon  or  Amenhotep  III.  He 
was  a  wor.«;hipper  of  the  solar  disc  under  the  name  Aten,  and  this, 
as  well  as  his  name  Bakhan,  connects  him  with  the  native 
Pharaohs  of  Elephantine,  descended  from  Othniel  and  his  father 
Kenez,  the  Paclinan  or  Apachnas  of  the  lists.  The  names  of  these 
Phai-aohs  are  not  in  the  Kenite  record,  for  Annion,  Riiniah,  Ben- 
hanan,  and  Tilon,  are  irreconcilable  with  them.  The  joint  evi- 
<lence  of  tradition  and  the  monuments  tends  to  sliow  tliat  with 
Pthalnnen  oi-  Amnon  the  Egyptian  rule  of  tlie  Beei'othites  came 
to  an  enrl,  and  that  the  family  withdrew  to  a  Syrian  home,  there 

■'■'    Niniib.  xiii.  *). 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  21 

to  appear  in  after  centuries  as  Benhadads  and  Hadadezers.  Yet 
M.  Lenormant  thouglit  that  there  was  some  connection  between 
these  Stranger  Kings  and  the  Hebrews.  "  There  are  curious 
resemblances  between  the  external  forms  of  Isi-uelitish  worship 
in  the  desert,  and  those  revealed  by  the  monuments  of  Tell-cl- 
Aniiirna.  Some  of  the  sacred  furniture,  such  as  the  table  of  shew 
bread,  described  in  the  book  of  Exodus  as  belonging  to  the  Taber- 
nacle, is  seen  in  the  representations  of  the  worship  of  Aten,  but 
not  at  any  other  period."^''  Doubtless  Bezaleel  and  Aholiab,  who 
were  placed  over  the  work  of  the  Tabernacle,  had  exercised  their 
art  in  Egypt,  so  that,  while  guided  in  the  general  plan  of  its 
furniture  by  divine  instruction,  the  details  would  naturally  be 
according  to  models  with  which  they  were  familiar,  and  such 
models  would  be  those  of  Tell-cl-Amarna.^^  Before  the  death  of 
Shimon,  Moses  must  have  refused  to  be  called  longer  the  son  of 
Pharaoh's  daughter,  and,  passing  from  the  security  of  the  Upper 
Kingdom  to  the  Memphite  region,  over  which  Beriah  exercised 
his  tyrannical  rule,  visited  his  enslaved  brethren.  It  may  have 
been  his  project  as  a  warrior  to  lead  them  forth  fi-om  slavery,  but 
their  objection  to  his  interference  showed  him  the  fruitlessness  of 
such,  an  attempt,  and  taught  him  that  the  time  of  redemption  was 
not  yet  come.  Crossing  over  into  Arabia  Petraea,  where  the 
subjects  of  Shimon,  but  Kenites  of  the  family  of  Hamath,  dwelt, 
he  was  in  safety  from  the  pursuit  of  the  Hebrews'  oppressor  at 
Memphis,  and  at  freedom  from  the  irksoineness  of  court  life  in 
the  palaces  of  Thebes. 

When  the  Persian  historians  reach  the  reign  of  B(;hmen,  they 
flounder  and  fall  into  anachronisms  innumerable.  Behmen  set 
aside  hissonSassan  in  favour  of  his  daughter  Humai, who  launched 
her  infant  Uarab  in  the  traditional  ark.  A  miller  or  a  fuller 
took  up  the  child,  and  he  became  king,  an<l  was  followed  Vy  a 
son  l)ai';i,  at'tei-  whom  came  Iskandei\  oi'  Alexandei'  of  Macedon. 
With  iSt'liiin-n.  the  gui<lance  of  the  Prrsian  nari'ative  ceases,  and 
the  gr-Mt  iiifu  of  P)eei"oth  slniiibei'  I'oi-  a  time.  l>nt  a  new  hei'o 
comes  upiiii  (Im'  tidd.  the  Kmc/./ite  Zohetli,  who  is  Zoliak,  the 
well  hati'd    of   tlic    i'.'rsiiurs    soul,   an-l    llic    (Ji'eek    l)ietys.    whom 

'•"    .M  il,ii:il,  i.  L':'.'.i. 
•     v.  ■■{.  xxxi.  -J.  t;. 


22  THE   HITTITES. 

Perseus   set  upon  the  throne  of    Seriphus,  in  the  room  of  the 
tyrant  Polydectes.     It  may  be  that  the  kings  of  Tell-el-Amarna 
were  the  Polydectites,  the  Beni  Zocheth  or  Zaiath-Khirrii  of  the 
Egyptians.     The  readers  of  the  Egyptian  monuments  find  several 
Setis  ;  the  Kenite  record  knows  but  one.     Seti  was  of  shepherd 
descent,  it  is  agreed,  and  the  long  ears  of  Labradh  and  Midas 
adorned  his  monuments.     He  is  also  called  Menephtah,  a  name 
derived  from  his  ancestor,  Meonothai.     Had  the  succession  been 
rightly  noted,  he  would  be  the  fourth  Menephtah  in  regular  des- 
cent from  Meonothai,  Leophrah  and  Ishi.      He  must  have  been 
almost  as  old  a  man  as  Beriah,  so  that  the  princess  Sherah,  eldest 
daughter  of  the  latter,  w^hom  he  married,  must  have  been  very 
much  younger  than  her  husband.     Serah,  or  Tsire,  as  the  readers 
of  the  monuments  call  her,  was  not  Seti's  first  wife.     Her  name 
was  Twea,  and  her  posterity  may  appear  at  Tell-el-Amarna.     But 
the  children  of  Sherah  were  the  heirs  to  the  Egyptian  throne, 
although  Rameses  had  many  sons,  of  whom  two,  Rephah    and 
Resheph,  are  mentioned  in  the  Kenite  list.*'-     Many  of  these  sons 
did  not  sui'vive  their  long  lived  father.     Rameses  was  fortunate 
in    his   generals,    who    might   better   be   called   his   allies.     His 
brother-in-law,  Hadar,  had  set  him  on  the  throne  and  vanquished 
the  enemies  of  the  early  part  of  his  reign  ;    his  nephew  Shimon 
had  made  the  middle  of  that  reign  prosperous ;  and  then  Zoheth, 
the  Kenezzite,  as  the  son-in-law  of  the  haughty  monarch,  became 
the  support  of  his  declining  years.     Many  students  of  Egyptian 
history  make  Seti  Menephtah   the  son  of  Rameses  I.  and  father 
of  Rameses  II.  although  others  regard  him  as  only  the  son-in-law 
of  the  first.     Accoi'ding  to  the  Kenite  list,  and  the  testimony  of 
tradition,  the  first  Rameses  was  the  same  person  as  Thothnies  II. 
who  called  himself  Rameses  as  the  restorer  of  the  ancient  line  of 
Ra  or  Reaiah,  and  the  institutor  of  the  worship  of  the  sun  in  its 
modified  Zoroastrian  form.     He  was  the  father  of  Rameses  II., 
Thothmes  III.  or  Beriah  ;  and  Hadar  was  his  son-in-law,  the  true 
guardian  of  the  throne  for  the  youthful  monarch.     Seti  Meneph- 
tah  then,  the  son  of  Ishi,  and   son-in-law   of   Beriah,  and  only 
Pharaoh  of  tliat  name,  was  one  of  the  greatest  and  most  \\  ai'like 

*'-    1  Chron.  vii.  2b. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    EGYPT.  23" 

of  Egyptian  monarchs.  His  tirst  exploit  seems  to  Iiave  been  the 
overthrow  of  the  Beerothite  regency,  for  Abydos,  the  Avith  which 
Hadad,  the  son  of  Bedad,  tirst  made  the  capital  of  the  Osortasens, 
he  occupied,  and  in  it  he  erected  the  gi-eat  temple  of  Osiris.  He 
drove  the  posterity  of  Shimon  out  of  Thel)es,  and  built  there 
the  magnificent  palace  of  Kurnah,  and  the  Hall  of  Columns, 
in  Karnak,  on  the  walls  of  which  his  actions  are  recorded.  Then 
intelligence  reached  him  that  the  Shasu  or  Shuhites,  who  still 
kept  the  Serbonian  marsh  towards  the  river,  named  Arish  after 
their  hero  Ma  Reshah,  had  made  a  descent  upon  Egypt,  and  were 
besieging  Zal,  near  the  Bitter  Lakes,  which  was  a  memorial  of 
the  great  Saul  or  Osortasen  III.  built  as  the  frontier  fortress  of 
the  mining  country  in  the  Sinaitic  peninsula.  Seti  drove  them 
back  into  the  desert.  Afterwards,  marchino:  throuoh  Canaan,  he 
met  with  no  resistance,  but  on  the  contrary  the  tribes  flocked  to 
his  standard,  proud  of  the  Hittite  lord  of  the  Egyptian  host.  His 
great  exploit  in  the  Hittite  country  was  the  capture  of  Kadesh, 
which  is  said  to  have  been  on  the  Orontes.  This  identification  is 
more  than  doubtful. especially  as  the  people  whom  Seti  found  there 
were  not  Hittites,  but  Aimaru  or  Amorites.  There  were  two 
places  named  Kedesh  in  Palestine  proper  ;  one  also  called  Kishon, 
to  the  south-west  of  the  sea  of  Galilee,  and  another  known  as 
Kede.sh  Naphtali,  between  that  lake  and  the  sea  of  Merom.  The 
latter  was  famous  in  Canaanitic  history,  as  adjoining  Hazor  and 
Harosheth.  and  Safed  near  it  would  answer  to  Shabutana,  wliich 
the  Egyptian  accounts  place  in  the  vicinity  of  Kadesh.  Josephus 
calls  it  a  Mediterranean  city  of  the  Tyrians.  by  which  he  must 
mean  that  it  was  surrounded  by  a  moat,  traces  of  Avhich  are  still 
visible, and  thus  also  it  corresponds  to  the  Kadesh  of  the  monuments. 
Seti  made  a  treaty  of  peace  with  Mautnar,  King  of  the  Hittites, 
and  restored  Kadesh,  of  which  the  Aiuorites  had  deprived  hii'i,  to 
his  possession.  But  the  Kutennu  or  Zt-retliites  wen-  not  included 
in  this  peace.  Driven  out  of  their  stronghold  on  the  Nahaliel  by 
Hadar  an<l  his  valiant  son,  they  now  occupied  eastern  Syria,  and 
the  l);isin  oi  tln'  Euphrates.  There  Seti  sought  them  out,  and 
bi-okt'  still  fai-thtjr  tlieir  powci',  compelling  i^aliyloii,  Singar,  and 
Ninevt'h  to  sue  for  ]»eacc.  Anothri-  Hittite  fiiinily,  which  had 
inaugural(Ml  the  Akkailiau    kingdom  in  the  person  of   llegein,  son 


24  THE   HIITITES. 

of  Jachdai,  but  was  known  as  the  tribe  of  the  Remanen  or 
Armenians  from  his  son  Harum,  and  that  seems  to  have  dwelt 
between  Lebanon  and  Carehemish,  he  conquered,  thus  pacifyino- 
all  the  northern  nations  on  the  east  of  Egypt.  But  on  the  west 
the  Robu  or  Rephaim,  who  had  given  their  name  in  its  Lapp 
form  to  Libya,  made  encroachments,  it  may  be  in  concert  with 
the  X  oites,  for  the  Kenite  list  of  these  kings  ends  with  Michael 
and  his  brethren.  It  is,  therefore,  probable  that  Rameses  had 
made  an  end  of  Xoite  royalty.  However,  Seti  repelled  the  Libyan 
invaders,  and  having  thus  brought  all  Egypt  for  the  second  time 
in  history  under  One  sceptre,  he  reconquered  the  Arabian  king- 
dom of  Yemen,  which  ITadar  and  his  heroic  consort  had  first 
subdued.  The  fleet  that  carried  the  Egyptian  troops  to  Yemen 
was  unavailable  for  the  more  important  service  required  on  the 
Mediterranean.  Accordingly  Seti  carried  out  that  great  engineer- 
ing triumph  attributed  to  Sesostris,  performed  in  later  times 
by  the  Macedonian  Pharaohs,  and  re-achieved  in  modern  days  by 
F]-ench  genius  and  British  capital,  the  opening  of  the  Suez  Canal. 
Phcienicians  in  part  manned  the  navies  that  coasted  along 
the  two  seas  thus  connected,  but  most  of  the  sailors  who  served 
in  it  were  Hittites,  well  accustomed  to  brave  the  terrors  of  the 
deep,  the  Shardana  and  the  Takkaro,  descendants  of  Zereth  and 
Tsochar,  who,  like  free  born  sons  of  Heth,  served  Pharaoh  when  it 
pleased  them,  and  when  it  did  not,  made  war  upon  his  people. 

M.  Lenormant  says  :  "  The  features  of  Seti  are  too  handsome, 
and  of  a  regularity  too  cla.ssical,  for  the  pure  blood  of  Mizraim  ; 
they  denote  an  origin  drawn  fi'om  another  people."  This  people 
he  shows  to  be  the  Hittites  or  Shepherds,  whose  deity  Sutech 
was  worshipped  at  Tanis  or  Zoan,  where  Rameses  II.  traced  his 
descent  from  Set  Aahpeti,  on  a  red  granite  tablet  erected  by  his 
son-in-law  Seti,  in  which  ho  erroneously  represents  a  period  of 
four  hundred  years  as  having  elapsed  since  the  time  of  the  great 
Jalx'Z."''*  Two  hundred  would  be  nearer  the  mark.  Manetho 
states  that  Sethos  reigned  5-5  years,  which  would  make  him  sur- 
viv(3  Rameses.  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  says  :  "  His  long  reign 
and  life  appeal-  to  have  ended  suddenly,  for  after  h".  had  com- 
pleted Ins  tomb,  ho  ordered  an   extra  chamber  to  be  added  to  it, 

'■■'    M;iim.Tl,  i.  LMl  :    l{.'c<.nl.s  uf  tlit-  I':ist,  iv.  Hl^. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  25 

which  was  never  finished  ;  and  the  figures  left  in  outline  prove 
that  time  was  wanting  to  complete  it."  *^  Did  he  perish  with  the 
successor  of  Rameses  in  the  Red  Sea  ?  There  is  a  dirge  of  Men- 
ephtah  that  is  significant. 

"  Amen  gave  thy  heart  pleasure, 

he  gave  thee  a  good  old  age, 

a  lifetime  of  pleasure  followed  thee, 

blessed  was  thy  life,  sound  thy  arm, 

strong  thy  eye  to  see  afar, 

thou  hast  been  clothed  in  linen, 

{of  gone  to  the  gap,  to  ivlrich  the  dead  went  in  tJie  mm  boat) 

thou  hast  guided  thy  horse  and  chariot 

of  gold  with  thy  hand 

the  whip  in  thy  hand,  yoked  were  the  steeds, 

the  Xaru  and  Nahsi  marched  before  thee, 

a  proof  of  what  thou  hadst  done, 

thou  hast  proceeded  to  thy  boat  of  cedar  wood, 

a  boat  made  of  it  before  and  behind, 

thou  hast  approached  the  beautiful  tower  which 

thou  thyself  made, 

thy  mouth  was  full  of  wine,  beer,  bread  and  flesh, 

were  slaughtered  cattle,  and  wine  opened  ; 

the  sweet  sonfj  was  made  before  thee, 

thy  head  anointer  anointed  thee  with  kanii, 

the  chief  of  thy  gardenpools  brought  crowns, 

the  superintendent  of  thy  fields  brought  birds, 

thy  Hsherman  brought  fish, 

thy  galley  came  from  Xaru  laden  with  good  things, 

thy  stable  was  full  of  horses, 

tliy  female  slaves  were  iiidusti'ious, 

tliy  fuemies  were  placed  fallen, 

t!i\'  word  no  one  o))p(>sc(l. 

TlidU  liast  gon«'  Ix'forc  tlu'  ^ods,  the   I'ictor,  the  justiiicd."  '■' 

Pau>;i!ii;is  knows  /olictli  as  Sandioii.  ^vllo,  he  says,  slew  Hy- 
Tx-i'iiin.    till'    son   ol"    Aganiciiiiioii,   I'ni-  bis  aiTogancc    and    covct- 

"     l;.iv.  liiiMiii's  H.  r..(lot,ns.  ;i|.|..  Ilk.  ii.  I'll.  S  (\i\tli  (l.Mi:i>ty). 
'      l;.    .,,'1-  ..f  III-  I'uM,  iw  .".1. 


26  THE    HITTITES. 

ousness,  thus  confirmin<y  the  account  of  the  death  of  Shimon 
which  the  stoiy  of  Agamemnon  tells,  for  in  the  latter  the  son  of 
Thyestes  is  the  murderer.*^  The  horrible  narrative  of  Thyestes 
mirrors  the  crime  of  Rameses  rather  than  those  of  his  son-in-law. 
Another  Greek  story  of  Zoheth  calls  him  Xanthus  of  Thebes,  and 
makes  liim  fall  by  the  hands  of  the  Messenian  Melanthus,  through 
a  stratagem  of  the  latter.  As  Sandochus  he  is  connected  with 
Cilicia,  and  made  the  father  of  Cinyras  or  Adonis.  But  as  the 
Greek  Xanthus  of  Psophis  and  Zacynthus,  and  as  the  Latin 
Acestes  of  Segestae,  no  information  is  added  beyond  the  fact  of 
his  maternal  relation  to  the  Zimrite  Bedan  and  Rakem.  The 
Mahabharata  calls  him  the  majestic  royal  rishi  Sindhudvipa,  son 
of  AmV)arisha,  thus  giving  Ophrah,  his  grandfather,  a  name 
similar  in  form  to  the  Greek  Amphiaraus  and  the  British  Ambro- 
sius.  He  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Prithudaka,  where  he  obtained 
Brahmanhood,  and  became  a  composer  of  Vedic  hymns.  The 
Raja  Tarangini  lauds  him  as  the  virtuous  king  Siddha,  saved 
from  destruction  in  the  field  of  Siva,  who  governed  the  world 
sixty  years,  and,  surrounded  by  his  retinue,  ascended  bodily  to 
heaven.*'  This  looks  very  like  the  Dirge  of  Menephtah,  the  story 
of  a  man  whose  dead  body  could  not  be  found.  His  descendants 
Hiranyakcha  and  Hiranyakula  are  the  two  Horons,  and  then  comes 
Mihirakula,  concerning  whom  it  is  reported  that,  wishing  to 
remove  a  rock  in  the  river  Chandra  Kulya,  and  being  divinely 
informed  that  it  would  move  at  the  touch  of  a  virtuous  woman, 
he  assembled  all  the  women  of  his  kingdom  and  found  only  one, 
Chandravati,  the  wife  of  a  potter,  who  successfully  stood  the 
test.  Thereupon,  in  the  exaggerated  language  of  the  east,  he  slew 
thirty  million  noble  dames,  with  their  husbands,  brothers  and 
sons.  Then  he  voluntarily  cast  himself  into  the  fire  to  fim]  relief 
from  a  disease  that  devoured  him.  The  statement  that  in  his 
time  men  did  not  respect  the  persons  of  their  daughters-in-law  is 
also  significant.*^  But  Herodotus  tells  a  similar  story  of  Pheron, 
the  successor  of  Sesostri.s.  The  Nile  had  swollen  and  overtlowe<l 
the  country,  and  a  wind  suddenly  coming  up  caused  it  to  rise  in 


■*■'    Pausanias,  i.  43. 

*'   Miihaljliarata  :  Muir's  Texts  :  Raja  Tarangini. 

■'•^    Raja  Taranf,Mni,  L.  i.  si.  2fS!),  st-tj. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  27 

vast  waves.  Pheron,  enraged,  threw  his  spear  with  violence  at 
the  stream,  for  which  he  was  struck  with  blindness.  The  oracle 
of  Buto  informed  him  that  a  chaste  woman  alone  could  restore 
his  sight.  Accordingly  he  made  trial  of  all  the  women  of  the 
land,  to  no  purpose  for  a  time  ;  but  at  last  he  found  a  virtuous 
one,  whom  he  married,  and  the  rest  he  burned  in  the  city  Ery 
thrabolus.''^  Diodorus,  who  repeats  the  narrative,  calls  Pheron 
Sesostris  II.,  and  states  that  the  first  Sesostris  also  became  blind, 
and  consequently  destroyed  himself  after  a  reign  of  thirty-three 
years.^° 

<9  Herodot.  ii.  111. 
50  Uiod.  Sic.  i.  2,  11. 


28 


CHAPTER   X. 

The  Hittites  in  Egypt  (Concluded). 

Turning  now  to  Beriah  himself,  the  monarch  for  whom  Hadar, 
Shimon,  and  Zoheth  fought,  conquered,  builded,  and  governed, 
we  find  him  to  be  the  Perseus  of  the  Gi'eeks,  as  his  genealogy  and 
early  history  attest.  Herodotus  speaks  of  the  Watch  Tower  of 
Perseus,  which  was  the  Pharos  to  the  west  of  the  Canopic  mouth 
of  the  Nile.  The  same  historian  tells  of  an  enclosure  at  Chemmis, 
sacred  to  Perseus,  and  reports  the  people  of  that  city  as 
claiming  the  hero  for  their  own,  and  worshipping  him  in  a  temple 
bearing  his  name.^  Diodorus  also  testifies  :  "  It  is  said  also  that 
Perseus  was  born  in  Egypt,  and  that  the  Greeks  transferred  the 
birth  of  that  hero,  and  of  Isis  even,  to  Ai-gos,  through  the  fable 
of  lo  metamorphosed  into  a  heifer."  ^  Strabo  again  mentions  the 
presence  of  Perseus  in  Egypt,  and  ascribes  the  name  of  the  Red 
Sea  to  his  son  Erythras.^  Strabo,  Pomponius  Mela,  Pliny,  and 
Solinus  agree  in  placing  the  adventure  of  Perseus  with  the  Ceto 
or  sea  monster  at  Joppa,  in  Palestine.^  Even  in  the  time  of  St. 
Jerome,  there  were  rocks  near  the  cit}^  called  in  honour  of  the 
rescue  of  Andromeda,  "  The  Place  of  Deliverance."  Joseph  us 
says  that  Joppa  "  ends  in  a  rough  shore,  where  all  the  rest  of  it 
is  straight,  but  the  two  ends  bend  towards  each  other,  where 
there  are  deep  precipices  and  great  stones  that  jut  out  into  the 
sea,  and  where  the  chains  wherewith  Andromeda  was  bound  have 
left  their  traces,  which  attest  the  anti<|uity  of  that  fable."  All 
the  actions  of  Perseus  were  placed  in  the  heavens,  a  personification 
of  the  constellations  which  could  only  obtain  currency  with  the 
authority  of  a  very  powerful  monarch.  Now,  in  the  Rameseum 
at  Thebes  there  is  a  chamber,  the  ceiling  of  which  represents  the 
heavens,  in   which   the   stars  are   grouped   into  figures.     One  of 

'  H.To.lot.  ii.  If),  91. 

-  I)i...l.  Sic.  i.  1,  13. 

•■  .Stnilin.  xvii.  1,  4.S,  is  ;  xvi.  4,  --'O. 

'  Stnitio,  i.  2,  .'!•;  :  .Mr-la.  i.  11  ;    Plin.  ix.  :>  ;  Sdlimis.  xxxiv.  1. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  29 

these  exhibits  Rameses  II.  preparing  to  throw  his  javelin  at  a 
huge  monster,  the  lattei-  part  of  whose  body  narrows  into  a  tail 
like  that  of  the  seal.  It  bears  hieroglyphics  which  may  be  read 
as  Meseramaut.'^  This  mapping  out  the  heavens  and  mythologiz- 
ing  the  stars  was  the  work  of  the  vain  king,  who  caused  the 
chamber  to  be  made  and  its  ceiling  to  exhibit  his  exj^loits,  and 
the  Toer  Maut  or  great  mother  whom  he  professed  to  deliver  from 
the  power  of  the  Ceto  was  doubtless  the  daughter  of  the  Hittite 
or  Kheta  king  Khitasira,  whom  he  added  to  his  harem,  and  on 
whom  he  conferred  an  Egyptian  nan)e.  Creuzer  pointed  out  the 
identity  of  Perseus  and  the  Persian  ilithras,  and  others  have 
shewn  that  Mithriac  worship  prevailed  in  Ethiopia,  whither 
Perseus  is  said  to  have  gone.^  The  Indian  Parasu  Rama  combines 
the  Perseus  and  Rameses  nanu's,  and  is  famous  as  the  slaughtei'er 
of  the  Kshattriyas  or  Achashtarites,  just  as  Thothmes  III.  and 
Rameses  II.  were  for  their  victories  over  the  Hittites."  The  name 
Beriah  is  not  found  on  the  monuments  of  these  two  Pharaohs  as 
they  have  been  read,  but  this  is  probably  because  the  name  has 
not  been  expected.  Baenra  is  found  (Hi  monuments  of  Menephtah, 
but  whether  it  relates  to  Rameses  or  to  the  subject  of  the  writing 
is  not  clear.  One  passage  appears  to  make  ^Menephtah  his  son  : 
"  Victorious  by  the  valour  of  Amen  was  the  king  of  the  Upper 
and  Lower  Countr3^  Baenra  beloved  of  Amen,  the  son  of  the  Son 
of  the  Sun,  Mene}jhtah  at  peace  through  truth,  giver  of  life."  "^ 
The  title  Mei  Amun  or  beloved  of  Amen,  is  the  peculiar  property 
of  Rameses  II.  Rameses  III.  evidently  deities  his  father  l)y  tiie 
name  Barui,  when  Amen  Ra  is  represented  saying  to  him  : 
"  Pas>ed  has  my  valour  in  thy  limbs  to  destroy  the  invaded  coun- 
tries. I  place  Amen  and  Barui  with  thee,  and  Khonsu,  lloi'us  in 
thy  limbs,  each  god  prevails,  following  in  thy  service  to  the  pcr- 
\"t'rs(;  lands  of  the  savages."''  Rames('s  II.  often  compares  him- 
self to  the  god  Car,  as  in  the  ])()eiii  of  Pentaur.'" 


'■  Sliar|M-,   Hist'.i'Vuf  K;.'-y|.t,  ii.  MI. 

'■  Syiiiliiilik  :  '  I  niiriiiaut,  ii.  U',:;. 

•  \'l>lni'l   I'urali.H  :    MalialiliM  ;,t:..  ,U 

-  li,vnv,\.  uf  111-  l'a,-t.  is.    III. 

■■■  K.-c.,r.is  ,.i  th.'  l'a~t,  vi.  •_'(). 

■'■  It.-CMids  of  th'-  I'a-t.  ii.  <;s. 


30  THE   HITTITES. 

In  identifying  the  Pharaohs,  Thothmes  III.  and  Rameses  II. 
one  argument  is  that  two  long  reigns  of  the  oppressors  of  Israel 
are  inconsistent  with  the  Book  of  Exodus,  which  is  the  only 
received  history  for  the  period  to  which  they  are  said  to  belong. 
Manetho  knows  only  one  Thothmes  and  one  Hameses,  although 
he  places  them  more  widely  apart  than  does  the  Kenite  list.  Their 
shields,  giving  not  only  the  name  Thothmes  or  Rameses,  but  also 
various  titles  of  honour,  are  found  confusedly,  if  they  be  different 
persons,  on  many  buildings  which  one  or  more  Thothmes  and  as 
many  Rameses  are  together  represented  as  having  erected,  so  that 
there  is  liardly  a  temple  or  even  a  pillar  of  a  Thothmes  that  a 
Rameses  is  not  supposed  to  have  restored  or  completed  two  hun- 
dred years  after.^^  They  overcame  the  same  enemies  in  the  same 
localities,  and  have  the  some  products  presented  to  them  as  tribute 
by  the  same  peoples,  under  precisely  similar  circumstances.^'^ 
They  worshipped  the  same  gods,  honoured  the  same  ancestors, 
and  had  identical  family  relationships.^^  Herodotus  and  Diodorus 
know  neither  Thothmes  nor  Rameses.  Tacitus  ascribes  the  tablet 
expounded  by  the  Egyptian  priests  in  the  hearing  of  Germanicus, 
to  a  Rameses ;  but  modern  investigators  agree  that  it  is  of ' 
Thothmes.  This  very  statistical  tablet  of  Kainak  mentions  the 
setting  up  of  a  stele  in  Naharaina,  and  the  form  of  the  stele,  as 
represented  in  tlie  inscription,  exactly  corresponds  to  those  cut  in 
the  rock  at  I^^ahr-el-Kelb,  bearing  the  imao-e  of  Rameses  11.^^ 
Pliny  seems  to  indicate,  and  Ammianus  Marcellinus  plainly  states^ 
in  his  Greek  translation  of  the  hieroglyphic  inscription,  that  the 
obelisk  now  in  the  Piazza  del  Popolo  at  Rome,  was  erected  by  a 
Rameses,  while  it  really  bears  the  name  of  Thothmes  Y^ }''  Mr. 
Henry  Salt,  an  early  student  of  Egyptian  monumental  history, 
speaks  of  Rameses  Thothmo.sis  as  contemporary  with  Moses ; 
and  Mr.  Osburn,  in  a  sketch  of  Egyptian  history,  suppresses  all 


"    K.'iirick,  ii.  181,  215,  224  ;  De  Lancye,  172  ;  Lep.sius,  248-9. 

'•^    K.'iirick,  ii.   210,  178,  213  ;  Lenorniant,  i.   240  ;  Keiirick,   ii.   226  ;  Rawlinson's 
Herodot.,  a])]),  bk.  ii.  ch.  8. 

'■'•   Tlie  j,'ods  Ka,  Thotli,  Ainun  ;  the  descent  from  Horus  ;  the  two  long  reigns  ;  the 
feiii.ale  n-gents  ;  the  same  queens,  Ahmes,  Nofre  Ari,  Atari,  etc.,  etc. 

'■*   Tacitus,  Annales  ii.  (JO  ;  Osburn,  ii.  453  ;  Kenrick,  ii.  11)2  ;   Kenrick,  ii.  190. 
F'liiiy,  H.  N.  xxxvi.  13  ;  .Vmmianus  xvii.  4  ;  Sharpe. 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  31 

the  Thothmes.^^     The  first  of  tlie  two  Pharaohs  mentioned  in  the 
Book  of  Exodus  must  be  he,  of  wliose  reign  bricks  containing 
straw  are  found,  and  on  whose  monuments  captives  with  Israel- 
itish  features  are  represented  engaged  in  brickmaking  and  build- 
inof..    >lr.  Kenrick,  following  Rosellini,  calls  this  monarch  Thoth- 
mes  III.  ;  while  M.  Chabas  and  Dr.  Brugsch,  on  the  authority  of 
two  papyri  mentioning  the  Aperiu  or  Hebrews  as  this  subject 
people,    and    of   the    rock    inscription    at    Hamamat,  decide  for 
Rameses  11.^"     Manetho  in  one  place,  and  Chaeremon,  call  the 
Pharaoh  in  whose  reign  Israel  went  out  of  Egypt  either  Sethos^ 
Rameses,  or  Amenophis,  it  being  distinctly  stated  by  them  that 
Sethos  and  Rameses  are  names   of    the    same    person,  and  that 
Amenophis  was  father  or  son  of  a  Rameses.^''     The  majority  of 
recent  writers  whose  oj)inions  are  of  value,  including  the  IJuke  of 
Northumberland,    Lepsius,  Osburn    and    Lenormant,   give    their 
sutirages  to  Seti  Menephtah,  who  is  Chaeremon's  Amenophath, 
son  of  the  great  Rameses.^^     On  the  side   of  Thothmes  are  found 
Manetho,  in  another  place,  where  he  is  plainly  inconsistent  with 
himself,  if  Thothmes  and  Rameses  are  not  the  same  ;  Julius  i\fri- 
canus  and  George  Syncellus,  and  among  the  moderns,  Sir  Gardner 
Wilkinson  almost  alone.'*"    He  says  :  "  The  rising  of  Sothis  in  the 
reign  of  Thothmes  III.  now  calculated  by  the  learned  M.  Biot  to 
correspond  to  Ijetween  1464  and  1424  B.C.,  shows  that  m\'  placing 
his  reign  from  149r>  to  1456  B.(A,only  ditt'ered  from  his  ival  date 
liy  aiiout    thirty  years."-'      Most  writers  place   the  first  of  the 
Rameses  about  1320   l^C,  which   will   not  at  all  tally  with  the 
Scripture  account  of  the  periijd    that   follows      The  Kenite  gene- 
alogies, illustrated   by  the  monuments,  the  Hebrew  I'ecord,  and 
many   traditions,   present   the   second  Tahath    of  the  old    I'^gv))- 
tinn   line   as  Thothmes  II.   and    Raiucscs  I.  :     his    son   Berinli,  as 
Th'jthiiies   III.   and    Rameses   II.:   aixl    his  son-in-law    Hadar,  as 

'''  KssHV  'III  I  )|-.  'S'liuiij,' and  M.  ClKUii|iiiIlinii's  I'liiilittii:  Sy>t<-ln  (if  1 1  ieroij^lyphics. 
lS2r.  ;   Oslnini  in  Mackay's  Facts  and    Dates.   ISC'.I. 

''  K'-nri(;k,  ii.  I'.tl;  Wilkinson,  ruimlar  Acninn'"  uf  the  Ancient  I'lf^'yi'tians,  ii.  ]!M  ; 
C'liah;i,s,  Mi-lan<^'es  l';;ry|jti)li.)^ni|nes  ;    I'rnescii,  aiis  dein  Oi'ient. 

II-    .Idseplins,  a;r.  A|ji"n.  i.  'Jti,  '27, 'M. 

:■'  liawlin-Mn's  H.Tnd'.t  ii>.  app.  lik.  II.  cli.  S  :  Lepsins.  f_'l  ;  Oslinrn,  ii.  .M'.">  :  Leii 
i.iniiiiit,  i.  L't;i. 

■•'"    .(osephus.  a^'.  Apii.n  i.   11,  L't'i  ;    a|i.   I'lnsel,.   j'la'p.  I'lvan.  \.   1(1:    S\neellus.  r,;;  1',. 

'-'     .\neieiit  l''.;/ypt,  alii  id;.'e(|,  ii.  'J.Vi. 


32  THE    HITTITES. 

Thothmes  IV.  The  son  of  Hadar  it  exhibits  as  Amenhotep  III, 
thus  usurping  the  place  of  Ishi  ;  while  Ishi's  son  Zoheth,  the 
son-in-law  of  Rameses  II.,  is  Seti  Menephtah  ;  and  his  nominal 
son,  but  really  the  child  of  Rameses,  is  Uzzensherah  or  Rameses 
III,  Hek  An. 

When  Thothmes  III.  was  delivered  from  the  guardianship  of 
his  sister,  he  proceeded  to  erase  her  name  from  the  monuments, 
and  to  put  his  own  in  its  place,  and  like  Rameses  II.,  he  omitted 
all  mention  of  that  noble  woman  in  the  lists  of  kings.  Seven 
documents  constitute  the  Annals  of  Thothmes.—  From  these  we 
gather  that,  at  an  early  period  of  his  sole  reign,  the  people  of 
Palestine  had  revolted,  Thothmes  took  command  of  the  army  at 
Gaza  and  advanced  northwards  to  meet  the  enemy,  who  were 
moving  from  Kadesh  to  effect  a  junction  with  the  people  of 
Megiddo,  near  the  upper  waters  of  the  Kishon,  where  in  after 
years  Barak  and  Deborah  overthrew  the  host  of  Sisera,  and  Josiah 
fell  fighting  against  Pharaoh  Necho,  and  where  in  the  end  of 
days  the  prophetic  battle  of  Armageddon  is  to  be  fought.  It  is 
also  the  traditional  Magadha  of  Indian  story,  in  which  Jar- 
ashandha  is  said  to  have  reigned  over  the  nations.  Thothmes 
defeated  the  Hittites  of  Kadesh,  capturing  all  their  chariots  and 
camp  equipage,  but  his  prisoners  only  amounted  to  840,  and 
the  number  of  the  enemy's  slain  to  83.  The  fugitives  took 
refuge  in  Megiddo,  which  soon  after  suri-endered.  The  Egyptian 
army  was  largely  recruited  from  the  Hittite  bands,  so  that  the 
Rutennu  or  Zerethites  of  Nineveh  and  Asshur  were  compelled  to 
make  their  submission.  In  subsequent  campaigns  Thothmes 
passed  into  Syria,  conquering  the  revolted  people  of  Aradus  in 
Phffinicia.  Then  he  took  Kadesh,  supposed  to  be  on  the  Orontes, 
by  assault.  This,  however,  is  the  same  Kadesh  that  sent  an 
armj^  against  him  at  Megiddo,  namely,  Kadesh  Xaphtali.  He 
found  the  Achashtarites  of  the  line  of  Mehir  in  Mesopotamia,  and 
these  Naharaina,  as  he  terms  them,  were  brought  under  his  sway- 
In  a  poetical  composition  inscribed  on  a  stele  at  Karnak,  the  god 
Amun  addresses  the  king  in  language  of  which  the  following  is 
an  e.\anq)le  : 

■-'■^   Kf-cords  of  tlif.  Past. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   EGYPT.  33 

"  I  am  come — to  thee  have  I  given  to  strike  down  Syrian  princes  ; 

Under  thy  feet  they  lie  throughout  the  breadth  of  their  cmintry. 

Like  to  the  Lord  of  Light,  I  made  them  see  thy  glory, 

Blinding  their  eyes  with  light,  the  earthly  image  of  Amen. 
"  I  am  come  —to  thee  have  I  given  to  strike  down  Asian  people  ; 

Captive  now  thou  hast  led  the  proud  Assyrian  chieftains  : 

Decked  in  royal  robes  I  made  them  see  thy  glory  ; 

All  in  glittering  urms  and  fighting,  high  in  thy  war  car.  "23 

The  enemies  overcome  by  Thothmes  were  the  Nine  Bow  bar- 
barians, perliaps  the  Hamathites,  whose  favorite  number  was 
nine,  the  Annn  -who  named  Ono  in  Philistia,  descendants  of  the 
Jerachmeelite  Onam,  the  Naharaina  of  whom  the  Rephaim  and 
the  Thapsacans  were  the  chief,  the  Amu  or  Emim,  also  called 
Shasu,  being  the  Shuhites  of  Ma  Reshah,  the  Taha  and  Sat  unde- 
termined, the  Rutennu  or  Zerethites  of  Ardon,  the  people  of 
*P&neter,  or  Beerothites  of  a  northern  Tentyris,  the  Kefa  or 
Ziphites.  the  Asi,  probably  the  rebellious  Kenezzites,  bearing  Ishi's 
name,  the  Maten  or  Midianites,  the  Tahennu,  descendants  of 
Tehinnah,  Rapha's  brother,  the  dwellers  in  the  isles  of  the  Tena, 
one  of  which  was  Cyprus,  called  by  the  Assyrians  Yatnan  after 
the  Hittite  patriarch  Ethnan,  and  the  Remenen  of  Carchemish, 
descended  from  Harum,  son  of  Regem,  and  grandson  of  Jahdai. 
The  enemies  overcome  by  Thothmes  were  chiefly  the  Hittite 
tribes,  to  wdiom  may  be  added  the  Midianites,  and  one  or  two 
Japhetic  peoples  on  the  ^Mediterranean  shore  of  Palestine.  The 
Carians  of  Ekron  and  other  Philistines,  with  some  Hittite  tribes, 
aided  the  king  in  his  conquests,  which  cover  the  same  ground  as 
those  of  Seti  Menephtah. 

Comparing  the  conquests  of  Rameses  II.  with  those  of  Thoth- 
mes III.,  we  find  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  saying  :  "  The  enemies  the 
Egyptians  had  to  contend  with  were  mostly  the  same  in  the  time 
of  Rameses  II.  as  of  Thothmes  III."-^  Discrediting  the  wide 
extension  of  (nnpii'e  attributed  to  Rameses  as  the  great  Se.sostris, 
M.  Lenormant  writes:  "  Far  from  having  penetrated  to  the  banks 
of  the  (janges,  he  never  carried  his  arms  in  Asia  fai'ther  than 
Thothnu'S  III.  and  S('ti,  and  nearly  all  his  canipaigns  were  con- 
fined to  northei-ii  S\-ria."-'     in  the   early   part  of   his  reign  there 

■-'•    Li-iiuriii.-uif ,  .Manual,  i.  2'.'>\  ;  ciiiiip.   ivfciirds  of  thi'  Pa^t,  ii.  Ik!. 
'-'    RawliiiHoii's  HiTodolus,  .-iii]).  lik.  ii.,  eh.  S. 
■-•'■    Manual,  i.  '247. 


34  THE    HITTITES. 

was  war  in  Ethiopia,  the  conduct  of  which  was  chiefly  in  the 
hands  of  viceroys,  although  Rameses  seems  to  have  been  present 
on  one  occasion  to  encourage  his  soldiers.     Thothmes  also  gained 
victories  in  the  same  region.     Then,  as  in  the  reign  of  Thothmes, 
all  Palestine  and  Syria  revolted  and  expelled  the  Egyptian  gar- 
risons, Kadesh  as  before  being  the  centre  of  rebellion.     The  great 
event  of  Rameses'  reign  was  the  battle  of  Kadesh,  which  the  bard 
Pentaur  sang  in  strains  of  fulsome  adulation.     The   king,  sep- 
arated for  a  short  time  from  his  army,  was  beset  by  the   enemy 
in  force,  but  succeeded  in  making  head  against  them,  until  his 
troops  arrived  on  the  scene  of  action.    At  Kadesh,  near  Shebetun, 
which   is  Safed  or  Sapheta,  to  the  south  of    Kadesh  Xaphtali, 
the  Hittites  made  a  stand,  for  the  Amorites  had  already  driven 
them    out   of   southern    Palestine.     The    Naharina    were   there, 
and  the  Aradite  descendants  of  Jered  the  Hamathite,  and  the 
Masu  or  Moschi,  named   after   Mesha,   son   of  the  great  Jaliez. 
There   also   were   the   Kairkamasha  or  men  of  Carchemish,  the 
Leka  for  whose  relationship  Amalek,  Bethlechem,  and  Lecah  the 
Shuhite  compete,  and  the  Mashanata,  who  were  expelled  Kenez- 
zites,  claiming  the  name  of  Megonothai.     The  Patasa  descended 
from  Paseach  and  namers  of  Thapsacus  or  Khupuscia,  the  Mauna 
or  Maonites  in  the  line  of  Laadah  and  Ma  Reshah,  the  Dardanians 
of  Zarthan,   the  Kerkesh  or  Zerachites   of   Karrak,  the  Katesh 
whose  ancestor  was  Gazez,  son  of  Haran,  and  father  of  Jahdai, 
the  Anaukasa  of  the  Rutennu,  or  Anakim  of  Arba  and  Ardon, 
and  the  Khilbu  or  Calebitos  of   the  line  of   Ephron  and  Zohar, 
swelled  the  host.     But   Rameses,   according  to  his  own  account, 
overcame  the  Hittite  leaguers,  who  hastened  to  make  a  treaty  of 
peace.     Soon  afterwards,  however,  the  Hittite  suzerain  died,  and 
his  brother  Khitasar  fought  with  the  Egyptians.     Another  cam- 
paign took  place,  ending  in  a  second  treaty,  and  the  alliance  of 
the  supposed  conqueror  to  the  daughter  of  the  Hittite  monarch. 
Nevertheless  Rameses  pushed  his  way  northward  into  Phd'iiicia, 
leaving  records  of  his  presence  on  the  rocks  near  Tyre  and  Beirut. 
The  Travels  of  an  Egyptian,  being  the  account  of  a  journey  made 
by  a  Mohar  or  military  scribe  in  the  reign  of  this  Pharaoh,  show 
that  Egyptian  su])remacy  was  maintained  in  noi-thern  Syi'ia,  and 
that  Takar  Aaar,  near  Hamath,  was  a  centre  of  Pharaonic  ])(nver. 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  35 

The  author  also  mentions  Joppa  as  a  place  of  note,  thus  in  a  measure 
confirming  its  traditional  association  with  Perseus'  story.  But 
his  narrative  breathes  a  feeling  of  insecurity  such  as  is  felt  in 
many  parts  of  Palestine  to-day,  clearly  indicating  that  Egyptian 
conquest  had  not  suppressed  Hittite  lawlessness.-^  There  is  every 
reason  to  think  that  Thothmes'  battle  of  Megiddo  and  Rameses' 
battle  of  Kadesh  are  parts  of  the  same  campaign,  represented  in 
the  legend  of  Perseus  by  the  war  with  the  Gorgon  Medusa,  and 
in  Indian  story  by  the  twenty-one  slaughters  that  Parasu  Rama 
made  of  the  Kshattriyas. 

According  to  the  Kenite  genealogy,  two  of  the  sons  of  Ram- 
eses  II.  were  Rephah  and  Resheph,  and  Telah  was  the  son  of  the 
latter.  It  is  likely  that  one  of  these  is  the  Rhampsinitus  of 
Herodotus  and  the  Remphis  of  Diodorus.  In  Herodotus,  Rhamp- 
sinitus follows  Proteus  after  Pheron,  and  in  Diodorus,  Remphis 
succeeds  Cetes,  who  may  be  Seti.  But  neither  of  these  became 
the  successor  of  the  oppressor  of  Israel.  That  successor  was  the 
nominal  son  of  his  daughter  Sherah  and  Zoheth,  or  Seti  Meneph- 
tah,  who  was  called  after  his  mother  Uzzen  Sherah,  and  who 
ascended  the  throne  under  the  name  of  Rameses  III.,  Hekan.  He 
is  thus  the  .Achencherses  under  whom  Eusebius  says  that  Mo>cs 
led  the  Jews  in  their  Exodus  from  Egypt.  He  is  also  the  Nun- 
coreus,  son  of  Sesoses,  whom  Pliny  identifies  with  the  Pheron  (jf 
Herodotus  and  the  second  Sesostris  of  Diodorus,  saying  that  he 
consecrated  an  obelisk  to  the  Sun  after  he  recovered  the  sight 
he  had  lost.-'"  In  the  Pluethon  genealogy  he  appears  as  Cinyras  or 
Adonis,  son  of  Sandochus,  and,  in  the  story  of  Perseus,  as  Cvnu- 
rus,  .son  of  that  hero.  George  Syncellus  makes  Goneharis  the 
last  king  of  Lower  Egypt  and  the  successor  of  Raniessr  \'aplii-L"s. 
Africanus  has  three  Acheneheres  in  the  ciglitecnth  dynasty,  all 
of  whom  reiirned  twelve  vears,  and  the  sainc  nundier  is  assiijiied 
to  the  Acencheres  of  other  lists.  No  nioiniiiH  nt  of  ItaiiifSfs  III. 
Hfkan  lias  b('en  found  later  tlian  his  twelftli  year.  Astronomy 
has  been  called  in  to  settle  tlie  <late  of  this  Pharaoh,  for  a  nioini- 
ment  at  Me'linet  Abu  makes  tlie  heliacal  i-ising  ol"  the  stai-  Sothis 
to    coincide    with    his    twelfth   year.      Accoi'ding   to   Syncelhis.    a 

-■■     iJ.-Cdnl-.  '.f  til.-  I'a.-t.  ii.  lOK. 
-"    I'liiiw  xxxvi.  1."). 


36  THE   HITTITES. 

Sothiac  cycle  was  completed  in  the  fifth  year  of  Concharis,  but 
Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  places  this  event  in  the  reign  of  Thothmes 
III.  Censorinus,  who  wrote  his  De  Die  Natali  in  the  year  238 
A.D.,  says  that  a  Sothic  or  Canicular  cycle  had  been  completed 
about  a  hundred  years  before  that  date ;  and  as  the  cycle  was 
one  of  1461  years,  it  follows  that  the  end  of  the  previous  cycle 
was  in  1323  B.C.-^  But  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  quotes  M.  Biot  as 
making  the  heliacal  rising  of  Sothis  take  place  between  1464  and 
1424  B.  G,  while  M.  Lenormant,  referring  to  the  same  authority, 
says  the  coincidence  occurred  in  1300  B.C.  The  combined  astro- 
nomical and  historical  evidence  is  not  sufficiently  proven  to 
discredit  the  Hebrew  record,  the  truthfulness  of  which  is  attested 
by  the  confirmation  of  monumental  records  whenever  they  deal 
with  the  same  facts,  and  that  record  places  480  years  between 
the  Exodus  and  the  dedication  of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem,  which 
took  place  more  than  1000  years  before  Christ.-^  In  the  lists 
and  on  the  monuments  the  name  of  Horus  is  always  associated 
with  those  of  Acencheres  and  Rameses  III.  These  are  the  Herons, 
half  brothers  and  seniors  of  Uzzen  Sherah  or  Hekan,  the  Hiran- 
yas  and  Arunas  of  the  Indians,  the  Hiranyakcha  and  Hiranya- 
kula  who  precede  that  Mihirakula  whose  story,  as  told  in  the 
Raja  Tarangini,  is  identical  with  those  of  Pheron  and  Nuncoreus, 
and  is  beside  the  record  of  the  most  infamous  vice  and  fiendish 
cruelty  that  the  writer  of  the  chronicle  has  to  tell. 

The  Horons  have  a  curious  history.  Had  the  Aurunci  of  Italy 
left  any  traditions,  besides  tliat  which  connects  them  with  Liparus 
and  Auson,  the  namer  of  the  Oscans,  their  relations  with  Rameses 
III.  might  have  been  l)etter  determined.  The  Indian  traditions 
place  the  Aruna  Ketus  in  Ketumala,  and  the  traditions  of  the 
Quiches  of  Guatemala,  who  represent  the  Ammonite  line  of  Anub, 
son  of  Coz,  make  Quauhtemalan  a  foundation  of  the  Cachi(|uels 
descended  from  the  grandmother  Atit  or  Hathath,  and  one  of 
whose  chief  kings  was  Zactecauh  or  Zoheth.  All  their  kings 
were  called  Tukuches,  and  two  of  these,  Zactecauh  and 
Gagawitz,  went  down  to  the  sea  to  figlit  the  Xonohualcas  and 
Xulpitis.     They  slew  large  nundiers  of  these  unhappy  people  and 

-^   Censorinus,  De  Die  Natali,  xviii.  10. 
-■'    I  Kings,  vi.  1. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    EGYPT.  37 

pursued  them  into  the  sea,  but  a  great  cloud  of  dust  was  raised 
by  magic  between  the  fugitives  and  the  Cachiquels,  so  that  while 
the  former  rallied  and  fell  upon  their  pursuers  unperceived,  they 
were  also  aided  by  demons  in  the  air,  under  the  feet  of  the  Cachi- 
quels, rising  and  falling  upon  them,  till  the  pursuers  iied,  gaining 
solid  ground  as  best  they  might  and  leaving  man}^  of  their 
number  stretched  upon  the  watery  field  of  battle.  "  This  terrible 
defeat  left  a  cruel  impression  on  the  tribes."  ^'^  The  remnant 
assembled  on  mount  Oloman  and  decided  to  leave  the  scene  of 
disaster  and  seek  a  home  elsewhere.  Traversing  land  and  -ea 
and  regions  of  intense  cold,  with  the  Quiches  and  Tzutohils,  with 
whom  they  lost  their  language  on  the  way,  they  came  to  Urran 
and  Rabinal,  and  established  there  the  kingdom  of  Guatemala. 
Gagawitz  plainly  represents  Uzzen  Sherah,  for  he  threw  himself 
into  a  volcano  to  make  it  cease  destroying  the  land  and  people, 
and,  succeeding  in  quenching  its  fires  by  the  sacrifice  of  himself, 
was  restored  to  life,  when  festivals  were  instituted  to  commem- 
orate his  resurrection.  But  the  story  represents  him  as  the 
murderer  of  Zactecauh,  w4iom,  as  he  was  taking  a  great  leap  in 
imitation  of  Gagawitz,  the  latter  pushed  into  an  abyss  that  served 
him  for  a  sepulchre.  The  strange  legend  gives  in  its  own  way 
the  overthrow  in  the  Red  Sea  and  the  consequent  alliance  of  the 
Kenezzites  in  part  with  the  Ammonites  of  the  Delta,  and  with 
some  of  the  Tsocharites,  which  is  attested  by  the  presence  of 
Horonaim  or  the  two  Horons  between  the  countries  of  Moab  and 
Ammon.  Some  Kenezzites, including  princ(!  Jephunnoh,  were  in  the 
train  of  Israel.  But  there  must  have  been  a  second  Exodus  h-o\n 
Egypt,  led  probably  by  the  Horons,  who,  from  the  connection  of 
the  Arunas  with  Ketumala,  and  of  the  Urran  valleys  with  (Juate- 
mala,  appear  to  have  been  worsliippers  of  Atin  Re,  wliich  god 
represents  their  ancestor  Othniel  or  Godoniel.  It  is  tlie  form 
Godoniel  that  gives  Ketumala  and  Qiianhtemalan  or  Guatemala- 
Atin  Re  was  represented  as  the  sun  with  rays  proceeding  from 
it  that  terminated  in  human  liands.  Now,  the  most  remarkable 
god  of  the  Mayas  and  Quiches  was  Kinieh-Kakmo,  the  son  of  the 
Sun,  who  was  represented   in  the  act  of  sacrificing,  touching  one 

'■"    l'>.  df  BouiKourg.  Niitioiis  civilist'<'n,  ii.  04. 


38  THE    HITTITES. 

of  the  sun's  rays  witli  his  linger  as  if  to  draw  a  spark  from  it 
with  which  to  kindle  the  wood  of  the  altar. ^^  Among  the  Cachi- 
quels,  Kinieh  was  c^-lled  Ouenech.  But  in  southern  California 
there  is  a  tribe  of  Acagchemens  belonging  in  point  of  language 
to  the  Aztec-Sonora  famil}^,  who  worship  a  god  Chinig-Chinich, 
a  reduplicate  form  of  Kinieh  or  Ouenech,  although  they  say  that 
their  true  god  is  Sirout,  and  that  Chinig-Chinich  was  imposed 
upon  them  by  invaders  from  the  east.  The  more  northern 
Shoshones,  who  are  occidental  Zuzim,  apply  his  name  to  the 
tobacco  they  burn  in  his  honour,  thus  combining  religion  with 
pleasure,  and  this  name  as  Kinnikinnik  is  used  to  denote  the 
Corniis  sericea  or  silky  cornel,  the  leaves  of  which  the  Indians 
are  supposed  to  mix  with  their  tobacco.^-  Thus  Sekenen  Ra, 
Apachnas,  Kenaz  the  father  of  Othniel,  for  he  is  this  Kinieh, 
Ouenech,  and  Chinig-Chinich,  besides  beino-  known  to  almost  all 
Indian  tribes  as  a  very  inferior  and  adulterated  kind  of  tobacco^ 
has  the  honour  of  appearing  on  the  labels  of  superior  brands 
encircled  by  the  revenue  stamp  of  the  United  States.  The  wor- 
ship of  the  Hittite  gods  is  sureh^  near  its  end  when  Chinig- 
Chinich  furnishes  old  king  Cole  with  material  for  his  pipe.  What 
a  commentary,  ludicrous  though  it  be,  is  this  on  the  words  of 
the  prophet  Jeremiah  :  "A  voice  of  crying  shall  be  from  Horon- 
aim,  spoiling  and  great  destruction.  .  .  For  in  the  going  down 
of  Horonaim  the  enemies  have  heard  a  cry  of  destruction.  Flee, 
save  your  lives,  and  be  like  the  heath  in  the  wilderness.  .  .  O 
vine  of  Sibmah,  I  will  weep  for  thee  with  the  weeping  of  Jazer  ; 
thy  plants  are  gone  over  the  sea,  they  reach  even  to  the  sea  of 
Jazer."  ''-^  Where  is  this  sea  of  Jazer  so  far  awav  ?  According  to 
Sadik  Isfahani,  Khazar  is  the  Caspian,  but  over  the  broad  Pacific 
Ocean  the  men  of  the  two  Horons  passed,  to  find  the  home  of  their 
now  degraded  race.^*  Our  American  Indians  are  not  young,  but 
the  remnants  of  nations  long  grown  old  and  hastening  to  decay- 
The  Stranger  Kings  who  worshipped  Atin  Re  differed  in  form 
and  feature  from  the  other  Egyptians,  their  foreheads  I'eceding 

■■'  1').  dc  Ijoiirlxjurg,  Nations  civilisee.^,  ii.  o. 

■'■-'  ]5(ckfr,  CiinsjrJ's  des  Aiiit-ricani.ste.s,  1S77,  Tome  i.  330. 

•■•'  .Tercniiali,  xlviii.  3,  32. 

•■'  Sadik  Isfahani,  23. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    EGYPT.  39 

SO  unnaturally  that  it  must  have  been  the  result  of  artificial  com- 
pression. They  were  Flatheads,  and  claim  kindred  with  the 
Chinuks  of  north-westei'n  America,  whose  name  is  that  of  the 
ancestral  Chinig.  But  their  language  is  akin  to  that  of  the 
Asiatic  Koriaks  and  Tchuktchis,  whose  deity  Gnai  Gonozeh  is 
Chinig  Chinich,  somewhat  disguised,  yet  recognizable.  According 
to  Abernethy,  the  Koriaks  flattened  the  heads  of  their  children 
in  the  same  way  as  the  Chinuks.^''  Among  the  latter  it  is  a  sign 
of  nobility,  and  they  will  not  allow  their  slaves  or  neighbouring 
subject  tribes  to  adopt  the  practice.^^  They  are  skilful  carvers 
in  stone, and  their  grotesque  aboriginal  designs,  chiefly  on  pipes,  are 
much  sought  after  by  antiquarians.  In  Peru  the  Chinchas  were 
Flatheads.-^"  But  the  most  interesting  American  nation  that  prac- 
tised this  barbarous  and  unsightly  art,  although  it  has  now  fallen 
out  of  use,  is  that  of  the  Choctaws,  who  are  American  Tshekto,  or 
as  the  Asiatic  people  who  call  themselves  b}*  that  name  are  usually 
designated,  Tchuktchis.  The  artist  traveller  Catlin  expresses  the 
desire  which  he  did  not  realize,  to  institute  a  comparison  between 
the  Choctaws  and  the  Chinuks,  arising  out  of  their  common  pos- 
session of  the  deformed  skull.^^  The  story  he  tells  of  the  Choctaw 
deluge  is  more  like  the  Quiche  account  of  the  disaster  that  drove 
the  Cachiquels  into  exile.  "  There  was  total  darkness  for  a  great 
time  over  the  whole  of  the  earth  ;  the  Choctaw  doctors  or  mystery 
men  looked  out  for  daylight  for  a  long  time,  until  at  last  they 
despaired  of  ever  seeing  it,  and  the  whole  nation  were  very  un- 
happy. At  last  a  light  was  discovered  in  the  north,  and  there 
was  great  rejoicing,  until  it  was  found  to  be  great  mountains  of 
water  rolling  in,  which  destroyed  them  all,  except  a  few  families 
who  had  expected  it,  and  built  a  great  raft  on  which  thev  were 
saved."  ^'-^  The  Chinuks,  Chinchas,  and  Choctaws  are  undoubtedly 
of  tilt'  same  vacc.  as  the  Cachiquels  of  (Guatemala,  but  while  the 
latter  lost  tlieir  language,  iiecoiniiig  semitiziMl,  the  former  did  not. 
Their  tiii^ration  mute  w;is  iioi-thcrii,  and  largt'ly  continental, 
wliiic  that  (A'  the  Mayas,  <^)uiches,  and  (.'achi([Uels,  was   southern. 


.\I.Hrkiiit'.>li,  ()ii'_Mii  ..f  til"  N..rtli  .\in.Ti<':iii    Iiidiaiis,  11^. 

I'l'-k.rin-'-  U.-ir.-.  nf  M.-ui,   L.. II. Ion,  is.M,  I'd. 

I'll  ii\  i;i!i  .\iiti(|iiiti''>,  'M. 

f^'.'itliii,  .\"itli  Aiii'-riiMii    [inliaiis,  ii.  1 1  L'. 

(':itlin,  N'mtli  Aiii«-n(;:iii    Indians,  ii,  127. 


40  THE   HITTITES. 

insular,  and  oceanic.  The  Chinuk  language  contains  in  abund- 
ance the  tl  click  so  characteristic  of  the  Aztec,  and  which  is  also 
found  in  some  Lesghian  dialects  of  the  Caucasus.  Strabo  places 
the  long  headed  Siginni  in  the  region  of  the  Caucasus,  and  there 
Pliny  and  Mela  situate  the  Macrocephali,  but  while  the  first 
named  writer  finds  them  in  the  east  of  that  range,  the  two  latter 
assign  them  to  the  west.  Hippocrates  expressly  states  that  the 
Macrocephali  flattened  their  children's  heads.*"  The  Avars  are 
said  to  have  been  Flatheads,  and  their  name  connects  them  with 
the  Iberians  or  Georgians,  and  with  the  Lesghian  tribe  Avar.'*^ 
Flattened  skulls  have  been  found  in  that  Scythic  region,  the 
Crimea.  The  Huns  artificially  changed  the  shape  of  the  head, 
and  Attila  is  represented  as  one  in  whom  the  natural  feature  had. 
been  thus  distorted.  Among  the  South  Sea  Islanders,  the  Kanakas 
of  the  Hawaiian  group  are  Flatheads.  The  weight  of  evidence 
gives  to  the  Kenezzites,  descended  from  the  first  king  that  reigned 
in  Edom,  and  deriving  from  Ethnan  the  youngest  son  of  Ashchur 
and  Helah,  the  honour  or  disgrace  of  inventing  this  barbarous 
custom,  of  which  the  Elephantine  kingdom  of  Egypt  was  probably 
the  birthplace.  From  them  it  may  have  been  communicated  to 
other  tribes,  for  it  is  represented  in  the  sculptures  of  the  Mayas 
of  Yucatan. 

Rameses  Hekan  was  not  responsible  for  the  circumstances  of 
his  birth,  but  he  was  for  allowing  statements  of  these  to  appear 
on  the  monuments,  both  Ramesside  and  Thotlimian.  Morality 
must  have  been  at  a  frightfully  low  ebb,  some  indication  of 
which  is  found  in  a  British  Museum  papyrus  of  the  time  of 
Rameses  containing  caricatures  which  are  said  to  be  "  licentious 
in  the  extreme."  *-  The  companion  stories  of  Pheron  and  the 
Indian  Mihirakula  tell  the  same  tale.  A  great  decadence  in  the 
arts  accompanied  the  fall  in  morals,  barbaric  structures  and 
coarse  sculptures  taking  the  place  of  the  great  achievements  of 
Hadar  and  his  son  Shimon.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of 
Rameses  II.,  exactions  far  exceeding  the  power  of  the  people  to 
comply  with  were  laid  upon  them,  and  formed  the  subject  of  cor- 

*o  Strabo,  xi.  11,  8  ;  Pliny,  vi.  4  ;  Mela,  i.  19  ;  Hippoc,  p.  289. 
*i   Head  Flattening,  Short's  North  Americans  of  Antiquity,  178. 
^2   Lenormant,  Manual,  i.  268. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  ^l 

respondence  between  two  great  functionaries  of  the  kingdom.*^ 
The  reign  of  his  son  was  characterized  by  plots,  the  authors  of 
which  suffered  severely.*^  But  whether  in  person,  or  by 
deputy,  Hekan  was  a  warrior.  The  palace  at  Medinet  Abon  in 
Thebes  recounts  his  victories.  The  Lebu  and  Takkaro,  who 
were  Hittite  Rephaim  and  Tsochari,  the  latter  of  whom  possessed 
a  fleet,  made  incursions  in  the  north-west,  and  these  he  repelled 
for  a  time,  but  they  returned  to  the  attack,  and  with  them  the 
Philistines,  rightly  identified  with  the  Pelasgi,  and  the  Hittites 
of  Syria  and  Mesopotamia  made  common  cause.  Rameses  again 
advanced  to  meet  the  enemy  and  overthrew  the  Hittites,  it  is 
supposed,  at  the  Orontes.  Then,  descending  to  the  coast  of  the 
Mediterranean,  he  encountered  the  Philistines  and  the  Mashuosh, 
evidently  preparing  to  take  up  their  abode  in  Egypt,  for  they 
were  accompanied  by  their  wives  and  children  in  rough  ox-cai-ts. 
The  Mashuash  were  probably  the  Moschi  of  Mesha,  the  Caph- 
torim  allied  with  the  Philistines.  Rameses  carried  their  camp 
by  assault,  with  the  slaughter  of  over  12,000  of  the  enemy. 
Another  invasion  by  sea  and  land  was  led  by  the  Takkaro  or 
Tsocharites,  and  with  them  came  the  Libyans  or  Rephaim,  the 
Sardinians,  Dardanians,  or  Zerethites,  the  Tyrrhenians  or  des- 
cendants of  the  Maachathite  Tirhanah,  and  the  Sicilians  or  As- 
calonians  of  Philistia.  They  were  defeated  on  both  elements. 
Minor  wars  took  place  in  Syria  and  in  Yemen,  and  all  the 
strength  of  Egypt  had  to  be  exerted,  not  to  make  foreign  con- 
quests, but  simply  to  keep  the  enemy  from  occupying  its  sacred 
shores.  Then  after  Rameses  Hekan  had  reigned  about  twelve 
years,  the  divinely  commissioned  Moses  stood  before  him  to  ask 
freedom  for  his  oppressed  fellow  Israelites.  If  Seti,  the  nominal 
father  of  Hekan,  was  alive  at  the  time,  he  must  have  known 
Moses,  but,  being  the  murderer  of  Shimon,  he  woultl  not  be  likely 
to  favour  that  monarch's  friend,  and  the  adopted  son  of  that 
(jueen  whose  name  he  had  helped  ^lei  Amun  to  erase;  from  the 
monuments;  nor  wf)uld  Pharaoh  give  heed  to  the  proi)het  who 
sought  to  deprive  him  of  his  most  peaceal)le  an<l  useful  suljjects, 
for  Junnes  aii<l   Jambrcs,  his  magicians,  cast  discretlit  uj)on  the 


*'■'■    L<-iioriii!iiit,  Manu.'il,  i.  LT'H. 
<•    K«-coniKof  th.'  I'itst,  viii.  57. 


42  THE   HITTITES. 

Divine  leo-ation  of  Moses,  and  with  lying  wonders  mocked  the 
miracles  that  attested  it."**     These  two  practisers  of  the  black  ai't 
are  inentioned  by  the  Rabbins  and  by  some  heathen  writers,  but 
little   dependence   is   to   be  placed  on  the  stories  told  of  them. 
Pliny,  who  states   that   magic   originated    with    Zoroaster,    and 
names  as  some  of  his  successoi's  in  it  Apusorus  and  Zaratus  of 
Media,  Marmarus    and  Arabantiphocus   of  Babylonia,  and  Tar- 
raoendas  of  Assyria,    also   classes   as  adepts  in   sorcery    Moses, 
Jannes  and  Jotapea  the  Jews,  of  whom  the  latter  probabh'  is 
Joseph.^''     Jambres   in   British   history    is   Ambrose    Merlin,    or 
Merddin,  who  is  to  be  distinguished  from  Aurelius  Ambrosius,  the 
Kenite  Opbrah.    This  Ambrose  Merlin  was  a  magician,  the  son  of 
a  daughter  of  the  king  of  Dimetia,  born  without  a  father,  and  he 
prophesied  in  -a  most  enigmatic  way  before  Vortigern,  the  king 
whose  crime  was  the  same  as  that  of  the  second  Rameses."*"     The 
Greeks  confounded  the  two  Ambroses  of  British  story  in  their  one 
Arnphiaraus,  whom  they  make  a  soothsayer  as  well  as  a  warrior. 
As  the  soothsayer,  he   had  an  oracle  at  Oropus  in  Attica,  where 
those  who  looked  for  responses  found  them  by  lying  upon  a  skin 
spread  on  the  ground,  in  Celtic  fashion.^^     He  was  the  grandson 
of  Antiphates,  and  great-grandson  of  Melampus  or  Rapha.     This 
genealogy  seems  to  be  justified  by  his  connection  with  Oropus, 
and  by  the  fact  that  Ambrose  Merlin  was  the  worshipper  of  the 
two  man-devourino-  birds  of  Gwenddolen,  and  a  water  dweller. 
As  for  Antiphates,  he  is  the  Netophath  of  the  Kenite  lists,  who 
is  connected  with  Beth  Lechem  as  descending  with  that  house 
from  Sahna.     Netophath  is  placed  far  back  in  history,  for  the 
Egyptian  Nuhotep  who  represents  him  was  the  father  of  Nahrai, 
a  prince  that  has  left  a  monument  at  Benihassan,  on  which  is  de- 
picted the  arrival  of  a  foreign  family,  once  supposed  to  be  that  of 
Jacob,  in  the  reign  of  Osorta.sen  II.'*^     Ncnv  Osortasen  11.  was  a 
son  of  Hadad,  who  can  only  liave  reigned  during  the  interregnum 
iiiiniediatelv  following  the  death  of  Jahdai  or  Amenemes  II.,  so 
that  Netophath  is  thus  made  tlie  contemporary  of  Coz,  which  he 

•'■  2  Timothy  iii.  8. 

''  Pliny,  XXX.  2. 

'"  (W'offrey's  liritisi,  History. 

■"^  Pausaiua.s,  i.  'M. 

'■'  1  Chron.  ii.  ~)i  ;  Lciisins,  112  ;   Kenrick  ;  (Jsburii. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  43 

micjht  well  be  as  a  grandson  of  Chedorlaomer.  According  to  Mr. 
Osburn,  the  son  of  Nahrai  was  Prince  Hamshe,  and  his  was 
Sukenes,  the  last  of  his  race  to  receive  monumental  mention. 
Homer  classes  Antiphates,  whom  he  calls  the  son  of  Lamus  and 
king  of  the  Laestrygones  in  his  Odysse}",  with  man-eating  mon- 
sters, such  as  the  Solymi  or  Salmaites  are  said  to  ha\e  been. 
But  he  also  mentions  the  prophet  of  that  name,  calling  him  the 
son  of  Melampus  and  father  of  Oileus,  from  whom  came  Amphi- 
araus.*^  There  must  have  been  an  alliance  by  marriage  between 
the  family  of  Kapha  and  that  of  Netophath,  but  the  latter  could 
not  be  the  son-in-law  of  the  former.  The  genealogy  of  the  Neto- 
phathites  is  not  given,  or  at  any  rate  has  not  been  found  in  the 
Kenite  record,  but  in  the  time  of  David  and  among  his  chief 
captains  were  men  of  that  family  who  had  renounced  their  can- 
nilnil  propensities.  Such  were  Mahai-ai  the  Netophathite,  and 
Ht'leb  or  Heled  the  son  of  Baanah,  a  Xetophathite.-''^  Now 
Baanah  is  a  Beerothite  name,  and  another  of  David's  captains, 
who  were  almost  all  foreigners,  was  Nahari  the  Beerothite.  This 
is  natural,  for  the  Beerothites,  descended  from  Hamath,  were  rela- 
tives of  the  Netophathites,  descended  from  his  brother  Chedorla- 
omer, who  is  called  by  the  Arabs  a  man  of  Thamud.  The  two 
names  Maharai  and  Nahari  ai'e  really  divergent  forms  of  one, 
and  agree  with  Prince  Nahrai,  or  as  Lepsius  calls  him,  Nehera- 
si-Numhotep  of  Benihassan.  Nor  could  anything  be  more  har- 
monious to  historic  truth  than  the  exaltation  of  a  Netophathite 
in  the  reign  of  the  Beerothite  Osortasen  II.  Ambrose  Merddin 
again  as  son  of  a  daughter  of  the  King  of  Dimetia  or  Dyved 
exhibits  his  relationship  with  the  Osortasens  of  Axithor  Abydos, 
which,  when  transported  to  Syiia,  became  Tililiath.  Jandu'es 
then  was  no  mean  man,  ])nt  one  of  I'oyal  descent,  in  wliost-  vrins 
ilowfd  tlie  ])lood  of  Pi-jiicc  Nahrai  tin.'  Xctopliatliitc,  and  that  of 
ibipha  the  Xaii'i,  two  families  that  ti'adition  associates  w  itli  blood- 
thii'sty  i-iti'S,  and  that  tlic  special  ti-adition>  concerning  Ambrose 
-Mei'ddin  )-e]»resent  as  tlu,'  per])etuatoi-s  of  these  wlien  they  lia<l 
lieen  aliandoneil  liy  the  i-e.-t  of  the  world.  It  is  probaMe  that 
Janiies    was   also  a    llittite,    i'oi-  .losephus    mentions    .lamias    or 

'     <  i.|>-M\,  X.  lOO,  XV.  L'l-J. 

"•'    J  S;iin.  wiii.  lis,  L".i  ;    1  ('hi'.n.  xi.  'AO. 


44  THE   HITTITES. 

Janias  as  a  Hycsos  king  who  reigned  after  Apophis  or  Jabez, 
These  Hittite  sorcerers  must  have  come  from  some  country  out- 
side of  Egypt  to  the  court  of  Rameses,  so  that  there  meiy  be  some 
truth  in  the  rabbinical  stories  which  associate  them  with  Balaam 
or  his  family,  for  he  flourished  forty  years  later,  inasmuch  as 
Balaam's  father  bore  the  Hittite  name  Beor.  That  false  prophet 
came  from  Pethor,  a  Hittite  city,  as  the  Assyrian  monuments  tell, 
which  was  situated  by  the  river  of  the  land  of  Ben  Ammi  or 
Ammon,  not  the  land  of  the  children  of  his  people,  as  our  English 
version  has  it.  It  is  more  than  likely  that  the  two  magicians 
were  princely  hostages  at  Pharaoh's  court,  for  it  was  the  custom 
of  the  two  Rameses  to  take  the  sons  of  the  conquei-ed  kings  as 
hostages,  and  such  seems  to  have  been  the  position  of  Ambrose 
at  the  court  of  Vortigern.  In  comparing  the  Indian  story  of 
Jarashanda,  king  of  Magadha,  with  the  accounts  of  Thothmes' 
battle  of  Megiddoand  Rameses'  siege  and  battle  of  Kadesh,  many 
coincidences  present  themselves.  In  the  latter  especially,  men- 
tion is  made  of  the  drowning  of  two  Hittite  chiefs  of  Khilbu  and 
Tonira,  and  in  Jarashandha's  story  the  chiefs  thus  perishing  are 
Hamsa  and  Dimbika.  Hamsa  recalls  the  Netophathite  Hamshe, 
son  of  Nahrai,  and  although  he  cannot  be  the  same  person,  the 
family  name  may  denote  a  later  Netophathite,  whose  son  Jambres 
may  have  been.  In  the  Greek  story  of  Amphiaraus  he  is  said  to 
have  been  swallowed  up  in  an  opening  of  the  ground  made  by 
Jove  to  receive  his  favorite  pro{)het.  The  Red  Sea  formed  the 
opening  that  engulfed  the  water  dweller.  British  tradition  has 
preserved  a  confused  account  of  the  plagues  of  Egypt  in  the  story 
that  it  rained  blood  for  three  days,  and  vast  swarms  of  flies 
appeared,  followed  by  frightful  mortality  among  the  people,  in 
the  reign  of  Rivallo,  son  of  Cunedagius,  for  Cunedagius  is  the 
Greek  Sandochus,  father  of  Cinyras,  and  Rivallo  is  Rephah  the 
legitimate  son  of  Beriah,  who  as  a  resurrected  Adonis,  followed 
Uzzen  Sherah  on  the  throne  of  Egypt. ^^ 

The  women  who  mourned  one  day  for  Adonis  with  their 
coffins  before  every  door,  and  their  little  gardens  that  they  cast 
into  the  sea,  on  the  next  rejoiced,  because  Adonis  was  found.  So 
Gagawitz  threw  himself  into  the  crater  and  saved  the  Cachiquels, 


^-   Geoffrey's  British  History. 


THE   HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  45 

but  after  a  time  came  forth  a  living  man  once  more.  Some  say- 
that  the  Pharaoh  of  the  Exodus,  this  Achencheres,  did  not  perish. 
There  is,  however,  no  record  of  him  after  the  twelfth  year  of  his 
reign.  Tabari  says  he  repented  in  the  depths  and  cried,  "  I  believe 
in  the  God  of  Israel."  But  he  believed  too  late,  and  sank 
beneath  the  wave  that  overwhelmed  his  host.  It  was  a  terrible 
calamity  for  Egypt,  but  a  boon  to  one  man,  and  that  was  the  dis- 
inherited Rephah.  "  The  King  is  dead  :  long  live  the  King,"  was 
the  hail  that  greeted  him  who  had  seen  no  hope  of  sitting,  the 
rightful  heir,  upon  the  throne  of  the  Pharaohs.  The  accession  of 
Rephah  may  be  taken  to  represent  the  finding  of  Adonis,  for 
Herodotus,  who  calls  him  Rhanipsinitus,  says  that  he  descended 
to  Hades,  and  there  oambled  with  Ceres,  alternatelv  winning;  and 
losing,  and  that  on  his  return  to  the  region  of  the  liviijg  he 
brought  back  a  golden  napkin.''^  The  Egyptians  also  instituted  a 
festival  in  honor  of  his  return.  Herodotus  describes  part  of  the 
ceremony  attending  this  festival  as  the  blindfolding  a  priest  hy 
his  fellows,  who  led  him  out  of  Memphis  and  left  him  to  find  his 
way  to  the  temple  of  Ceres,  twenty  furlongs  distant,  his  journey 
thither  and  back  again  being  accomplished  by  the  aid  of  two 
wolves.  Rhanipsinitus  was  no  conqueror  but  the  possessor  of 
vast  wealth,  in  connection  with  which  an  almost  world-wide  story 
is  told.  The  nameless  ai'cliitect  of  the  king's  treasury,  wishing  to 
make  free  with  its  contents,  placed  a  stone  in  the  outside  wall  in 
such  a  way  that  it  could  easily  be  removed  by  anyone  knowing 
the  secret,  and,  dying  befoi-e  he  was  able  to  avail  himself  of  his 
act,  communicated  the  knowledge  of  it  to  his  sons.  By  this  means 
they  plundererl  the  treasury,  which  when  the  king  pei'ceived  he 
had  traps  set,  and  in  one  of  them  caught  one  of  the  brothers. 
But  the  other  at  his  bi-othei-'s  re(iuest  had  cut  oil'  his  head,  so 
that  the  body  ctaild  not  he  recognized.  Tlie  king  eauscil  the 
bc^ly  to  \)^^  hung  on  the  ])alace  wall  under  guard,  in  hope  that  some 
relative  of  the  di-ad  man  would  bf  leil  to  an  exliiliition  of  sori'oNV 
]>v  til*'  sight  of  it.  Mo\cd  liy  his  motliei's  entreaties  the  sur\iv- 
iii'<-  i-ohlicr,  disguiseil  as  a  \\'ine  seller,  dro\e  some  asses  laden  with 
wine-skins  past  tin;  palace,  when,  as  if  l)y  accident,  one  of  the 
skins   hurst,  and    the  wine    hfgan    to   escape.      The   guai'ds    heing 

i      llin..l..t.,  ii.    12L'. 


46  THE    HITTITES. 

furnished  with  drinking-  vessels,  caught  the  spilling  wine,  and  at 
length  the  robber  left  them  in  a  drunken  sleep,  at  the  same  time 
carrying  off  his  brother's  body.  The  amazed  king  set  his  daugh- 
ter to  catch  the  thief,  but  he  left  a  dead  man's  arm,  that  he  had  fas- 
tened under  his  cloak,  in  her  hands,  and  fled.  Then  Rhampsinitus 
admiring  the  man's  cleverness,  offered  publicly  a  reward  if  he 
would  reveal  himself.  He  came  and  received  the  king's  daughter 
in  mari'iage,  for  he  excelled  the  Egyptians,  who  excelled  all  the 
rest  of  the  world  in  wisdom. ^^ 

The  Greek  counterpart  of  this  le^i:end  is  told  by  Pausanias 
Agamedes  and  Trophonius,  sons  of  Erginus,  descended  from 
Phrj'xus,  were  the  architects  of  the  treasury  of  Hyrieus,  king  of 
Arcadia.  They  inserted  the  removable  stone  and  plundered  the 
treasury.  Hyrieus,  however,  caught  Agamedes  in  a  trap,  but 
Trophonius,  fearing  detection,  cut  ofl"  his  brother's  head.  After- 
wards he  was  swallowed  up  by  an  opening  of  the  earth  in  the 
grove  of  Lebadea.^^  Sir  George  Cox  has  set  forth  the  identity  of 
these  stories  with  the  Gaelic  tale  of  The  Shifty  Lad  and  the 
Indian  story  of  Gata  and  Karpara.^^  Karpara  made  a  hole  in  the 
king's  treasury,  which  contained  the  monarch's  daughter  as  well 
as  his  riches,  but,  staying  too  long  in  the  room  to  which  he  had 
thus  gained  access,  was  caught  and  hanged.  His  body  was  then 
exposed  in  order  to  catch  his  confederate,  but  Gata  outwitted  the 
guards,  gained  his  brother's  remains,  which  he  burned,  and  carried 
oft'  the  princess  to  another  country.  Ajamidha  of  Sanscrit  myth- 
ology, who  should  answer  to  the  Greek  Agamedes,  is  a  descend- 
ant of  Bharata,  his  father  being  Suhotra,  and  his  grandfathei" 
Bhumanyu,  while  his  sons  Jahnu,  Yrajana  and  Rupin  became 
heads  of  the  Kusikas.^'  Here  Yrajana  is  Erginus,  Vnit  he  is  also 
the  Pandu  Arjuna ;  and  his  ancestor  Bhumanyu  is  Bhima  or 
Bhimasena,  another  Pandu,  the  trio  being  completed  by  Yudish- 
thira,  of  v\^hose  name  Suhotra  is  a  variation.  But  Bhumanyu  or 
Bhima  is  the  Persian  Behmen,  the  Yohumano  of  the  Zend  Avesta, 
and  he  is  the   Beerothite   Amnon,  son   of   Shimon.     Bhima  was 


-^  Heroddt.,  ii.  121. 

'■•''  Pausania.s,  ix.  37. 

•■>^  Aryan  Mythology,  i.  115. 

■•'  Muir's  Sanscrit  Texts,  i.  3G0,  &c. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  47 

caught  in  the  folds  of  the  serpent  Nahusha,  but  released  through 
the  mediation  of  Yudishthira.  These  plunderers  of  the  treasures 
of  Rephah  are,  therefore,  descendants  of  Amnon,  the  Beerothite, 
whose  son  was  Shemida  or  Sheniidag,  the  Agaraedes  of  the  story 
and  the  Sanscrit  Ajaniidha,  and  his  sons  were  Achian,  Shecheni, 
Likchi  and  Anigam.^^  Thus  the  family  of  Beeroth  is  carried 
down  two  generations  later,  and  a  Hittite  Shechem  is  associated 
with  Baal  Berith  instead  of  a  Horite  of  that  name.  While  Ahian 
is  the  Sanscrit  Jahnu,  his  brother  Likchi  is  the  Sanscrit  Riksha, 
wdio  is  Jahnu's  brother.  As  for  Erginus,  he  has  no  direct  con- 
nection with  the  other  persons  named,  but  as  denoting  Rakem, 
the  Gileadite,  he  i-epresents  the  alliance  between  the  Beerothitcs 
and  Gileadites  constituted  by  the  marriage  of  Shimon  to  Bedan's 
daughter  Taia.  The  Greek  story  viewed  Shemidah  from  the 
standpoint  of  the  Gileadite  genealogy,  deriving  him  from  Erginus 
of  Clymenus  of  Phryxus,  or  Rakem  of  Ulam  of  Peresh.  The 
Sanscrit  accounts  of  Ajamidha,  whom  they  also  call  Sumantu  and 
Asvamedha,  associate  him  always  with  Bharata. 

In  western  migration  the  Beerothite  familj-  appears  as  an  ele- 
ment in  the  population  of  eastern  Sicily,  wliile  the  Gileadites  of 
Rakem  occupied  the  north-western  part  of  that  island.  The 
Beerothites  are  there  associated  with  tlie  Palici,  whose  leader 
Ducetius  shows  them  to  have  been  the  Tsocliethite  descendants 
of  Belao-  the  Ethnanite,  the  latter  name  o-ivino-  the  orioinal  of  the 
volcanic  mountain  yEtna.  But  Adranus  and  Amenanus  are  made 
•fathers  of  these  Palici,  and  Symucthus  and  Enna  and  Eii^yum 
are  connected  with  them,  setting  forth  Hadar,  Annion,  Shemidah, 
Ahian  and  Anigam.  Tlie  Hittite  occupation  of  Sicilv  v.-ould 
require  a  monograph  of  no  small  extent,  so  that  it  can  but  be 
nienti<jned  in  tiiese  pages.  Pkcti-acing  our  steps  to  the  scene  of 
history  contemporaiy  with  the  l\enite  record,  we  tiiid  a  kingdom 
of  Amnaiiu  in  Chaldea  connected  with  l^i'ukh  oi-  W'ai'ka  in 
ancient  tinu-s,  whieli  Assurbaiiijial  in  later  da\'s  places  in  Elam 
as  l)nr  Amnani.''"  Anienainis,  Aninann,  Amnani  ai'e  rare  i'orms 
in  niytliologic;il  ;ind  geo<_;i'ajihieal  nomenclature,  tlu'  tendency 
bi-ini;-  to  dro]i    the    i-rdn])licate    ii.      The  ancient  Amnanu  is  men- 


'"      1    Cillntl.    \ii.     I'.t. 

■-'    Pi.-ca'i-  ..f  tli.-  l';i-t.  iii.   1' 


48  THE   HITTITES, 

tioned  by  a  King  Sin-Gasit,  whom  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson  calls 
Sinsada.  His  inscriptions,  one  of  which  is  but  partially  inter- 
preted, are  as  follow  : 

1.  "  Sin-Gasit,  son  of  Belat-Sunat 

King  of  Uruk,  builder  of  Bit- Anna." 

2.  "  Sin-Gasit,  the  powerful  man,  king  of  Uruk 

King  of  Amnanu,  the  palace  of  his  royalty  built." 

3.  "  To  Sarturda,  his  god, 

and  Belat-Sunat  his  mother, 

Sin-Gasit,  King  of  Uruk,  King  of  Amnanu, 

nourisher  of  Bit- Anna,  who  Bit- Anna  built, 

Bit-Kirib,  Bit-Kiba  lib  tulla  kanene, 

he  built  for  the  prolonging  of  his  kingdom, 

he  built  18  segur  12  manehs  of  duJda 

10  manehs  of  bronze  asni,  the  house, 

silver  like  a  mountain,  one  shekel  of 

silver     ....     its  name  he  called, 

giving  delight  and  pleasure."  ^'^ 
Looking  for  other  kings  of  Uruk,  thi'ough  whom  Sin-Gasit 
and  his  mother  Belat-Sunat  may  connect  with  the  Beerothite 
family,  those  named  Ismi-dagan  and  Gungunu  present  themselves- 
In  Greek,  Shemidah  or  Shemidag  is  Agamedes,  in  Sanscrit 
Ajamidha,  hence  one  expects  to  meet  a  cuneiform  Ismidag  as  its 
ecjuivalent,  for  the  languages  of  the  cuneiform  inscriptions 
strongly  aspirate  the  letter  ayin,  making  Lagamar  of  Laomer 
and  Laguda  of  Laadah.  The  final  an  of  Ismi-dagan  has  been  added 
to  the  original  name  to  give  it  significance  as  "  Dagon  hears."  It 
is  likely  that  Gungunu  is  a  reduplicate  form  of  Ahian  as  Achian- 
which  the  Sanscrit  better  renders  as  Jabnu  and  the  Greek  as/Egina. 
Ismi-dagan  is  ]-eferred  to  by  Tiglath  Pileser  I.,  who  says  :  "  Bit- 
Khamri,  the  temple  of  my  lord  Vul,  which  Shansi-Vul,  high  priest 
of  Ashur,  son  of  Ismi-dagan,  high  priest  of  Ashur,  had  founded. 
l)ecame  ruined."  He  also  mentions  "  Shamsi-Vul,  my  ancestor."'  *^^ 
All  inscription  of  Ismi-dagan  reads  : 

"  Ismi-dagan,  nourisher  of  Nipur, 

the  supreme  over  Ur,  the  light  of  Eridu, 

'■■"    Records  of  the  Past,  iii.  18. 
';i    Records  of  the  Past.  v.  2.S,  24. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  49 

Lord  of  Uruk,  the  powerful  king, 
King  of  Karrak,  King  of  Sumir  and  Akkad, 
the  relative,  the  delight  of  Nana." 
Gungunu's  two  inscriptions  follow  : 

1.  "To  Sainas,  the  ruler  hula  Ur, 

leader  of  Bit-Nirkinugal,  Ningal  ra  tiula  his  kings 

for  the  preservation  of  Gungunu,  the  powerful  man, 

King  of  Ur,  for  the  establishing  of  Anu, 

for  the  restoring  of  Ur,  for  Ur  within  Ur, 

the  son  of  Isini-dagan,  King  of  Sumir  and  Akkad, 

Bit-Hiliani  built,  Bit-Ginablungani  built, 

for  his  preservation  he  built." 

2.  "  For  the  establishing  of  Anu, 

for  the  delight  of  Ur,  for  Ur  within  Ur, 
The  son  of  Ismi-dagan,  King  of  Sumir  and  Akkad."  ''^ 
Isini-dagan  as  noui'isher  of  Nipur  exhibits  liis  descent  in  the 
line  of  Hepher,  and  as  the  light  of  Eridu  or  Jered  of  the  same 
family,  confirms  the  relationship.  Uruk  and  Karrak,  however, 
can  only  have  been  his  through  the  con(|uests  of  his  ancestors, 
and  in  no  other  way  can  he  have  been  King  of  Akkad,  since  the 
Akkadians  were  Chaldean  Jachdaites.  But  his  rule  over  Sumir 
or  Ziinri  miirht  come  in  a  legitimate  way  throuo-h  the  mari-iao-e  of 
his  grandfather  Shimon  to  the  Zinu'ite  Taia,  daughter  of  Bedan, 
the  Greek  Laomedon.  In  a  list  of  so  called  Cassitc  Kings  of 
Babylonia,  several  Etirus  appear  among  the  Ulams  and  Buryases 
who  represent  the  Ziuu-ite  names  Peresh  and  Ulam.^^  The  un- 
translated Tuda  of  Gungunu's  first  inscription  recalls  the  Egyp- 
tian Teta  as  a  name  of  Hadad.  together  with  the  Assyro-llittite 
Dadi  and  the  Graeco-Phoenician  Adodus.  king  of  the  gcnls,  denot- 
iiiir  the  same  ancestral  hero.  But  how  came  Ismi-dacran  or  Shemi- 
dag  to  be  as  Agamedes  the  plunderei"  of  the  trcasuiy  of  Rliam])si- 
iiitus  '  The;  story  cannot  be  taken  literally,  for.  although  princes 
Wfr<'  often  tlie  superintendents  of  great  constructions  in  Egypt, 
tli'-re  is  no  e\idence  that  Slieniidah  was  such,  nor  is  it  likely  that 
(jCcupyiuLT  such  a   pitsition,   he   would   ha\c   liecn  foun<l  guilty   of 

■•'     [;■  (-..mI-  .,f  tli<-   l':i>t,  lii.  11. 

'       I'n.r-.  S.  c.    r,il,.   Arch: 1..  .Ian,  II.  ISSl.  p.    II. 


50  THE   HITTITES. 

robbery.     His  family  was  one  of  great  builders,  and  his  grand- 
father Shimon  specially  excelled  in  the  execution  of  magnificent 
architectural  designs.     In  this  way  the  Beerothite  line  came  to 
be  identified  with  architecture  and  architects.     But  Shimon  and 
his  father  Hadar  had  been  the  buildei's  of  the  Pharaonic  empire, 
ruled  over  by  the  second  and  third  Rameses,  and  in  it  they  had 
left  themselves  a  corner,  extending  probably  from  the  point  of 
the  Sinaitic  peninsula  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Kudurs  in  Edom, 
and    this   must  have   been  the  loose  stone   through  which  their 
descendant  Shemidah  was  able  to  take  to  himself  some  of  Egypt's 
treasures.     The  #name  Shemidag,  with  the  prefix  of  the  Coptic 
article,  formed  the  Egyptian  Psametik  which  the  Greeks  called 
Psammeticus,  a   name   early   known   in   Egypt,   for  a  Psametik 
Munx  was  a  priest  of  Cheops.^^     To   Shemidag  as  a  descendant 
of  Saul,  the  Persian  Zaul,  the  story  of  Rodabeh  properly  belongs, 
instead  of  to  that  ancestor,  for  the  Greek   story   of   Cinderella 
unites  Rhodopis  and  Psammetichus.      In  Persian  story,  she  is  the 
daughter  of  Mihrab,  a  Greek  Merops  or  Rapha,  and  it  seems  pro- 
bable that  Shemidah  did  effect  an  alliance  with  the  line  of  Ham- 
murabbi,  whom   his  confederate   Trophonius   of  Lebadea  would 
denote.     This  early  Psammetichus  unhappily  finds  no  mention  in 
the  obscure  annals  of  Egypt  for  the  period  immediately  following 
the  Exodus. 

Greek  tradition  calls  Shemidag  by  the  name  Thymoetes,  the 
last  of  tl;e  line  of  Theseus  and  the  son  of  Oxynias,  which  latter 
name  may  denote  his  grandfather  Shimon.  He  is  called  the  King 
of  Athens,  and  it  is  said  that,  on  his  refusal  to  meet  the  Thelmn 
Xanthus  in  single  combat,  the  Athenians  l)anished  him.  But  a 
narration  of  Conon  represents  two  sons  of  Hector,  who  ha;l  been 
banished  to  L^'dia,  returning  to  the  Troad  and  taking  possession 
of  Mount  Ida,  where  Eneas  the  son  of  Anchises  dwelt,  and  drivincj 
that  hero  out.  These  sons  of  Hector  were  named  Oxynius  and 
Scamander.  Conon  saj^s  they  regarded  the  country  about  Ida  as 
their  patrimony.^'-''  The  original  Ida  was  Edom  an<l  the  Llumcan 
mountain  range,  and  the  Idaei  Dacytli  who  inhal)ite(l  it  iiiny  be 
easily  recognized  as  the  Edomites  of  Joktheel.      After  the  time  of 

•t    Li.-M..in.  K.'ch.Tch.'s,  17. 
«   r,,i,..ii,  46. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    EGYPT.  51 

the  Argive  Tisamenus,  whom  the  Heraclidaj  are  said  to  have  over- 
thrown, the  story  of  the  line  of  Shimon  becomes  shadowy, 
Shemidah  is  represented  by  Cometes,  called  a  sou  of  Tisamenus, 
instead  of  his  grandson  through  Amnon,  but  he  is  said  to  have 
passed  into  Asia,  and  that  is  all  recorded  concerning  him.  It 
seems,  however,  that  Amnon  or  his  son  left  Egypt  and  established 
himself  in  Hadar's  realm  of  Gebalene,  or  in  that  portion  of  it  un- 
occupied by  the  Amorites  and  Moabites,  and  afterwards  extended 
his  empire  over  part  of  the  basin  of  the  Euphrates.  Thus  he 
would  be  the  chief  competitor  with  the  Egyptian  monarch  for 
the  empire  of  the  civilized  world.  His  possession  of  Arabia 
Patraea,  in  which  during  the  wandei'ings  of  Israel,  Kenites  and 
Amalekites,  alike  subject  to  him,  dwelt,  gave  him  a  free  passage 
to  the  Egyptian  border  on  the  east,  and  it  is  very  probable  that 
he  made  efforts  to  regain  the  sovereignty  of  the  Nile  valley  in 
which  his  ancestors  had  left  enduring  memorials.  M.  Lenormant 
thought  the  Eg^-ptian  monuments  atford  proof  that  Assyria  and 
Mesopotamia  recognized  Egyptian  suzerainty  down  to  the  second 
half  of  the  twelfth  century  B.C.  That  some  quarrelsomeHittite 
or  Amorite  king  in  these  regions  may  have  flattered  Pharaoh's 
vanity  by  presents  and  a  nominal  recognition  of  his  greatness  in 
order  to  gain  assistance  against  the  arms  of  his  fellows  is  not 
unlikely,  but  that  the  Egyptian  arms  penetrated  these  countries, 
or  that  there  was  any  real  submission  of  them  to  the  crown  of 
Memphis,  is  doubtful  in  the  extreme.  The  Egyptian  title  was  of 
e([ual  value  with  that  of  the  kings  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland 
to  France,  and  of  those  of  Austria  to  Jerusalem. 

The  name  of  Achian  son  of  Shemidah  was  given  to  tlie  island 
Efina.  Two  thinffs  attest  this:  the  name  of  Myrmidons  o-iven 
to  its  inhabitants,  and  the  worship  of  Diana  under  the  title  Brito- 
niart.  The  word  Myrmidon  has  already  been  found  to  designate 
the  followers  of  Achilles  or  Saul  of  Rchobotli.  and  to  have  arisen 
(jut  of  a  union  of  that  licrcj  (jr  his  fatlu-r  with  Miriam  of  the 
faniih'  of  Ezra,  the  S(,'inifaniis  of  tradition.  In  Hrit(»niart,  also 
called  Dictynna.  a  Tsochcth  like  name,  the  t'eminine  counterpai't 
of  IJaal  Herith  of  Shecheni  appeal's,  and  that  Slu'ehem  is  the 
secon<l  son  of  Shemidah,  Achian  being  the  first.  In  an  ancient 
in\-ocation,  supp(jsei|   to   be   in    Hebrew,  but   really    in   the    Il>ei-ie 


52  THE    HITTITES. 

language,  the  Efrai  of  Taliesin,  that  bard  mentions  Britomart  as 
Brith,  who  is  the  Brid  or  Bridget  of  Irish  mythology,  and  calls 
Baal  Berith  her  brother,  as  if  she  were  the  better  known  of  the 
two.     The  invocation  is  translatable  by  the  Basque  language. 

"  O  Brithi,  Brith  oi  O  Brithi,  companion  of  Brith, 

Nu  oes,  nu  edi  Give  heed  to  me,  hear  me  ; 

Brithi  Brith  anhai  Brithi,  brother  of  Brith, 

Sych  edi,  edi  eu  roi."  Do  thou  hear,  hear  this  measure.^ 

But  in  the  line  of  Saum  and  Zaul  the  Persian  historians  place, 
although  with  no  regard  to  chronology,  their  great  hero  Rustam, 
and  he  is  the  Chushan  Jlishathaim  of  the  book  of  Judges,  who 
became  the  iirst  enslaver  of  Israel  in  the  land  of  Canaan.  This 
Eishathaim  or  Rustam  is  the  Aristomenes  of  Messenia,  who, 
according  to  Pausanias,  was  made  as  great  a  hero  in  the  Messenic 
war  of  the  poet  Rhianus  Benaeus  as  Achilles  is  in  the  Iliad. 
The  name  of  the  poet  Rhianus  recalls  that  of  Rinnah,  a  son  of 
Shimon,  and  Benaeus  may  be  the  Beerothite  name  Baanah  ;  but 
the  tradition  that  Aristomenes  descended  from  Pyrrhus  the  son 
of  Achilles,  links  him  with  the  Beei'othite  family.  It  is  remark- 
able that  this  family  should  be  celebrated  in  so  many  epics, 
Hadad  Vjeing  the  hero  of  the  Indian  Mahabharata,  Saul  of  the 
Greek  Iliad,  Hadar  of  the  Welsh  Gododin,  and  Rishathaim  of  the 
Persian  Shah  Nameh  and  the  Greek  Messeniacs.  There  must 
have  been  great  chivalry  and  w^arlike  powers  in  a  race  that  so 
many  widely  separated  poets  united  to  honour  in  their  verse. 
In  the  Hindoo  genealogies  Rishathaim  appears  as  Rishtishena  or 
Arshtishena,  a  descendant  of  Jahnu.  Unhappily  the  Greek  tra- 
ditions Eginetan  and  Messenian,  and  the  Indian,  furnish  no 
definite  information  concerning  Shemidah  and  his  sons.  The 
Mahabharata  represents  their  time  as  one  of  strife  and  of  humili- 
ation for  the  Beerothites.  "  And  the  hosts  of  their  enemies  also 
smote  the  Bharatas.  Shaking  the  earth  with  an  army  of  four 
kinds  of  forces,  the  Panchalya  chief  assailed  him  (Samvarana,  son 
of  Jahnu's  brother  Rikslia),  having  rapidly  conquered  the  earth, 
and  vancjuisheil  him  with  ten  complete  hosts.  Then  King  Sam- 
varana with  his  wives,  ministers,  sons  and  friends,  fled  from  tha^ 

"■    Davit's"  Diuids. 


THE    HITTIIES    IN    EGYPT.  53 

great  cause  of  alarm  ;  and  dwelt  in  the  thickets  of  the  great  river 
Sindhu,  in  the  country  bordering  on  the  stream  and  near  a 
mountain.  There  the  Bharatas  abode  for  a  longr  time,  takincj 
refuge  in  a  fortress.  As  thev  were  dwellinof  there  for  a  thousand 
years,  the  venerable  rishi  Vasishtha  came  to  them.  Going  out  to 
meet  him  on  his  arrival,  and  making  obeisance,  the  Bharatas  all 
presented  him  with  the  arghya  offering,  showing  every  honour  to 
the  glorious  rishi.  When  he  was  seated  the  king  himself 
(Samvarana)  solicited  him,  '  Be  thou  our  priest ;  let  us  strive  to 
retjain  mv  kingdom.'  Vasishtha  consented  to  attach  himself  to 
the  Bharatas,  and,  as  we  have  heard,  invested  the  descendant  of 
Puru  with  the  .sovereignty  of  the  entire  Kshattriya  race  to  be  a 
horn  over  the  whole  earth.  He  occupied  the  splendid  city  for- 
merly inhabited  by  Bharata,  an<l  made  all  kings  again  tributary 
to  himself."  ''' 

The  fragments  of  early  Chaldean  history  preserved  by 
Berosus  mark  the  advent  of  the  Beerothite  family  to  the  lower 
waters  of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  as  one  of  the  most  important 
events  in  the  history  of  that  region,  but  like  the  Sanscrit  writers 
he  confounds  it  with  the  stovy  of  the  flood  of  Xisuthrus  or 
Satyavrata,  thus  giving  to  it  an  absurd  anticjuity.  In  the  time 
of  Ammenon,  the  Chaldean,  says  Berosus,  appeared  the  Musarus 
Cannes,  the  Annedotus  from  the  Eiythraean  sea,  whose  shape 
was  that  of  a  fish  blended  witli  that  of  a  man,  and  afterwards 
from  the  same  region  came  another  being  of  similar  form  named 
Cdacoi).  This  fish  man  ocetu's  ire»iuently  in  Assyrian  sculj)tui'es, 
as  at  Ivhorsabad  and  Nimroud,  sometimes  as  a  complete  human 
figun?  in  a  stan<ling  position  wrapt  about  with  fishy  emblems,  at 
others  as  a  composite  figure  swimming  in  the  sea/'-  The  se(juence 
of  the  Kt-nite  Anuion,  Shemidag.  an<l  Ahian  as  ilhistrated  by  the 
monumental  Anuianu,  Ismi-dag.-in  and  (lungumi.  and  the  legen- 
dary Annnenon.  Dagon.  and  (Jannes,  ])lainly  connects  the  ti'adi - 
tions  of  thf  latter  with  tlir  tinu  when  the  IJeerothite  family 
remov(Ml  ciut  of  l^gypt  into  llabylc^nia.  This  being  the  case,  a 
])lac<;  is  found  foi-  the  Indian  Vishnu,  who  ispi-oxcd  the  same  j^er- 


.Miiir's  .S.-ui.scril  T^xts,  i.  .'{(il. 
IV.ii..iiil^  Xiii.'vrli,  :iL".l.  it;s. 


54  THE    HITTITES. 

son  as  Jahnu  of  the  Bharatan  genealogy.**^  As  Manu  Satyavrata 
was  offering  a  libation  by  the  ri^er,  a  Saphari  fish  came  into  his 
hands,  and  Ijesought  him  not  to  cast  it  back  to  the  monsters 
which  devoured  their  kindred  in  that  stream.  The  sage  placed 
the  fish  in  a  water  pot,  but  it  was  soon  too  large  for  that ;  then 
he  transferred  it  to  larger  vessels,  to  a  pond,  to  lakes  of  various 
dimensions  ;  but  these  were  all  too  small  for  the  growing  fish, 
which  at  last  filled  the  sea,  when  Manu  recognized  it  as  an  incar- 
nation of  Vishnu,  and  paid  homage  to  the  god.  This  is  but  a 
form  of  the  story  of  the  dwarf  incarnation  in  which  Vishnu  as 
the  dwarf  Hari  easily  got  from  Bali  the  right  to  as  much  ground 
as  he  could  cover  in  three  strides,  whereupon  he  assumed  his  true 
form,  and  stepping  out  took  possession  of  the  world. ''^  These 
legends  agree  with  other  fragments  of  the  Beerothite  history  of 
the  period  subsequent  to  the  Exodus  of  Israel,  in  showing  the 
feeble  state  of  that  race,  its  protection  in  this  condition  by  the 
dominant  powers,  Egyptian  and  Cymro-Hittite,  also  perhaps  by 
Amorites  and  Moabites,  and  its  rapid  expansion,  by  virtue  of  the 
military  skill  and  prowess  that  distinguished  its  leaders,  into  the 
ruling  nation  of  the  east.  All  the  fish  stories,  which  embrace 
Atargatis  or  Derceto,  Semiramis,  Adad,  and  Oannes  or  Vishnu, 
have  grown  out  of  the  final  dag  of  Sheinidag's  name,  which  in 
some  Semitic  tongues  denotes  a  fish  ecjually  with  min.~^  Some  of 
the  Khitan  languages  have  preserved  this  word,  such  as  the 
Yeniseian,  which  call  a  fish  tig,  tyk,  apparently  the  same  as  the 
Lesghian  tsJtua,  Circassian  tzey,  and  Georgian  tsliekomi,  but 
others  have  changed  the  initial  d  to  /'  or  I,  as  the  Circassian  in 
arge,  the  Basque  in  arraga  and  the  Yukahirian  in  olloga.  In 
British  mythology  Ahian  is  Gwion  the  little.  Ceridwen  kept 
him  to  tend  her  magic  cauldron,  and  one  day  when  she  was  out 
collecting  herbs  for  it,  by  some  accident  three  drops  of  the  caul- 
dron's contents  fell  on  her  servitor's   finL>'ers.     The  heat  of   the 


'''^  There  is  confusion  in  Chaldean  and  Indian  tradition  of  the  Japhetic  or  .Terah- 
meelite  line  of  Onam, whence  (Cannes,  with  that  of  Sheniidah, arising  out  of  the  fact  that 
Onani's  two  sons  were  Shammai  and  .Tada  or  Yadag.     The  latter  is  the  original  Dag, 

man  fish,  or  Daguii,  and  the  Chaldean  story  is  that  of  an    early  Aryan  culture  in  his 
line. 

'"    Mtiir's  Sanscrit  Texts,  i.  205,  sei]. 

''    See  note  ()9,  however. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    EGYPT.  55 

water  made  hiin  put  his  fingers  into  his  mouth,  when  immediately 
the  future  was  revealed  to  him,  and  he  saw  that  unless  he 
escaped  from  Ceridwen,  his  life  was  in  danger.  "  With  extreme 
terror  he  fied  towards  his  native  country."  On  Cerid wen's 
return  she  saw  that  her  whole  year's  labour  was  lost.  "  It  is 
Gwion  the  little  who  has  robbed  me,"  she  cried,  and  flew  in  pursuit 
of  him.  Afraid  of  being  overtaken,  Gwion  changed  himself  into 
a  hare,  but  she  became  a  greyhound  and  ran  him  down  to  the 
river  :  then  he  became  a  fish,  while  she  as  an  otter  swam  after 
him.  Next  he  was  a  bird  and  she  a  hawk,  and  at  last  in  despair 
he  metamorphosed  himself  into  a  single  grain  in  a  pile  of  wheat  '■> 
but  as  a  black  high-crested  hen  she  scratched  him  out  and  de- 
voured him.  Yet  even  thus  he  triumphed,  for  he  was  born  to 
her  as  a  child  so  lovely  that  she  had  no  heart  to  kill  him  ;  but,  un- 
willing to  keep  the  thief,  she  laid  him  in  the  well  worn  coracle 
and  sent  him  oft'  to  sea."-  It  is  not  easy  to  understand  the  whole 
of  this  allegory,  but  the  gist  of  it  is  that  the  Beerothites,  who, 
during  their  residence  in  Egypt  from  the  time  of  Hadad,  the  first 
Osortasen,  down  to  that  of  Shimon  the  third  Amenhotep,  had  be- 
come versed  in  all  the  wisdom  and  science  of  the  Egyptians 
carried  away  this  knowledge  to  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates  con- 
ti'ar}^  to  the  desire  of  the  Pharaohs.  Taking  advantage  of 
Egypt's  weakness  after  the  Red  Sea  overthrow,  Shcniidah,  or  it 
may  be  his  father  Annion,  led  a  Beerothite  exodus,  which  robbed 
the  Nile  valley  of  its  bravest  defenders  and  most  skilful  woi'k- 
men,  and  established  a  rival  civilization  in  the  east.  That  Amnon 
sat  upon  a  Chaldean  throne  there  is  as  yet  no  evidence,  but  his 
son  Sheniidah  called  the  land  after  his  father,  Amnanu,  and  as 
Ismi-dagan  became  the  first  of  a  line  of  oriental  kings,  from 
whom  the  proud  Tiglath  Pileser  did  not  disdain  to  own  himself 
<lescended.  Thus  ends  the  national  life  of  the  Hittitesin  the  land 
of  the  Pharaohs. 

It  is  not  ast(jiiisliing  tc)  find  all  ovei*  the  wocM  art,  ajijiliniices, 
rites,  and  traditions  that  {)oint  back  to  l"^g}'l)t  as  their  birth  place. 
It  was  not  the  cradle  of  humanity,  but  it  was  the  school  of  the 
nations  into  wliicli   dcsccndtMl,  oi-   into  contact  with  which  I'ame, 

""    I)avii-,-    Drui.is,  L'l.'i,  •22'.K 


56  THE    HITTITES. 

all  civilized  races  and  even  those  that  in  decadence  still  exhibit 
obscure  traces  of  ancient  culture,  within  a  brief  space  of  four 
centuries,  centuries  in  many  respects  the  most  eventful  that  the 
world's  progress  has  witnessed.  "  Out  of  Egypt  have  I  called 
my  Son  "  is  true  of  Israel  and  of  the  Messiah  of  the  chosen  people, 
and  it  is  also  true  of  all  earth's  nations/^  There  the  Horite  Phoe- 
nician learned  his  art,  and  acquired  the  training  of  the  merchant ; 
the  Jerahmeelite  Brahman  found  models  for  his  pride,  and 
enriched  himself  with  fancied  sacred  lore  ;  the  Philistine  or  Pelas- 
gian,  ancestor  of  many  peoples,  gained  skill  in  cyclopean  architec- 
ture and  practised  the  arts  of  war  ;  and  the  Zimrite  and  Midianite 
Celt  learned  to  sing  the  songs  of  other  days.  But  among  all  the 
dwellers  in  the  land  of  bondage  there  were  none  that  left  such  an 
impress  as  did  the  sons  of  the  father  of  Tekoa,  the  grandest  archi- 
tects, the  most  skilful  improvers  of  the  cf)untr3''s  resources,  the 
bravest  warriors,  with  the  exception  of  their  Philistine  guards, 
the  greatest  reformers  of  worship  and  morals,  and  the  most  just 
and  paternal  monarchs  whom  Egypt  has  ever  seen.  That  the 
pure  religion  introduced  by  the  Hebrew  captive  Joseph  had  much 
to  do  with  Hittite  excellence  in  Egypt  cannot  be  denied,  but  to 
produce  the  grand  results  which  mark  not  only  the  reign  of  his 
apt  pupil  Aahpeti,  but  those  also  of  all  the  alien  Beerothites, 
from  Hadad  down  to  Shimon,  there  must  liave  been  such  a  capa- 
city for  culture  of  every  kind  in  these  Hittite  monarclis  and 
their  people  as  the  world  has  rarely  beheld.  The  paliny  days  of 
Egypt  were  those  of  the  Amenemes  and  (.)sortasens,  Hittites  all ; 
those  of  tlie  Rameses  were  only  saved  from  total  decline  by  the 
help  of  theij-  descendants.  And  if  there  appeared  in  the  two  en- 
slavers of  Israel  strength  of  will  and  vigor  of  intellect,  it  was 
their  inheritance  from  the  queen  of  the  race  which  they  expatri- 
ated, Matred  the  daughter  of  Mezahab. 


"•'    Hosea  xi.  1  ;  Matthew  ii.  1.5. 


57 


CHAPTER  XI. 

The  Hittites  at  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates. 

We  have  seen  Hittite  monarchy  commencing  with  Ashchur, 
the  father  of  the  race,  at  Cutha  or  Tiggaba,  near  Babylon.  His 
seven  sons,  who  were  as  many  kings,  went  forth  on  a  career  of 
con(juest,  which  in  its  details  there  are  no  materials  to  illustrate. 
Whether  a  spirit  of  adventure  led  them  westward,  or  they  were 
driven  by  the  hostility  of  the  Shemites  or  dissensions  among 
themselves,  four  of  the  tribes  left  the  birth  place  of  their  race, 
and  in  the  fourth  generation  from  Ashchur,  occupied  the  eastern 
bank  of  the  Jordan  and  the  border  land  of  the  Sinaitic  Peninsula 
and  Greater  Arabia.  It  is  probable  that  the  Ethnanites  and 
Temenites  came  to  the  latter  region  across  the  Arabian  Desert,  in 
company  with  the  Jerachmeelites  and  Joktanites,  with  whom,  as 
well  as  with  the  later  Nabateans  and  Midianites,  the  Ai'abian 
writers  associate  them.  The  sons  of  Achuzam  and  Achashtari, 
on  the  other  hand,  must  have  ascended  the  banks  of  the  Euphra- 
tes, and  crossing  the  wide  desert  that  lies  between  it  and  Palmyra, 
have  reached  Damascus,  thence  to  move  southward  into  tlie 
fertile  lands  of  Bashan,  Gilead,  and  Northern  Moab.  Tluee  tribes 
remained  in  part  at  least  in  the  east,  the  child len  of  Hepher, 
Ze)'eth,  and  Zohar.  Simultaneously  the}'  seem  to  have  erected 
three  kingdoms  of  Sippara,  Ellasar,  and  8hinar,  along  the  course 
of  the  Euphrates,  Ijetween  the  unhistorical  Hamitcs  of  tln>  Per- 
sian (lulf  and  the  Arainaeans  of  Noi'thei-n  ]\Iesoj)(jtamia.  A  gen- 
eration had  liardly  passed  when  wai"  took  place  l)etwecn  llai-eph, 
the  son  of  Hepher,  and  tiie  sons  of  Zercth  and  Zohai'.  -The  two 
grandsons  of  Helah  mafic  an  attack  u])on  Naarah's  dt'scciidant 
who  had  marricil  ;i  daughter  of  Manahath,  the  iirst  l''.gyptian 
king,  and  trusting  in  this  union  of  Sij)j)ara  with  .Meiides  an<l 
Zoan.  had  jterhaps  treated  his  cousins  with  new  found  haughti- 
ness. At  any  rate  Ellasar  and  Shinar  ])i-oved  too  stnmg  for  the 
heir  of  Hepher  in  spite  of  his    liorite  alliance.      They  dro\f  him 


58  THE    HITTITES. 

out  of  Sippara  which  the  Zerethites  occupied.  Hareph,  the 
Harphre  of  the  Egyptians,  who  made  him  the  son  of  Month  and 
Ritho,  and  the  Cerpheres  of  Manetho's  third  dynasty,  but  the 
Surippak  of  the  Chaldeans,  was  forced  to  place  the  Shat-el-Arab 
between  him  and  the  sons  of  his  father's  brethren.  On  the  east- 
ern side  of  the  broad  river  he  found  the  Elamites,  a  quiet,  un- 
historical  Semitic  people,  whom  love  of  peace  had  probably  led 
into  the  land  they  called  El  am,  after  their  ancestor.  These  Elam- 
ites furnished  the  basis  of  a  monarchy.  With  offers  of  protec- 
tion, Hareph  bought  their  confidence  and  their  service,  and  free 
from  molestation,  was  able  to  mature  his  plans  of  revenge  on  his 
kinsmen.  In  his  new  home  the  exile  fi'om  Sippara  found  the 
horse,  and  made  use  of  that  animal  as  a  valuable  aid  in  war, 
training  his  subjects  to  horsemanship,  until  Beth  Gader  or  Kanai 
Kidori,  the  beautiful  household,  as  he  named  them,  became  known 
as  the  Gandharas  and  air-piercing  Centaurs,  half  man,  half  horse, 
who  inspired  terror  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  were  unaccustomed 
to  the  novel  sight  of  a  horse  and  his  rider. 

Hai'eph,  who  may  be  the  Urbabi  mentioned  on  an  inscription 
of  Dungi  the  son  of  Urukh,  was  the  father  of  two  famous  sons, 
of  whoDi  Hamath  seems  to  have  been  the  legitimate  heir  to  the 
throne,  as  the  Arabians  called  his  brother  Chedorlaomer  a  man 
of  Thamud.  This  Hamath,  however,  was  put  to  death,  and  from 
the  fact  that  one  of  his  sons  occupied  the  throne  of  Elam,it  would 
appear  that  Chedorlaomer  was  a  usurper  and  perhaps  the  assassin. 
He  was  honoured  as  an  Elamite  god  under  the  name  Sumudu,  as 
was  his  son  Rechab  under  the  title  Ragiba,  and  his  brother  as 
Lagomer.^  But  Laomer  or  Larjomer,  the  Kudur,  did  not  call  him- 
self  by  that  name  on  his  monuments  evidently.  His  mother  was 
tlie  daughter  of  the  great  Manahath,  the  Menes  of  Egypt,  and  he 
adopted  his  maternal  grandfather's  name,  calling  himself  Kudur 
Nanliundi.  To  the  Assyrian  Assurbanipal,  history  is  indebted 
for  a  record  of  this  monarch.     He  says  : 

"  Kudur  Nanhundi  the  Elamite,  who  the  worship 
of  the  great  gods  did  not  fear, 
who  in  an  evil  resolve  to  his  own  force  trusted, 

'     Ilcc'.rds  nf  til.'  ]';ist,  i.  85. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  59 

on  the  temples  of  Akkad  his  hands  he  had  laid, 

and  he  oppressetl  Akkad     .... 

the  days  were  full     .... 

for  2  ner  7  soss  and  15  years  under  the  Elaniites."'- 

This  period  was  1635  years,  at  the  end  of  which  Assurbanipal 
con([uered  Elani  and  brought  back  the  image  of  the  goddess  Nana 
which  Kudur  Nanhundi  had  taken  from  Babylonia.  The  As- 
syrian monarch  was  wrong  in  representing  Chedorlaomer  as  the 
oppressor  of  Akkad  and  the  robber  of  its  temples,  for  as  yet 
Akkad  was  not.  The  worshippers  of  Nana  were  the  Zerethites, 
Urukh  and  his  son  Dungi.  It  was  reserved  for  Chedorlaomer  to 
inflict  upon  Zereth  and  Zohar  the  vengeance  which  his  father 
Hai-eph  had  in  mind  to  visit  upon  those  who  had  expelled  him 
from  Sippara  and  Surippak.  Crossing  the  river  he  fell  upon 
Ariocli.  the  Erichthonius  of  the  Trojan  line,  in  his  cities  of  EUa- 
sar  and  Sippara,  and  made  him  tributary,  A«(.lvancing  north- 
ward he  found  Amraphel.  the  grandson  of  Zoliar,  in  Shinar,  and 
brought  iiim  also  into  subjection.  Where  he  found  the  Goim  who 
named  (ialilee,  is  harder  to  decide.  They  were  the  true  Japhetic 
Achaeans.  who  were  first  named  Aegialeans  or  Galileans,  but  un- 
happily they  have  little  or  no  ancient  history  of  their  own.  It  is 
possible  that  Avchiteles,  son  of  Achaeus.  may  be  a  disguise  of 
Thargal.  but  almost  all  their  prehistoi'ic  names  belong  to  Hittite 
histoiy  in  Canaan  and  Eg^'pt.  Especially  is  their  story  mixed 
up,  through  similarity  of  name,  with  that  of  tlie  Hushamites, 
who  seetn  to  have  occupied  Achaia  before  them,  and  whom 
meeting  as  Ossetes  on  the  Euxine,  the  Greek  geograpliei's  i-e- 
garded  as  an  Achaean  remnant  from  Ti-qjan  days.  They  were  a 
maritime  people  in  Accho  and  Achzib  on  the  Meditci-ranciui  coast, 
which  cities  Ashci-  was  not  able  to  (lc])i-ivf  them  of  wliru  Israi'l 
conquei'ed  Canaan.  Before  reaching  Galilee  they  may  ha\'e  been 
fluxiatile.  and  the  transpoi-ters  of  Chedorlaomei-'s  aiTiiy  up  the 
Euphrates  :  l»ut  this  is  mere  cotijeeture.  takiiiL;-  i'oi-  the  ])i-esent 
the  piac''  lit"  historical  e\i(leiice  which  is  wanting.  The  Goini 
we)-.-  ]»ri)bal)l\'  allits  of  the  I'^lamite  moiiai-ch  rather  than  bis  sub- 
jects, liut  when  he  went  fortli    ujxiii    his  g)-eat  bti'ay,  the  kings  of 

■     I;,.-..i.U  nf  till'  I':i~t,  iii.  S. 


60  THE    HITTITES. 

Ellasar  and  Shinar  accompanied  him  as  vassals,  yet  well  content, 
no  doubt,  to  aid  him  as  the  ravager  of  the  West.  The  details  of 
that  expedition  have  already  been  before  us.  All  that  remains 
to  be  added  is  that  the  presence  of  the  Goim  in  Chedorlaomer's 
armv,  speaking  the  same  Pelasgic  tongue  as  the  Philistines, 
would  hinder  his  attacking  the  Abimelech  of  Gerar  or  being 
attacked  by  his  warlike  host ;  and  that  the  descent  of  the  Elamite 
king  from  Manahath  would  secure  the  neutrality  of  Zaavan, 
his  grandson,  in  whose  honour  Zoan  was  built,  or  of  his  brother 
Akan,  who  was  proljably  his  .successor. 

The  fate  of  the  confederate  kings  is  undetermined.  So  far 
there  are  no  data  for  deciding  whether  they  fell  before  the  aveng- 
inof  arms  of  the  valiant  Hebrew  and  his  Amorite  allies,  or  found 
their  way  to  the  Euphrates,  and  thence  regained  their  homes- 
There  is  no  monumental  record  of  Amraphel,  but  the  Ute  story 
of  Sokus  Waiuna^ts  which  awaits  confirmation  in  the  region  of 
mythology  and  folk  lore,  indicates  that  his  cruelties  were  avenged 
on  his  person.  His  son  Machpelah,  or  the  illustrious  Chapelah, 
may  have  held  Shinar  after  him,  but  in  his  time  the  Zoharite 
kingdom  must  have  been  absorbed,  for  Ephron  its  heir  came,  the 
first  (jf  a  band  of  Hittite  conquerors,  into  the  country  west  of 
Jordan,  driving  the  three  Amorites  towards  the  Mediterranean 
coast,  where  Eshcol  and  Aner  preserved  two  of  their  names. 
There  arc,  however,  many  reasons  for  believing  that  a  consider- 
able Zoharite  element  entered  into  the  ruling  family  of  Assyria. 
One  of  these  is  the  constant  union  of  Zereth  with  Zohar,  as  the 
Egyptian  Shairetana  and  Takkaro,  and  as  the  Trojan  Dardanians 
and  Tfucrians.  It  was  from  Tsochar  that  the  Tigris  derived  its 
name,  as  well  as  the  Zagros  mountains,  which  constituted  the 
east«'i-ii  lioundai'v  of  Assvria,  and  this  Tica-is  or  Diklath  became 
the  Tii,dath  which  forjned  an  clement  in  the  names  of  at  least 
five  Assyvian  moiiarchs.  The  history  of  Arioch  presents  diffi- 
culties. His  DMuic  does  not  appear  in  the  Kenite  recoi'd,  which 
furnishes  no  intei-inediate  links  between  Zereth  and  Jehaleleel. 
I  he'  youngest  son  of  the  latter  was  Asareel,  whose  name  as  Asar 
the  mighty,  might  be  rendered  Elasar  or  the  powerful  Asa)-,  Init 
his  time  is  well  determined  by  the  fact  that  his  elder  sister 
Ziphah  was  tin;  c^'Usort  of  the  son  of   Amnion.      It  is  thus  impos- 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  61 

sible  that  any  descendant  of  his  could  have  been  the  ally  of 
Chedorlaomer.  Now  the  Urukh  of  whom  we  possess  inscriptions 
built  a  temple  to  Sarili,  who  is  Asareel,  and  calls  himself  king  of 
Sumir  and  Akkad,  neither  of  which  was  in  existence  in  the  time 
of  Chedorlaomer.  It  follows  that  there  must  have  been  an  older 
Urukh,  the  grandson  of  Zereth,  whose  father  may  have  been  an 
Asareel  or  Elasar,  the  same  whom  the  Greeks  calling  Erichthonius, 
make  the  brother  of  Ilus.  But  he  cannot  even  have  been  the 
brother  of  Jehaleleel,  who  was  the  contemporary  of  Amnion,  and 
must  be  placed  in  the  previous  generation  as  the  brother  of 
Shachar.  Nevertheless  the  Zerethite  family  which  Arioch  repre- 
sented kept  the  throne  of  Chaldea  and  became  more  powerful 
than  the  Elamite  kings.  After  the  death  of  Chedorlaomer,  his 
son  Salma,  the  father  of  Beth  Lechem,  was  set  aside,  and  the 
rightful  heir  of  Hamath  was  recognized  as  his  successor.  This 
was  Ezra  oi-  Gezra,  the  head  of  the  Gezrites  and  the  Tamudite 
Hezer  of  the  Arabians.  His  name  has  been  read  on  a  monument 
as  Simti  Silhak,  in  which  the  fiist  word  appears  to  denote  his 
father  Hamath  as  Sumudu,  and  the  second,  his  own  name  in  a 
very  corrupt  form.  The  connection  is  found  in  the  name  of  his 
son,  who  i-ostores  the  family  designation  Beth  Gader  as  Kudur 
Mabuk.  Here,  however,  although  the  line  of  Kudur  is  given,  the 
personal  name  is  concealed,  for  Mabuk  is  a  feminine  title  con- 
nectei.l  with  the  goddess  Atargatis.  who  was  worshipped  at  Mabog, 
Bauibyce,  or  Hierapolis  in  Syria.  Two  princesses  ai-e  mentioned 
in  the  Kciiite  list  as  wives  of  one  of  the  sons  of  Ezra,  but  whethei" 
of  Jeth(,'r  oi-  of  Mered  is  hai"d  to  determine:  these  are  Hodiali, 
a  daughter  of  Caleb  the  Zoharito,  grandson  of  Ephron,  and 
Bithi-ih,  daughter  of  the  Zerethite  Ziph.  The  mother  of  Jered. 
the  father  of  Gedor,  who  was  the  heir  of  .Tether,  is  (tailed  .lehu- 
dijah,  and  she  should  be  the  Mabuk  of  the  inscription.  In  Pro- 
fessor Palmer's  report  of  ex])loration  in  ^loal),  he  nientions  a  visit 
to  El  Yeluidiy(;h,  nejir  Fugua,  wliich  may  be  the  Pan  of  Ha(hir. 
He  describes  it  as  a  black  I'ock,  about  twelve  feet  long,  "'  of  which 
the  Ai'ab.s  have  a  leg<.'nd  that  it  is  a  woman  turneij  into  stone  for 
})r(jfanf',ly  denying  the  cei-tamtv  of  death."  The  Arabic  name 
and  tliat  of  the  mother  of  Jered   are  identical. •'■       in  ( Jreek  gene- 

I'alf.stiiif  Kxpl'ir.itiipii  Kiiiid,  •^»ii:irtfily  Statfinciit,  .liii..  1S71,  (;7. 


62  THE    HITTITES. 

alogies  Erythrius,  who  is  Jerecl  and  the  Rathures  of  Manetho's 
tifth  dynasty,  is  called  a  son  of  Athamas,  the  Kenite  Etham  or 
Etam,  and  the  Egyptian  Atmu  or  Athom.  The  British  Arthur, 
who  is  the  same  personage,  is  called  a  son  of  Uther  Pendragon. 
Uther  denotes  his  father  Jether,  but  the  surname  Pendragon  calls 
for  explanation.  In  Irish  history  Jether,  as  Eathoir,  is  associated 
with  Feniusa  Farsa  as  joint  administrator  of  the  primitive  Uni- 
versity of  ^Jagh  Seanair,  a  statement  by  no  means  so  absurd  as 
it  inav  seem,  for  the  Kenite  scribes  were  the  educators  of  the 
ancient  world  and  gave  instruction  in  letters  to  the  students 
o-athered  in  Zoan,  Memphis,  and  Thebes.  Eathoir  is  made  the 
fathei-  of  a  Gadel,  but  this  Gadel,  who  fades  out  of  history,  is 
wrongly  distinguished  from  Gadelas  the  grandson  of  Feniusa. 
Gadel  or  Gadelas,  whom  the  Scottish  Chronicle  calls  Gathelus, 
son  of  Cecrops,  is  in  the  Kenite  genealogy  the  third  son  of  Jether, 
namely,  Jekuthiel  the  father  of  Zanoah,  and  ancestor  of  the 
Gaoidheals  or  Gaels,  who,  however,  >vere  not  true  Celts  or  Galatae^ 
but  Ugiians  of  the  Ugrians.  The  triple  connection  of  Jether 
with  Athamas,  Pendragon,  and  Feniusa,  finds  explanation  in  the 
Kenite  account  of  the  family  of  the  father  of  Etam,  in  which 
appears  Penuel  the  father  of  Gedor.^  Now  Gedor  was  a  purely 
Hepherite  family,  and  Etam  as  a  Horite  in  the  line  of  Manahath, 
had  no  rifht  to  the  title  of  father  to  that  family,  save  throuofh 
the  marriage  of  his  daughter  to  a  Kenite.  Such  a  Kenite  was 
Jether,  and  his  son  being  Jered,  also  the  father  of  Gedor,  it  fol- 
lows that  Penuel  was  the  father  of  the  wife  of  the  former  and 
the  nujthei-  of  the  latter.  The  Welsh  traditions  of  Arthur's 
mother,  filthough  confused,  furnish  valuable  identifications  ;  for, 
while  they  call  her  Eigyr  or  Igerna,  wdiich  is  the  name  of  Ezra 
the  father  of  Jether,  they  represent  her  as  the  wife  of  Gorlois 
i)i  ("ornwall,  who  is  Jezrcel  the  son  of  Etam.  As  Penuel  was  a 
Horite,  and  will  not  re-appear  in  the  histoiy,  it  may  be  well  to 
inilicute  wliat  the  Greek  traditions  say  of  his  genealogy.  The 
Scholiast  in  Apollonius  Kliodius  calls  him  Phoenix  the  son  of 
Ag<;iinr  ami  ( 'assiepea,  but  reduplicates  him  as  Phineus,  who  was 
tlif   son    of    j-'lio'iiix,  along   with   Cilix,   ])oriclus  aiid  Atvmnius. 


1  ri, 


THE    HIXriTES    AT   THE   TIGRIS    AND    EUPHRATES.  63 

His  children  by  Cleopatra  were  Parthenius  and  Crainbis,  and  by 
Idaea,  the  daughter  of  Dardanus,  Thymus  and  Mariandynus- 
Now  it  is  clear  that  the  Scholiast  or  his  informant  had  in  his 
possession  an  oral  or  written  version  of  the  very  genealogy  that 
is  contained  in  the  book  of  Chronicles,  for  he  mixes  up  the  fam- 
ilies of  Etam  and  Ezra  through  the  alliance  of  the  daughter  of 
the  Etamite  Penuel  with  the  Ezraite  Jether.  Agenor  is  the 
Horite  Akan,  father  of  Etam,  as  Agenor  is  the  father  of  Cadmus  ; 
Atymnius  and  Doriclus  are  Etam  and  Jezreel  or  Yetsregel ;  Idaea 
is  Jehndijah  ;  and  Thymus  and  Mariandynus  are  E^htenioa  and 
Miriam.  In  Norse  mythology  the  wife  of  Jether  or  Odur  is 
Freyja  of  the  Vanir,  who  is  also  called  Vanadis.  "  Odur  left  his 
wife  in  order  to  travel  into  very  remote  countries.  Since  that 
time  Freyja  continually  weeps,  and  her  tears  are  drops  of  pure 
gold."  °  She  is  thus  Bhavani,  parent  of  the  Rudras  and  Maruts 
as  of  Yena  descended  from  Aoni  and  Manu.  The  story  of  her 
father  is  always  a  melancholy  one.  As  Pentheus,  the  grandson 
of  Cadmus,  he  climbed  into  a  tree  top  to  witness  unseen  the 
Dionysiac  orgies,  but  the  Bacchantes  espied  him  and  tore  him  to 
pieces.  As  Phineus,  son  of  Agenor,  he  w^as  struck  with  blindness 
by  the  gods,  and  then  tormented  by  the  Harpies.  As  Phineus, 
brother  of  Cepheus  of  Joppa,  he  was  petrified  by  the  Gorgon's 
head  in  the  hands  of  Perseus.  In  Hindu  story  he  is  the  magician 
Punchkin  who  imprisoned  many  princes  and  princesses  in  a  great 
tower,  till  the  son  of  one  of  these  princesses,  named  Balna, 
travelling  over  the  world,  found  the  green  parrot  on  whose  life 
that  of  Punchkin  depended,  and,  tearing  it  limb  from  limb  before 
him,  caused  the  magician  to  peri.sh  in  the  same  way.  Unhappily, 
Apuleiiis  in  his  Golden  Ass,  begins  the  story  of  Psyche,  who 
should  be  the  daughter  of  Penuel,  in  the  trite  form,  ''  era )if  in 
(juadaiii  ciritnte  rex  cf  rcglnu,  thei'c  were  in  a  certain  city  a  king 
and  a  (jueen,"  instead  of  informing  us  who  the  king  and  (jueen 
were.*^  She  was  married  to  a  monster  who  tui-ncd  out  to  be 
( 'u)>i(l.  Init  thi'(jugh  curiosity  she  h^st  him.  To  the  Scadinavian 
\'anadis  answers  the   Undine;  of   Fou(|UC',  the  water  maiden  who 


•>    Til.-  I'ro.s..  K.i.ia. 

'    Apulcius,  I)c  AmIihi  Aurci),  L,  i\'. 


64  THE   HITTITES. 

married  a  mortal  on  condition  that  he  should  never  speak  angrily 
to  her  in  the  neighbourhood  of  her  relations,  for  thus  they  would 
regain  power  over  her.  And  she  is  Bheki,  the  frog  princess  of 
Sanscrit  story,  who  cautioned  her  husband  never  to  show  her  a 
drop  of  water  ;  and  Vach  the  wife  of  Indra.  But  her  father 
Penuel  is  Pani  the  deceiver,  who  stole  away  Indra's  cows.  The 
origin  of  all  these  various  legends,  representing  the  union  of 
members  of  two  different  races  and  their  subsequent  separation, 
is  the  marriage  of  Jether  to  the  Horite  Jehudijah,  daughter  of 
Penuel,  who  seems  at  some  time  to  have  left  him  for  her  father's 
house,  whence  Jether  did  not  succeed  in  bringing  her,  until  he 
had  inflicted  moi'tal  injury  on  his  father-in-law.  To  explain  the 
connection  of  the  two  words  Jehudijah  and  Bog  or  Mabog,  it  is 
necessary  to  premise  that  the  former  is  Semitic,  which  is  more 
than  pr()i)able,  as  the  Egyptian  was  a  sub-Semitic  language,  and 
the  Horites  were  apparently  its  authors.  In  Phoenicia  also  the 
same  Horites  spoke  a  purely  Semitic  tongue.  In  this  case 
Jehudijah  can  be  traced  to  the  root  jadah,  meaning  to  cast  forth, 
to  utter,  to  praise.  A  similar  root  is  the  Japanese  (modern  Ham- 
athite)  hokashi,  to  cast  forth  or  away  ;  but  as  most  Japanese 
words  commencing  with  the  aspirate  have  replaced  an  original 
labial  by  that  letter,  hokasJii  is  the  same  as  the  obscure  bokushi, 
moaning  to  tell  fortunes,  soothsay,  prognosticate.  The  ancient 
Hittite  word  translating  Jehudijah  must  thus  have  been  the 
ecjuivaleiit  of  the  Sanscrit  Vach,  the  voice,  so  that  the  primitive 
meaning  of  l>u/<'  or  hog  was  the  utterance  or  oracle,  and  with  the 
)ireti.\  iKJ/,,  meaning  illustrious,  honourable,  great,  it  became,  as 
Mabuk  and  ^labog,  and  the  Mexican  Mapach,  the  sublime  oracle. 
It  is  natui'al  to  think  that  the  hec  of  the  Syi'ian  Baalbec  and 
Egyptian  Atai'bechis  was  the  same  term,  and  that  these  words 
signified  the  oracle  of  Baal,  the  oracle  of  Athor,  or  more  literally 
tlie  uttei-ance  of  the  respective  deities.  It  is  remarkable  that 
Pciiucl,  whose  own  name  has  the  blasphemous  meaning  of,  the 
face  (jf  (lod,  a  name  whicdi  being  transported  to  Pluenicia  by 
bis  descendants,  the  (jreeks  translated  as  Theouprosopon,  should 
ba\  (■  bad  a  dauglitor  called,  the  oracle  ;  and  it  may  indicate  that 
I'cnin-l  arrogated  to  binisoH"  the  divinity  of  which  liis  daughter 
was  to  l>e  tlie   voice. 


THE    HITTITKS   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  65 

The  story  of  Jether  as  Mabuk  is  told  in  the  Manyoshiu,  a 
collection  of  Japanese  poems  said  to  have  been  composed  between 
the  fifth  and  ninth  centuries  A.D.  The  hero  of  the  story  is  Ura- 
shima,  whose  name  furnishes  a  synonjmi  for  bokushi  in  the  root 
2ira,  denoting  oracular  utterance,  as  in  ura-nai,  to  foretell, 
divine,  ju'ognosticate,  and  in  ora-hata,  the  prognostication  or 
fortune  told.  The  following  shima  is  probably  an  old  form  of 
the  verb  sliimo^hi,  to  declare,  publish.  In  Japanese  history, 
Urashima,  the  tisherman,  caught  a  large  turtle  in  his  nets  which 
turned  to  a  beautiful  woman,  and  they  went  away  together  to  the 
island  of  Fui-aisan.'^  A  turtle  in  Japanese  is  kame,  and  a  god, 
kami.  The  opening  of  the  casket  in  the  Manyoshiu  story  links 
it  with  that  of  Psyche,  to  whom  Venus  gave  a  box  to  take  to 
Proserpina,  which  box  Psyche  opened,  when  vapours  issued  from 
it  that  landed  her  in  sleep  and  forgetfulness.  This  is  the  Japan- 
ese version  of  the  oft  told  tale  : 

"  When  the  days  of  s])riiig  were  hazy, 

I  went  fortli  upon  the  beach  of  Suniinoe, 

And  as  I  watched  the  fi.shins;-boats  rock  to  and  fro, 

I  bethought  nie  of  the  tale  of  old  : 

How  the  son  of  Urashima  of  Midzunoe, 

Proud  of  his  skill  in  catching  the  katsuivo  and  tai. 

For  seven  days  not  even  coming  home, 

Rowed  on  beyond  the  bounds  of  the  ocean, 

Where  with  a  daughter  of  the  god  of  the  sea 

He  chanced  to  meet  as  he  rowed  onwards. 

W^hen  with  mutual  endearments  their  h)ve  had  been  crowned, 

They  plighted  their  troths  and  went  to  the  immortal  land, 

Where  hand  in  hand  both  entered 

Into  a  stately  mansion  within  the  precinct 

Of  the  ])alace  of  the  god  of  the  sea, 

There  to  remain  for  everlasting, 

Never  growing  old,  nor  evei'  dying. 

But  this  was  the  sjicech  which  was  addressed  to  his  spouse 

]5y  the  foolish  man  of  this  world  : 
'  For  a  little  while  1  would  return  home, 

And  sjieak  to  my  fatlier  and  my  mother  : 

To-morrow  I  will  come  l)ack.' 

When  he  had  said  so,  this  was  the  si)eech  of  his  sjjouse  : 
'  If  thou  ait  to  retmii  again  to  the  inunortal  land 

And  Jivi-  with  ine  as  now, 

Open  not  this  cuskft  at  all.' 

"'  Titsingh,  .\nnalcs.  I'rashiina  and  l"'uraisan  have  l)een  set  forth  as  pi<ibalilf 
forms  of  Regeni  ami  C.'arc-hi'iiiish  :  they  cannot  be  such  and  at  the  same  time  the 
ren'leriiig  hen-  given. 


66  THE   HITTITES. 

Much  did  she  impress  this  on  him, 

But  he,  having  returned  to  Suminoe, 

Though  he  looked  for  his  house. 

No  house  could  he  see  ; 

Though  he  looked  for  his  native  village. 

No  village  could  he  see. 
'  This  is  strange,'  said  he  :  thereupon  this  was  his  thought : 
'  In  the  space  of  three  years  since  I  came  forth  from  my  home. 

Can  the  house  have  vanished,  without  even  the  fence  being  left  ? 

If  I  opened  this  casket  and  saw. 

Should  my  house  exist  as  before  ?  '    r 

Opening  a  little  the  jewel  casket, 

A  white  cloud  came  forth  from  it 

And  sjiread  away  towards  the  immortal  land. 

He  ran,  he  shouted,  he  waved  his  sleeves. 

He  rolled  ujwn  the  earth  and  ground  his  feet  together. 

Meanwhile  of  a  sudden  his  vigor  decayed  and  departed  : 

His  body  that  had  been  young  grew  wrinkled  ; 

His  hair  too  that  had  been  black  grew  white  ; 

Also  his  breath  became  feebler  night  by  night ; 

Afterwards  at  last  his  life  departed. 

And  of  the  son  of  Urashima  of  Midzunoe 

The  last  resting  ])lace  I  can  see."  ** 

This  (juaiiit  legend  furnishes  in  the  latter  part  the  original  of 
Washington  Irving's  Rip  van  Winkle,  and  of  the  story  of  the  pious 
monk,  Petrus  Forschegrund,  who,  going  into  the  sombre  north- 
ern woods  to  meditate  on  God's  blessed  eternity,  saw  the  scenery 
transformed  with  golden  sunlight  and  summer  zephyrs,  with 
rippling  streams  and  tiower  bedecked  meadows,  with  palms  and 
myrtles  and  birds  of  paradise  ;  but,  returning  to  his  monas- 
tery, strange  sights  and  voices  ofreeted  liim,  and,  as  he  fell  beneath 
the  weight  of  old  age,  he  learned  that  his  short  hour  of  bliss  had 
been  a  hundred  years  of  time;  The  water  maiden  or  sea  goddess 
in  Bi-itish  story  is  Guinevere  or  Guanhumara,  the  faitliless  wife 
of  King  Arthur,  for  she  is  Gwenhwyvar,  the  lady  of  the  summit 
of  the  water.  In  one  tradition  she  prefers  Lancelot,  the  son  of 
Ban  of  Kanwick,  to  her  spouse  ;  in  another,  Modred,  her  husband's 
nephew.  In  the  first  ca.se  Ban  is  the  Indian  Pani  and  Kenite 
Penue]  :  in  the  second  Modred  represents  Mered  the  brother  of 
.Jethci-  and  uncle  of  Jered  or  Arthur.  But  while  Mered  took 
away  what  was  not  his  own,  for  such  is  often  the  meaning  of 
Idkach,  which  the  English  version  simply  renders  b}^  "took,"  it 


"   Astou'.s  Oramiiiai  <if  tlie  Japanese  written  language,  Ap])endix  II.,  xvii. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  67 

was  not  Jehudijali  or  Mabog,  but  Bithiah  of  whom  he  deprived 
another.  Mr.  Osborn  find.s  Pehnak  as  an  Egyptian  royal  scribe 
contemporary  with  prince  Mourhet  or  Mered,  whose  portrait 
from  the  monuments  adorns  his  work  ;  and  Lieblein  mentions  a 
Pehenuka,  father  of  an  otherwise  unknown  Ata,^  These  are 
Egyptian  Penuels. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Egyptian  alliance,  originally  formed  by 
the  marriage  of  Hareph  to  the  daughter  of  Manahath,  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  entrance  of  some  of  his  descendants  into  Egypt. 
There  they  found  the  native  Pharaohs  already  in  a  subordinate 
position,  for  the  Zerethite  Ziph  had  established  himself  in  Mem- 
phis, and  was  constructing  the  great  pyramid  in  the  neighbouring 
necropolis  of  (xizeh.  Mered  made  a  friend  of  this  intruder  and 
took  his  daughter  Bithiah  to  wife,  while  Jether  allied  himself 
with  the  Horite  Penuel  by  marrying  his  daughter  Jehudijah. 
But  Jether  had  no  intention  of  fattening  on  the  flesh-pots  of 
Egypt.  He  carried  his  bride  away  from  her  home  on  the  Medi- 
terranean shore  of  the  delta,  to  his  distant  kingdom  of  Elam  in  the 
east,  attended  by  his  wild  Centaurs  or  men  of  Gedor,  and  there 
in  her  honour  he  called  himself  no  longer  Jether,  but  Kudur 
Mabuk,  Gedor  of  the  excellent  Oracle.  He  has  left  a  brief 
inscription  that  has  already  been  given.  The  memoi-ial  of  Ardu 
Sin  is  all  too  brief  for  the  Erythras  who  named  tlie  Red  Sea,  the 
terrible  Rudra  of  the  Hindus,  and  the  kingh'  Arthur  of  the 
Round  Table.  His  presence  in  Egyptian  dynastic  lists  as 
Rathures  seems  to  indicate  that  his  horsemen  were  not  unknown 
in  the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  but  to  the  polished  dwellers  of  the 
Nile  they  were  the  cowboys  of  ancient  days,  and  their  princely 
leadtn*  was  the  two-headed  dog  Orthos,  sprung  fi'om  Typhon  and 
Echidna  that  guarded  the  flocks  of  Geryon,  in  the  l))erian  island 
of  Erythea.  Nay,  worse  than  this,  Jered  figured  in  their  story 
as  the  Centaur  Eurytion,  a  rough  boor,  wlio,  invited  to  the  mar- 
riag(.'  festivities  of  Pirithous  and  Ilippodamia,  diank  to  intoxica- 
tion, and  gric\"ously  insulted  the  bride,  so  that  the  Lapitlue 
hurried  liiiii  away  fi"om  tin-  feast,  cut  off  his  nose  and  eai's.  and 
sent  him  packing  to  his  lawless  domain,  there  to  cherish  deep 
hati'ed  in  his  heart  against  these  (|uondam  hosts.     But  the  San- 

■'   .MMtinijKiital  History  of  Kgypt  :   Lichloiu,  Hcchcrchcs,  2!). 


(58  THE    HITTITES. 

scrit  scriptures  redeem  the  King  of  Elam  and  his  people  from 
reproach,  for  the  Rudras  with  their  relatives,  the  Maruts  of 
Mered,  and  Indra  or  Jether,  the  great  progenitor  of  the  former, 
are  the  principal  deities  of  the  oldest  Veda.  They  are  not  idola- 
trous objects,  thinks  the  eminent  translator  of  the  Rig  Veda,  but 
personifications  of  the  eternal  powers  of  nature  through  which 
the  pious  Brahman  worshipped  God.  What  the  Brahman  thought 
them  to  be  when  he  picked  up  their  story  from  Indian  Gandharas 
and  Mahrattas  we  cannot  tell  ;  but,  as  he  worshipped  his  ancestor 
Brahma,  so  did  these  tribes  worship  theirs,  and  such  originally 
was  all  heathen  cultus,  the  worship  and  service  of  the  creature 
rather  than  the  Creator  who  is  blessed  forever. 

"  Father  of  the  Maruts,  may  thy  felicity  extend  to  us  :  exclude  us  not  from  the  light 

of  the  sun. 
Thou  Rudra  are  the  chiefest  of  beings  in  glory.     Thou  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt,  art 

the  mightiest  of  the  mighty. 
Where,  Kiidra,  is  thy  joy  dispensing  hand  ?   Firm,  with  strong  limbs,  assuming  many 

forms,  he  shines  with  golden  ornaments." 

Of  Mered's  descendants,  the  ancient  poet  sings  as  of  a  charge 
of  the  fierce  Mahratta  cavahy  : 

"  Thev  make  the  rocks  to  tremble  ;  they  tear  asunder  the  kings  of  the  forest,  like  Her- 
mes in  his  rage. 

liHuces  gleam,  Maruts,  ujjon  your  shoulders,  anklets  on  your  feet,  golden  cuirasses 
on  your  bieasts,  and  pure  waters  shine  on  your  chariots  :  lightnings  blazing  with 
tire  glow  in  your  hands,  and  golden  tiaras  are  towering  on  your  heads."  i" 

Another  hymn  unites  those  who  once  dwelt  in  Syrian  Aradus 
and  Marathus  with  their  brethren  of  Harnath  : 

"  When  ye  tlms  fnjm  afar  cast  forth  j'our  measure,  like  a  blast  of  fire,  throiigh  whose 

wi.^ilom  is  it,  through  whose  design  ?    To  whom  do  you  go,  to  whom,  ye  shakers 

<jf  the  earth  ? 
May  your  weapons  tje  firm  to  attack,  strong  also  to  withstand  !  May  yours  be  the  more 

glorious  strength,  not  that  of  the  deceitful  mortal  I 
When  you  overthrow  what  is  firm,  O  ye  men,  and  whirl  aljout  what   is  heavy,  ye  ]>ass 

through  the  trees  of  the  earth,  through  the  clefts  of  the  rocks. 
Xo  real  foe  of  yours  is  known  in  heaven,  nor  in  earth,  ye  devourers  of  enemies  I    May 

strength  be  yours,  together  with  your  race,  O  Rudras,  to  defy  even  now. 
Th<y  make  the  rocks  to  tremble,  they  tear   asunder  the  kings  of  the  forest.     Come  on, 

Maruts,  like  madmen,  ye  gods,  with  your  whole  ti'ibe. 
Ye  hav(!  liarnessed  the  s))otted  deer  to  your  chariots,  a  red  deer  draws  as  leader.    Kveii 

thi'  caith  listened  at  your  a))proach,  and  men  were  frightened. 
<)  Rudias,  \\i-  (|iiiekly  de>ire  your  hel]i  for  our  race.     Come  now  to  us  with  liel)),  as  of 

yiJt'-,  thus  fur  th<'  sake  of  the  frightened  Kanva."  " 

'"    Wilson,   Kig  \'<da  a]..  Cox,  Aryan  Mythology,  ii.  222. 
II    .M.   Muller,  I.eclun- on  th(;  Vedas,  Chips,  Vol.  I. 


THE    HITTITES    AT   THE    TIGRIS    AND    EUPHRATES.  69 

Kinlur  Mabuk  and  his  son  Ardu  Sin  were  lords  of  Martu,  the 
western  land  supposed  to  mean  Syria,  and  of  Yannit-bal  oi-  Eiani, 
bearing  the  name  of  Hamath,  the  father  of  Ezra  and  Kecliab.^'^ 
With  Jether  and  Mered  their  second  cousin,  Beeri,  the  head  of 
the  Beerothite  line  and  father-in-law  of  Esau,  was  contemporary, 
and  in  Jered's  time  lived  the  unfortunate  Bedad.  This  Bedad 
was  contemporary  with  Jobab  and  Husham,  the  Temenite  kings 
of  Edom,  who  supplanted  the  Ethnanite  Bela,  son  of  Beor,  the 
first  to  exorcise  sovereignty  in  Gebalene,  so  that  the  southern 
parts  of  Palestine  cannot  have  constituted  the  Martu  over  which 
the  Elamites  ruled.  Yet  tiie  Niebelungen  Lied,  or  song  of  the 
men  of  Nipur,  of  whom  Gunther  was  the  chief,  has  been  found 
to  represent  the  descendants  of  Ezra  in  opposition  to  tliose  of 
Rechab  and  in  a  position  of  superiority  to  the  Temenite  Husham, 
who  probably  acknowledged  the  sway  first  wiehled  by  Chedor- 
laomer  over  the  trans-Jordanic  tribes.  But  a  mightier  power 
was  rising  in  the  east.  At  Ellas.ii'  and  Sippara  on  the  lower 
Euphrates,  Arioch  the  Zerethite  had  been  a  vassal  of  the  Elamite. 
Of  his  descendant  Jeiialeleel  or  Helel,  son  of  Shachar,  we  know 
little.  In  a  list  of  Babylonian  kings,  his  predecessor  is  called 
Sunuiabi,  a  name  that  suyirests  nothino-.  He  is  himself  called 
Sumulaihi,  which  leads  one  to  doubt  that  SiinM  is  the  cori-ect 
r(;ading  in  either  case.  He  is  said  to  have  reigned  for  thirty-five 
years,  and  the  Bascpie  story  of  Lelo,  the  Graeco-Egyptian  Linus, 
and  the  fragment  of  ancient  poetry  on  the  fall   of  Helel,  son  of 


'-    The  folic iwirif,'  are  the  in.scription.s  of  Jered  or  Ardvi-Sin. 

"  Anhi-Sin,  the  powerful  iiuui,  the  liigh  ruler,  e.stablished  by  l>el,  nourisher  of 
I'r,  kin;?  of  Larsa,  king  of  Sumiraiid  Akkad,  sou  of  Kudur-Mabuk,  the  lord  of  VAum  ; 
Cr  the  great  he  embellished,  its  ....  he'  established.  I'r,  my  king,  blessed 
me  ;  the  great  wall  of  Pfarris-galla  to  jirevent  invasion,  its  circuit  I  raised,  I  Imilt,  the 
city  I  encircled,  the  great  tower  of   l.'r  strongly  I  constructed."' 

"  L'r,  lord  of  s|iirits  and  angels  ....  my  kinu',  Ardu-Siu,  iKiurisher  of 
the  temple,  h.'ad  ruler  of  iiit  Xergal,  the  renowned  man,  lord  of  I'.it-1'arra,  ini:kui  of 
••tncii-nt  Eridu,  who  the  n-ligious  festivals  keeps.  I'it-llansa  of  /ii-gulla,  its  siti;  he 
ri'.stoiid,  its  gr<'at  ramjiarts  his  hands  made.  l"r  and  Samas  ....  to  their 
plac<-s  he  restored.  The  prince  his  begetter  Hit-Sania  for  his  life  estal)lished  .  .  . 
in  the  servicr' of  his  lorii  who  marches  befnre  him,  fm- the  preser\ation  of  his  lif(;  he 
Ijuill  his  house,  also  lie  restored  its  site,  and  the  four  houses  of  Sagg.al,  for  his  pi'eser- 
vation  and  thi'  pieservation  nf  Kndur  .\laliuk,  the  fath<'r,  his  liegetter,  the  house  with 
rejoicin^^r  I'.ji  'I'nii^Mllie  l.uilt.  a  -tatue  befoie  the  liiHise  he  .  .  .  ."  (,'nir;/<  Smith, 
Trnn.^.  S,,r.   /I, I,.  Arch.   I.,    ',:. 


70  THE    HITTITES. 

Shachar,  preserved  by  the  prophet  Isaiah,  alike  indicate  his  un- 
happy end.  He  is  probably  the  Alorus  whom  Berosus  makes 
the  first  Babylonian  king,  for  by  the  common  chanoe  of  I  to  r, 
his  name  descended  not  only  as  Alalia,  but  also  as  Aleria,  and 
his  descendants  were  known  as  Alaiodians,  Illyrians,  Ilergetes, 
Ilercaones,  and  Silures.  Yet  lie  has  no  history  either  as  iEolus 
the  pious,  dear  to  the  immortal  gods,  or  as  Hellen  the  mythic 
ancestor  of  the  Greeks,  or  even  as  Helius  the  drowned  in  the 
Eridanus.  The  nearest  approach  to  history  is  the  story  of  Halir- 
rothius,  which  by  no  means  vindicates  the  character  of  the  son  of 
the  morning.  He  is  called  the  son  of  Poseidon,  and  is  said  to 
have  wronged  Alcippe,  the  daughter  of  Ares,  whereupon  the 
ottended  fatlier  killed  him,  and  the  high  court  of  Areopagus  was 
instituted  to  try  the  manslayer.  But  Poseidon  was  no  relative  of 
Jehaleleers,and  Ma  Reshah,  the  true  Ares  or  Mars,  was  not  upon 
the  scene,  so  that  this  corru])ted  narrative  sheds  no  light  upon 
the  mysterious  fate  of  the  victim  of  Zara  and  Tota.'"'  But  two 
of  his  sons  restored  the  gloiy  of  the  Zerethite  line,  Ziph  the 
eldest,  and  Asareel  the  youngest.  In  the  Babylonian  list  the 
foi-iiH'r  appears  as  the  successor  of  Sumulailu  under  the  name 
Zabu,  with  a  reign  of  fourteen  years.  As  the  Egyptian  Suphis, 
he  is  said  by  Manetho  io  have  exercised  sovereignty  sixty-three 
years  in  Memphis.  His  reign  marks  the  beginning  of  that  wide 
extension  of  Zerethite  empire  that  has  been  witnessed  in  part  in 
the  storv  of  the  kinf-'s  who  reio-ned  in  Edom.  The  marriao-e  of 
his  sistei-  Ziphah  to  Coz,  the  daughter  of  Ammon,  gave  Ziph  the 
introduction  to  Egypt,  of  which  he  took  foul  ad\'antage.  His 
alliance  tliui'e  with  the  Hepherite  Mered  did  not  serve  his  des- 
cendants long,  for  the  Amenemes  and  Osortasens  drove  Sisyphus 
out,  and  vaiidy  did  he  launch  his  Chei-ethite  hosts  against  these 
bulwarks  of  the  Nile  valley,  generation  after  generation  ;  oft  on 
the  lin'nk  of  conquest,  the  stone  that  was  to  carry  all  opposition 
before  it  sli})j'('(l  from  his  grasp,  and  the  Ziphite  had  to  l)egin 
hi^^  \\ork  anew. 

'•  .\iir  (l.ics  I'ritisli  |]i,-ti>ry,  to  wliit'li  the  Silures  cuiitributed,  place  us  on  solid 
t,'ri.uiii|,  :ts  fai-  .-is  tin-  Silurian  ancestor  is  concerned.  He  is  the  Leir  whom  Shak.sj)eare 
h.as  iniuiMrtali/id.  \\\i-  fath.T  of  three  dau^diters,  of  whom  Cordelia,  the  liest  of  them, 
alone  r'ficits  tlic  'irij/inal  story  as  in  her  name  disirui>inLC  Asareel.  while  her  husband 
.\s,'anl|.|.M,,  in  hi^.  i,n-s..nts  that  of  Ann!)  -r  Caiiul),  the  son  .if  .lehaleleel's  daucjhter, 
Ziphali.      Karitia  aN...  tie-  s.-it  of  Atrani|>|-us,  is  .lahaleleHl's  own  ret,Moii  of  /ereth. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  71 

According  to  an  inscription  of  Nabonidus,  Zabu  occupied 
Sippara,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Nipurites  of  Elam,  and  built 
there  the  temples  of  Samas  and  Anunit,  which  the  Babylonian 
king  restored.^*  He  was  succeeded  by  a  descendant  Heber,  who 
in  the  Babylonian  list  is  called  Apil-sin,  and  in  a  Chaldean  astro- 
logical treatise,  Ibil-Sin,  King  of  Ur.  After  Heber  came  Japhlet 
his  son,  called  in  the  list  Sin-Muballit ;  and,  in  the  Synchronous 
History  of  Assyria  and  Babylonia,  where  he  is  made  an  Assyrian 
monarch,  he  is  Assur-Yupalladh.  The  Kenite  genealogy  places 
Asher  and  Boriah  before  Heber,  and,  in  the  Synchronous  History, 
Assur  Yupalladh  is  preceded  b}'  Assur-bil-nisisu  and  Buzur- 
Assur.^'^  The  Assyrian  and  Babylonian  lists  present  the  same 
faults  as  the  Egyptian,  repeating  royal  names,  making  contem- 
poraneous dynasties  successive,  and  exhausting  one  dynasty 
before  introducing  another,  without  reference  to  the  point  of 
time  at  which  a  member  of  the  latter  superseded  a  king  of  the 
former.  Tiie  Greeks  unfortunately  kept  the  Zerethite  geneal- 
ogies more  carelessly  than  any  others,  so  that  their  legends  throw 
little  light  upon  the  path  of  history.  The  chief  guides  in  seeking 
to  reconstruct  the  family  line  of  Ziph  or  Zabu  from  Grecian 
sources,  are  the  names  Opheltes  and  Peneleus,  by  which  they 
represent  the  Kenite  Japhlet  and  his  second  son  Bimhal.  Pau- 
sanias  has  a  Peneleus,  son  of  Opheltes,  who  succeeded  the  Theban 
Thersander,  and  whose  grandson  was  Damasichthou,  the  father 
of  Ptolemy  and  grandfather  of  Xanthus.  Another  Opheltes  was 
the  son  of  Lycurgus  of  Xemea,  whose  father  was  Pheix'S,  the  son 
of  Cretl'.eus,  son  of  .Kt>lus.  Here,  undoubtedly,  amid  much  con- 
fusion, Beriah,  the  father  of  the  Kenite  Heber,  is  recognized  in 
Pheres  as  a  Zeretliite  in  the  line  of  Jehaleleel.  Apollodorus  has 
a  Peneleus,  son  of  Hi[)palnius,  among  the  Argonauts,  and  he,  in 
Diodorus,  is  Peneleus  of  Ilippaleimus,  of  Iton,  of  Bo'otus,  of  Arne, 
of  /Eolus.  Now  Iton,  Bo'otus  and  Arne  iiave  nothing  to  do  with 
the  gencalou-y,  but  Peneleus  and  Hippaleimus  i-ightly  go  back  to 
.Eolus  oi-  .Jelialcle(;l.  Oj)lieltius  and  ( )pliele.stes  are  Trojan  names 
in  lioiner,  and  0])lieltas  Ix'longed  to  a 'i'liessalian  king.  Ephialtes 
and    Hij)polytus  wei'e    giants   that    fought    a,L;ainst    .Iu]iiter,    and 

'<    K.-coi<i>  ,,f  th.-  Fast.  iii.  >. 

'"'    1  Chf.ui.  vii.ao,  >.-(|.;   K.;cunls  of  tin'  Past,  iii.  •-".». 


72  THE    HITTITES. 

another  Ephialtes  was  one  of  the  Aloidae.  Hippolochus,  a  dis- 
o-uised  Yupalladh,  was  a  son  of  Bellerophon,  descended  from 
Sisyphus,  but  Hahnus  the  son  of  that  arch-deceiver  represents 
Helem,  Japhlet's  younger  brother.  The  connection  rests  on  the 
authority  of  the  Babylonian  list,  which  places  Apil-Sin  and  Sin 
Muballit  after  Zabu,  and  on  that  of  the  Synchronous  History, 
which  makes  Mupallidhat  Seruathe  daughter  of  Assur  Yupalladh, 
taken  together  with  the  facts  that  the  Kenite  list  in  which  Japh- 
let  or  Yaphlet  appears  is  headed  by  an  Asher,  and  that  Serah  as 
the  name  of  a  woman  occurs  in  the  beginning  of  it.  Then  comes 
in  the  testimony  of  Gix-ek  tradition,  connecting  the  names 
Opheltes  and  Peneleus,  and  referring  them  to  the  ^olian  line 
of  Jehaleleel.  Both  the  Synchronous  History  and  the  Kenite 
list  recpiire  the  introduction  of  two  monarchs  between  Zabu  and 
Apil-Sin,  or  Ziph  and  Heber,  but  while  the  former  calls  these 
Assur-bil-nisisu  and  Buzur-Assur,  the  latter  terms  them  Asher 
and  Beriah.  As  the  latter  Egyptian  Aahpeti  was  succeeded  by 
his  great-grandson  Methosuphis,  so  Ziph,  to  whom  Manetho 
ascribes  a  long  reign,  may  have  outlived  his  son  Asher  and  grand- 
son Beriah,  who  acted  as  his  deputies  or  viceroys  in  the  east. 
Assur-bil-nisisu  is  recognized  as  the  first  Assyrian  king  ;  he  must 
therefore  have  been  driven  out  of  Sippara,  in  which  his  father 
Zabu  reigned,  into  the  north-east,  there  to  refound  the  empire 
first  established  by  Asshur,  son  of  Shem.  In  it  the  two  i-ivers 
Zab  receive<l  the  ancesti'al  name  of  Ziph  ;  and  many  other  me- 
morials of  ancient  Zerethite  empire  were  transpoi'ted  to  this  new 
home  of  the  i"ace.  There  the  Egyptian  monarchs  found  the 
Assumi,  and  near  them  their  kindred  of  the  K-utennu,  descended 
from  Asareel,  One  successor  of  Yupalladh  is  recorded  in  the 
Assyi-ian  annals  as  reported  by  Mr.  George  Smith,  namely,  Bil 
Pasku,  who  is  called  "  the  origin  of  royalty,"  and  he  is  Pasach, 
the  eldest  sow  of  Japhlet,  a  competitor  with  the  Nairi  Paseach, 
after  whom  Thapsacus  was  named.  His  brother  Bimhal  would 
.s(;(;m  to  have  followed  him,  but  as  Assyi'ian  names  are  at  present 
read,  it  is  hanlly  worth  while  to  tax  the;  reader's  patience  with 
(■()mi»aris(jiis  of  his  name  with  that  which  is  variously  called 
Biiilikliish,  Bilnirai'i,  Bellush,  Bel  Tanao-bal,  and  Ivalush.  These 
strangit  variations  arise  f)-oin  the  uncertainty  whether  a  character 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  73 

should  be  read  as  a  phonograph  or  as  an  ideograph.  Between 
Yupalladh  and  Bellush,  Professor  Rawlinson  inserts  Bel-Sumili- 
Kapi,  who  may  he  Shonier,  the  brother  of  Japhlet,  or  his  son 
Jechubbah.  All  of  the  family  of  Asher  do  not  seem  to  have  gone 
northward,  for  his  grandson  Malchiel  is  called  the  father  of 
Birzavith,  which  is  the  Chaldean  Borsippa.  The  Synchronous 
History  makes  Assur-bil-nisisu  contemporary  with  Cara-Indas  of 
Babylonia,  or  Gan-Duniyas,  and  Buzur-Assur  with  Burna-Buryas 
of  the  same.  Now  Burna-Buryas  in  the  lists  follows  Ulam- 
Buryas,  or  Ulam  son  of  Peresh,  the  Gileadite  or  Zimrite,  with 
two  reigns  between  them.  Burna-Buryas  is  Akkadian,  and  is 
read  in  Assyrian  Kidin-bel-matati,  the  Bel-matati  representing 
the  Akkadian  Burya.s,  but  another  king  whose  Assyrian  name  is 
Kidin-Bel  is  in  Akkadian  Bat-mu-ul-lil-la.^''  There  is  reason 
tiierefore  to  think  that  Burna  should  be  Bedan,  and  that  Bedan 
being  the  son  of  Ulam,  Bedan-Buryas  should  follow  Ulam-Buryas. 
This  would  place  Buzur-Assur  somewhat  late  in  history,  or  in  the 
time  of  Saul  of  Rehoboth.  Assur- Yupalladh  again  had  a  daugh- 
ter Mupallidhat  Serua,  whose  son,  a  Babylonian  king  called 
Cara-Murdas,  was  killed  by  his  people,  the  Cassi,  whereupon  the 
Assyrians  set  a  son  of  Burna-Buryas  on  the  vacant  throne.  The 
missing  names  of  the  Assyrian  avenger  and  the  son  of  Burna- 
Buryas  have  been  conjecturally  restored,  Itut  it  is  better  to  ab- 
stain from  conjecture  until  fuller  evidence  is  forthcoming.  The 
facts  indicate  that  Bui'na-Buiyas  belonged  to  a  younger  genera- 
tion than  Assur- Yupalladh,  and  therefore  suggest  that  Buzur- 
Assur  i-epresents  his  son  Pasacli  rather  than  one  of  his  predeces- 
sors. Mupallidhat  Serua  must  be  a  Greek  Hippolyte.  One  of 
these  was  the  Amazon,  wife  of  Theseus,  and  mother  of  Hip{)olytus 
whom  Phaedra  slandered  ;  and  the  other  was  the  wife  of  Acastus, 
who  slandered  Peleus,  the  father  of  Achilles,  in  a  similar  way. 
Both  of  tli<'s«j  traditions  connect  the  Heerothite  family  with  a 
Hippolyte,  for  Theseus  is  Hadad.  and  Achilles  the  son  of  Peleus 
is  Saul  of  Rehoboth.  Butes  of  l^oreas  again,  who  is  Bedad  the 
son  of  Beeri,  carried  off"  Pancratis,  the  dau<rhter  of  Aheus,  and 
sistf.-r  of  Kphialtes,  tlius  strengthening  the  evidence  for  a  union 
of  the  Zerethit(i  Ashei'ites  and  the  royal  line  of  Heeroth. 

"■    I'roc.  Soc.  I'.ih.  Anil.,  .);iii.  11,  ISSl,  |,|..  ;iS,   11. 


74  THE   HITTITES. 

Continuing  the  search  for  the  prominent  name  Japhlet,  or 
Yupalladh,  it  is  found  in  Canaan  as  Japhleti,  not,  however,  in  the 
tribe  of  Asher,  but  in  that  of  Benjamin,  where  Cherith  and  many- 
other  names  denoted  Zerethite  occupation  at  the  time  when 
Zereth  Shachar  was  at  the  height  of  its  prosperity.^'  In  the 
Moabite  region,  where  these  Zerethites  exercised  for  a  time  almost 
undivided  sway,  the  name  became  Diblath,  and  down  in  the 
Sinaitic  peninsula  it  was  reduced  to  Tophel.^^  In  an  inscription 
of  Sennacherib  a  river  of  Assyria  is  called  the  Tibilti,  in  honour  of 
the  ancient  king  who  had  reigned  over  its  Gordyeans,  or  Cardu- 
chi.'''  But  in  the  centre  of  the  Caucasus  dwelt  in  old  Assyrian 
days  and  dwell  now,  the  Iberians,  of  Kartu-el,  who  bear  the  name 
of  Japhlet's  fatlier  Heber,  but  whom  the  Assyrian  monarchs  did 
not  call  Iberians,  although  such  is  the  name  they  still  arrogate  to 
themselves.  The  Assyrians  termed  these  Iberians  Tabalu  or 
Tubalai,  and  the  prophet  Ezekiel  associates  them  with  Rosh  and 
Meshech  as  the  people  of  Tubal .'^  At  the  present  time  the 
Iberian  capital  is  Tibelisi,  or  Tiflis.  The  American  Zerethites, 
western  l^ardanians,  whose  lack  of  the  li(iuid  r  compelled  them 
to  call  themselves  Toltecs,  preserved  the  name  of  Japhlet  as  a  title 
of  honour,  Topiltzin,  the  prince,  which  was  borne  by  the  first 
Toltec  kinij  as  distinguished  from  mere  chiefs  of  tribes,  Nau- 
hv<jt].'-'  Followinfj  the  analoo-v  of  Nahuatl  in  transliteration, 
this  king's  name  would  be  Navyar,  so  that  it  furnishes  a  nun- 
nated  HeV)er,  the  name  of  the  father  of  that  Japhlet  who  was 
really  the  first  to  assume  the  royal  title.  In  Aztec  the  word 
pilfir  means  a  man  of  gentle  birth,  a  nobleman.  It  is  possible 
that  the  very  different  looking  Japanese  word  samurai,  which 
lias  till.'  same  mean'iig,  is  of  the  same  origin.  The  Japhleti  of  the 
Georgians,  designating  a  division  of  their  country,  is  now  Imeretia, 
the  laliial  jili  being  changed  to  rii,  and  the  I  being  replaced  by  its 
coi-res])()n(ling  licjuid  v.  Imeretia  is  to  Japhleti  as  sainihrai  is  to 
Tubalai.  In  Italy  Tiphlat,  oi-  Diblath,  was  known  as  Tiburtus, 
the   iiaiiiei-  of   the   Tiber,   whose  descent  from    Amphiaraus   was 

'■  .liislMia,  \\\.  '.\. 

'"  Nuiiili.  .wxiii.  M\  :   .[(nciii.  xlviii.  2^1  ;  Kzt-k.  \i.  14  ;  Dent,  i,  1. 

''  U >nl>  (pf  th.-  Past,  i.  .m 

'■"  V./.i-k.  xwii.  "iO,  xxxviii.  2,  xxxix.  1. 

'■'  !'■.  '!'•  Il'iurl)!)!!!-^'-,  Nations  civilist'cs,  i.  222. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  75 

assumed  by  the  Romans  from  a  misunderstood  tradition  of  the 
Etruscans,  whose  Heber  was  unknown  to  them ;  and  he  is  the 
same  as  Tiberinus,  the  king  of  Alba  Longa,  in  whose  family  the 
names  Capys,  Capetus,  Procas,  Amulius,  and  Aventinus  represent 
the  Zerethite  Ziph,  Zophah,  Berigah,  Amal,  and  Jephunneh.  The 
union  of  tliis  line  with  Alba  began  in  the  Caucasus,  where  Iberi- 
ans and  Albanians  dwelt  side  by  side  ;  it  continued  on  the  eastern 
coast  of  the  Adriatic,  where  Illyria  lay  to  the  north  of  Albania ; 
and  extended  even  to  Britain,  where  Zerethite  Picts  counted 
Alban  among  their  ancestors,  and  shared  the  land  with  the 
Damnii  Albani. 

Tt  is  not  easy  to  indicate  the  process  by  which  Pasach,  the 
Pasku  i)f  the  Assyrians,  became  in  later  times  Pukud,  Pact,  and 
Pict.  It  may  have  been  brought  about  by  an  unconscious  har- 
monizing of  tribal  terminology  with  the  famous  names  Zereth, 
Japhlet,  Ashvath,  Birzavith,  and  this  is  more  natural  than  to 
attribute  i*".  to  the  tendency  of  children  and  uneducated  people  to 
add  a  linal  t  to  such  words  as  cliff  and  skiff.  For  almost  every- 
where outside  of  Greece  and  the  Grecian  Islands  the  posterity  of 
Pasach,  son  of  Japhlet,  were  called  Picts,  while  those  of  Paseach, 
son  of  Eshton,  retained  the  Basque  name.  In  the  case  of  the 
latter  there  were  no  related  names  ending  in  t  or  tit,  callinfj  for 
harmonious  modification  of  those  which  originally  terminated 
with  other  sounds.  In  Zerethite  nomenclature  Jehaleleel  presents 
analogy,  for  the  descendants  of  the  monarch  so  named  were  called 
Alaruil.  or  Alarodians.  and  llerda  and  Lerida  were  named  after 
hini,  as  well  as  Iluro.  Even  the  Arabian  deity  Alilat  displays 
tlie  same  tendency.  Herodotus  mentions  two  nations  of  Pactyans, 
one  of  which  was  conterminous  with  the  Armenian  Alarodians, 
and  whose  habitat  is  marked  by  Va.sa^da  on  the  borders  of  Iberia 
and  <  "olchis  :  the  other  was  in  the  Punjaub.-^  The  former  Pac- 
tyans  may  thus  be  identified  with  the  Iberians,  or  Tubalai.  But 
tlxjse  of  India  must  have  gained  their  seat  in  the  Punjaub  from 
some  otliei-  part  of  the  Assyrian  empire.  The  prophet  Jeremiah 
associates  the  Pekod  with  Merathaim  and  Babylon.-^  Tiglath 
Pilest-r  II.  also  ])]aces  them  in  Babylonia  as  the  Pucjudu  who  dwelt 

■-■-    Hfrn.il, t.  iii.   DH,  Wl. 

■'       .I.T.-Hl.   1.    L'l. 


76  THE   HITTITES. 

in  Lahiru,  Idibirina,  Hilimmu,  and  Pillutu,  bordering  on  Elam.-^ 
Sargon  calls  them  the  nasikat  of  Pukud  and  makes  them  allies  of 
the  Marsanians.-^  Sennacherib  mentions  the  Bukudu  and  sets 
them  between  the  Lakhiru  and  the  Gambuli,  the  last  of  whom 
lived  in  the  marshes  near  the  Persian  Gulf.^^  It  is  fortunate  that 
Tiglath  Pileser  has  preserved  the  names  of  their  cities,  for  Pillutu 
and  Hilimmu  identify  Pukud  with  Pasach  through  his  father 
Japhlet  and  uncle  Helem,  while  Lahiru  not  only  presents  the 
Illyrian  form  of  Jehaleleel,  but  enables  us  to  point  out  the  Indian 
home  of  the  Pactyans  as  Lahore  in  the  Punjaub.  Not  far  to  the 
east  of  the  classical  Lahora  flowed  the  river  Zaradrus,  a  memorial 
of  tlie  ancestral  Zei^eth.  At  some  future  time  it  may  be  possible 
to  tell  the  period  w^ien  the  Zerethites  divided  into  a  northern,  a 
central,  and  a  southern  famih^  and  to  account  for  the  dispersion 
and  enmity  to  Assyria  of  tribes  so  intimately  associated  with  the 
foundation  of  that  monarchy.  At  present  all  that  is  certainly 
known  is  that  such  a  separation  took  place ;  that  it  was  subse- 
<[uent  to  the  reign  of  Heber,  or  Apil  Sin,  who  calls  himself  king- 
<»f  Ur,  and  probably  to  those  of  Japhlet  and  Pasach,  since  their 
names  wei-e  claimed  alike  by  the  Zerethites  of  the  Caucasus  and 
of  Babylonia  ;  and  that  while  the  central  division  was  the  strengtli 
of  the  Assyrian  kingdom  proper,  being  represented  by  the  Kurds 
of  t(j-day,  the  northern  and  southern  off-shoots  were  hostile  to 
that  monarchy. 

It  wouM  bo  intei'esting  to  know  the  precise  relation  of  Japhlet 
and  his  family  to  the  Beerothite  line.  Already  the  daughter  of 
Japhlet,  or  Yupalladh,  has  appeared  in  relation  to  that  line  as 
Ilippolyte,  wife  of  Acastus,  who  slandered  Peleus,  the  father  of 
tliat  Achilles  who  is  well  identified  with  Saul  of  Rehoboth.  Again 
she  is  Hippolyte  the  Amazon,  wife  of  Theseus  and  mother  of 
Ifippolytus,  the  charioteer,  who  was  slandered  in  the  same 
way  by  Phaedra :  and  Theseus  and  Hippolytus  ai-e  Greek 
representatives  of  Ha<lad  and  Rehoboth.  Once  more  the 
'•onuectiun  appears  in  Butes,  son  of  Boreas,  who  is  Hadad's 
father    Bedad,    the    son    of    Beeri,    that    carried    off   Pancratis, 

-<  Hcconis  ..f  thr  r.'ist,  V.  102. 
-"■  li.'cords  (,f  th.-  Past,  vii.  l.S. 
■-■'■    K.-f^ords  (.f  tli<-  I'ast,  i.  21),  47. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  77 

the  sister  of  Epliialtes.  The  confirmation  of  these  traditions  is 
found  in  the  Mexican  story  of  Quetzalcoatl,  who  is  also  Saul  of 
Rehoboth.  As  a  Toltec  monarch,  although  an  intruder  and  not 
of  the  royal  Toltec  line,  he  nevertheless  bore  the  Toltec  title 
Topiltzin,  first  borne  by  .Taphlefc,  and  is  called  Topiltzin  Acxitl 
Quetzalcoatl.-''  The  medial  Acxitl  is  probably  an  Aztec  version 
of  Assur,  as  Japhlet  called  himself  Assur  Yupalladh.  Reckoning 
by  generations  from  the  time  of  Ziph,  and  allowing  the  three 
names,  Asher,  Beriffah,  and  Heber,  to  intervene  between  him  and 
Japhlet,  Rehob  or  Rehoboth  will  be  his  contemporary,  for 
J  ether,  the  nephew^  of  Rechab,  married  Ziph's  daughter  Bithiah, 
and  between  Rechab  and  Rehob  are  Beeri,  Bedad  and  Hadad. 
This  reckoning,  however,  is  most  precarious,  for  generations  are 
of  very  unequal  lengths.  Nevertheless,  there  is  nothing  improb- 
able in  the  union  of  Rehob  with  a  daughter  of  Japhlet,  which 
would  entitle  their  descendant  Saul  to  bear  the  name  Tiphlat,  or 
Topiltzin.  In  the  inscriptions  of,  or  in  honour  of,  Zur-Sin,  who 
has  been  taken  to  represent  Saul,  there  is  one,  the  last  word  of 
which  has  not  been  translated  : — 

"  Ningal,  mother  of  Ur,  delight  of  the  heart 
of  the  arreat  o-od  of  Dur,  he  built  tuhelini.'"^^ 
The  Ur  in  which   Zur-Sin  was  honoured  is  the  city  of  which 
Apil  Sin,  the  father  of  Yupalladh,  was  king.     If  Zur-sin,  or  Saul, 
built  Tubelini,  it  must  have  been  to  commemorate  his  ancestress, 
the  daughter  of  Japhlet,  from  whom   the  Tubalai   received  their 
name.      It  may  thus  be  Tophel  in  Arabia  Petraea,  or  Diblath  in 
the   land  of  Moab.     Tubelini   is  the  same   word  as  Dublin,  the 
ancient  name  of  which  was  Eblana  ;  and   Merlin,   in  his  famous 
prophecy,  mentions  a  British  Kaer  Dubalem,  out  of  which  a  fox 
was  to  issue  to  destroy  the  lion  of  Gloucester,  or  GlevunL^**     The 
following  from  the  Synchronous  History  of  As.syria  and  Baby- 
lonia is  to  be  reconciled  with  the  traditional  connection  of  Japhlet 
and  Rehob : — 
"  In  the  time  of  Assur  Yupalladh,  king  of  Assyria,  Cara-Murdas, 

'"    15.  fl<'  Jjourhourg. 
-'^    J'foordH  of  the  Past,  iii.  17. 

■■'"■*   The  fox  ,suf,'),'ests,  in  coniH^ctioii  witli  Saul,  tlif  llazar  Shual  (jr  village  of  the  fox 
ill  Southern  I'alcstinc. 


78  THE   HITTITES. 

king  of  Gan-Duniyas,  son  of  Mupallidhat-Serua, 

the  daughter  of  Assur  Yupalladh,  men  of  the  Cassi 

revolted  against  and  slew  him.     Nazi-bugas, 

a  man  of  low  parentage,  to  the  kingdom  to  be  over  them  they 
raised. 

exact  satisfaction 
to  Gan-Duniyas  went 
he  slew 
Burna-Buryas."^*' 
Mr.  George  Smith  calls  the  murdered  king  Cara-Hardas.  His 
predecessor,  Cara-Indas,  was  king  of  Babylon,  of  Sumir  and 
Akkad,  of  Kassu  and  of  Kara-Duniyas.  Burna-Buryas  was 
also  King  of  Gan-or  Kara-Duniyas,  and  he  belonged  to  the 
Zimrite  or  Sumir  family,  which  was  allied  with  the  Zerethites 
and  with  the  Temenites  of  Karrak.  Yet  no  such  names  appear 
among  the  Zimrites,  Temenites,  or  Ethnanites,  as  Cara  Indas  and 
Cara-Murdus,  or  Hardas.  As  for  the  Cassi,  Kassu,  or  Coss-aeans, 
they  may  have  been  Hushamites,  seeing  that  Husham  may  be 
read  Chusham,  or  Ammonites  of  the  fainily  of  Coz.  Now  the 
only  early  monai'ch  that  ruled  over  either  or  both  of  these,  and 
whose  name  at  all  answers  to  Cara-Indas,  is  Hadad,  who  might 
be  called  Indas  by  the  application  of  the  phonetic  law  that  made 
his  father  Bedad  a  Pandu,  or  Pandion.  This  being  the  case,  the 
preceding  Cara  answers  to  Ezer,  so  that  Cara-Indas  is  an  inver- 
sion of  Hailad-ezer,  who  otherwise  does  not  appear  in  the  ancient 
records  of  Babylonia.  After  his  death  Samlah  reigned  in  Edom 
and  Jabez  in  Egypt.  Professor  Saycc  is  right  in  calling  his  suc- 
cessor Cara-Murdas.  One  of  the  chief  places  of  the  Dimetae, 
wh(j  inhaljited  Dyved  or  Demetia  in  South  Wales,  was  Mai'i- 
dunum,  or  diov  Marthen.  The  name  is  old,  for  it  occurs  in  the 
Eugubiiie  inscriptions  as  Kara  Maratuno,  denoting  what  is  now 
Martinengo,  south-east  of  Bergamo,  in  northern  Italy. '^^  In  Gre- 
cian story  Murdas  is  called  .  Myrtilus,  and  it  is  related  that  he 
betrayed  (Euomaus,  whose  charioteer  he  was,  for  the  love  of  his 
daughter  Hijjpodamia,  but  Pelops  took  her  from  him  and  thi'ew 
him  into  the  sea,  just   as   Lycomedes  of  Scyros  threw  Theseus. 


'"    I{.c.,ids  .if  tho  ]^•l^,t,  iii.  2!t,  30. 

-I    Trans.  Celtic  Socy.  of  -Montreal,  1.SH7,  ]).  L'Ofi,   note  t)> 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  79 

Plutarch,  however,  has  a  Marathon  who  accompanied  the  Tyn- 
daridae  in  the  quest  of  Helen.  The  name  Myrtilus  is  derived 
from  myrfos,  the  myrtle  ;  accordingly,  the  tomb  of  Hippolytus 
was  placed  under  a  myrtle,  and  to  account  for  the  transparent 
dots  characteristic  of  the  leaves  of  the  myrtle  family,  it  is  reported 
that  Phaedra,  in  her  agitation  on  beholding  Hippolytus,  pierced 
them  with  her  bodkin.^-  Again  he  is  Immaradus,  called  a  son  of 
Eumolpus,  together  with  Ismarus.  Eumolpus  and  Ismarus  have 
already  been  identified  with  Beth  Rapha  and  his  descendant 
Samlah.  Immaradus,  v\'ho  fell  in  battle  with  the  Athenians,  is, 
therefore,  the  unhappy  Murdas,  who  leaves  Saul  in  the  care  of 
Samlah.  The  Persian  historians  represent  Zaul  as  tributary  king 
over  Ximruz,  or  Nimrod.  Between  the  Colchian  .'Eetes,  in  whom 
Hadad  has  been  found,  and  his  descendant  Saulaces,  the  Argon- 
autic  writers  place  Absyrtus,  whose  body  was  cut  to  pieces  by 
his  sister  Medea  as  she  Hed  with  Jason  ovet  the  Black  Sea.  An 
equally  tragic  story  is  that  of  Rechab,  called  Leucippus,  and 
wronfjlv  made  a  son  of  the  G^nomaus  whose  dauii'hter  was 
sought  by  Myrtilus.  In  love  with  Daphne,  he  disguised  himself 
as  a  woman  that  he  might  follow  her  in  the  chase,  but,  being 
detected  at  the  river  Ladon,  the  companions  of  the  fair  huntress 
despatched  him  with  their  darts.  Diodorus  makes  the  Naxian 
Leucippus  the  father  of  Smardius  and  places  before  him  in 
Naxos,  though  in  different  families,  Otus  and  Ephialtes,  who  fol- 
low Agassamenus,  the  successor  of  Butes,son  of  Boreas.  Taking 
out  Agassamenus  or  Ciiushaui,  there  remain  in  regular  order 
Beeri,  Bedad,  Hadad  contemporary  with  Japhlet,  RehoV)  and 
Murdas.  This  seems  to  be  the  historical  order,  so  that  Reiiob 
must  have  been  the  husband  of  Mupallidhat  Serua,  the  daughter 
of  Assur  Yupalladh,  and  the  father  of  hei'  son  Cara-Murdas,  whose 
evil  fate  overtook  him  in  Egypt,  his  murderers  being  the  Cassi, 
or  CJozites,  under  some  successor  of  Anul>.  tin.'  (Knomaus  of  the 
(jircek  story. 

As  representing  tlic  Bccrijthito  family  in  IJa'tiylonia,  the 
name  Zur-Sin,  king  of"  the  foui-  regions,  who  Ituilt  Tubelini, 
should  follow  that  of  ( "ara-Murdas.  Of  Hadar,  the  successor  of 
Zur-Sin,  ov  Saul,  no  inscriptions  have  yet  been  publish*;d  in  which 

•'■-    I ';i  11  sail i as,  ii.  32. 


80  THE    HITTITES. 

his  name  can  be  detected,  but  in  a  so-called  Cassite  list  there  are 
several  Babylonian  kings  whose  names,  if  Semitic,  are  readEtiru, 
if  Turanian,  Numgirabi.  This  Cassite  list  is  headed  with  the 
name  Ulam-Girbat,  which  marks  its  contents  as  partly  Zimrite,  or 
Sumerian.  for  Ulam  was  the  almost  exclusive  property  of  the 
Zinu'ites.  But  Shimon,  the  son  of  Hadarand  Mehetabel,  married 
Taia.  the  daughter  of  Bedan,  who  has  been  compared  with  Burna- 
Buryas  as  being  the  son  of  Ulam,  or  Ulam-Buryas.  The  inser- 
tion of  ancestors  of  intruding  lines  was  a  common  practice  on  the 
banks  of  the  Euphrates,  as  well  as  on  those  of  the  Nile,  so  that 
Etiru.  although  no  descendant  or  connection  of  the  Zimrites, 
might  easily  appear  in  th.e  dynasty  and  denote  Hadar.  His  suc- 
cessor. Etiru-Samas,  mav  be  Shimon,  son  of  Hadar,  but  the  fol- 
lowing Etiru-Bel  Matati  looks  very  like  Hadar's  consort  and 
Shimon's  mother,  Meheta-Bel.  The  successor  of  Shimon  was 
Amnon,  who-e  name  first  appears  denoting  a  country  or  people 
as  Amnanu  in  the  insci'iptions  of  Sin-Gasit,  of  Urukh.  In  this 
foi-m  Sin-Gasit.  or  in  that  propo.sed  by  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson, 
Sinsada,  the  name  cannot  be  reconciled  vVith  the  Kenite  genealogy, 
yet,  as  the  son  of  a  queen,  whose  name  is  doubtfully  i-ead  Belat- 
Sunat,  and  as  the  builder  and  ncnirisher  of  Bitanna,  as  well  as 
the  king  of  Amnanu,  the  person  so  called  can  hardly  be  other 
than  Amnon  himself,  the  son  of  Shimon  and  Taia,  Bedan's 
daughter,  ^bjre  solid  ground  is  reached  in  the  inscriptions  of 
Ismi-dagan  and  his  son  Gungunu,  which  have  been  found  to  set 
foi'th  Sheniidag,  the  son  of  Amnon,  and  his  son  Achian.  At  this 
point  the  guidance  of  the  Kenite  list  fails,  and  ti-adition  must 
associate  with  th<,'  Beerothite  line  Chushan  Rishathaim,  the 
Mesopotamian  enslaver  of  Israel. 


81 


CHAPTER  XII. 

The  HiTTiTES  at  the  Tigris  and   Euphrates  (Continued). 

Returning  to  the  Zerethite  family  in  its  Babylonian  connec- 
tions, the  oldest  name  on  the  monuments  is  that  of  Urukli,  a 
second  Arioch  of  Ellasar.  Several  brief  inscriptions  of  this  king 
have  been  found  at  Mucfheir,  Erech,  Larsa,  Nipur,  and  Zerghul. 
They  are  individually  uninteresting,  but  atibrd  the  information 
that  he  was  king  of  Ur  and  of  Sumir  and  Accad,  and  that  he  built 
and  restored  the  temples  of  the  Moon,  Bit  Timgal,  and  Bit  Sareser 
in  Ur,  of  the  Sun  in  Larsa,  of  Bit  Anna  in  Erech,  of  Bel  in  Nipur, 
and  of  Sarili  in  Zirgulla.  It  is  by  the  last  of  these  that  his  con- 
nection with  Asareel,  the  youngest  soil  of  Jehaleleel,is  indicated  : 
"  To  Sarili,  his  king  Urukh,  king  of  Ur,  in  Zirgulla  built."^  Ovid 
has  preserved  some  particulars  of  Uriikh's  history.  He  calls 
him  Orchamus,  the  seventh  from  Belus,  and  makes  him  a  Persian 
king,  giving  him  Eurynome  for  wife  and  Leucothoe  for  daughter. 
The  circumstance  celebrated  by  the  poet  is  the  love  of  Apollo  for 
Leucothoe,  and  the  conse(|uent  uidiappy  fate  of  the  maiden,  who 
was  buried  alive  by  her  father's  orders.'-  Pausanias  describes 
Eurynome  as  a  woman  in  the  upper,  and  a  tish  in  the  lower  part 
of  her  body,  thus  identifying  her  with  Derceto,  or  Atargatis,  who 
is  Jerigoth.-^  As  the  namer  of  the  Kenite  Tirathites,  or  Tirgathi, 
she  must  belong  to  the  family  of  Ezra,  being  the  (hiughter  of  that 
Kenite  patriarch,  or  of  his  son  Jether.  As  for  Urukh,  he  is 
simply  called  Hur  in  the  Kenite  genealogy,  which  is  much  con- 
fused by  the  introduction  of  the  impossible  Caleb,  s(hi  oi 
Hf/.ron.''  So  fr<'(|U('ntly  does  this  Caleb  enter  into  the  Li'encaloyy, 
that  it  seems  as  if  it  should  l)e  translated,  tlu^  dog,  expressiuLj'  the 
couteiiipt  of  tlie  editor  for  the  ( Jeutile  kings  ;ind  pi-iiiees   whose 


1     H.-r:..,,iw,f  tlif  Past,  iii.  10. 
''■    .M't;mii>r|ihc)s»'s,  iv. 
■'     I'.ius.'iiiias,  viii.    11. 
♦    1  ("lir.iii.  ii.  1- 
fC.) 


82  THE    HITTITES. 

families  he  chronicles.  As  Hur,  he  is  the  first  born  of  Ephrath, 
or  Ephratah,  who  is  the  Greek  Aphrodite  and  Norse  Frodi,  the 
goddess  of  love  and  mother  of  Eros.  This  Ephratah  belonged  to 
the  family  of  Bethlehem,  the  father  of  which  was  Sal  ma,  the  son 
of  Chedorlaomer,  and  grandson  of  Hareph.^  Asareel,  therefore, 
must  have  been  the  husband  of  Ephrath.  It  has  already  been 
shown  that  the  Tirgathi  included  the  line  of  Arba  and  Anak,  the 
former  of  whom  is  Arpoxais,  called  the  son  of  the  Scythian 
Targitaus.  In  Latin  story  Capys,  or  Zipli,  is  falsely  made  the 
son  of  Assaracus,  or  Asareel,  but  the  true  descent  is  found  in 
Anchises,  or  Anak,  who  is  the  son  of  Capys.  A  reason  for  the 
confusion  is  ilhistrated  in  the  story  of  Ovid,  who  terms  the  king- 
dom of  Orchamus  that  of  Saba.  Ziph  having  left  Babylonia  for 
Egypt,  his  younger  brother  became  his  virtual  successor,  and,  it 
may  be,  the  very  Assur  from  whom  Ziph's  descendant,  Assur 
Yupalladh,  took  his  title.  The  connection  of  Asareel  with  Salma 
of  Bethlehem  is  shown  in  the  tradition  that  Saracon  was  the  son 
of  Salamis,  the  daughter  of  Asopus.  Pausanias  inverts  the  order 
and  represents  Salamis,  the  mother  of  Asopus,  as  calling  the  island 
wliich  afterwards  bore  her  name,  Cychneus.  He  connects  the 
islan<l  with  Telamon,  or  Talmai,the  third  son  of  Anak,  and  at  the 
same  place  mentions  a  gigantic  skeleton  found  in  Lydia,  which 
some  attributed  to  Anax,  but  others  to  Geryon,  the  son  of 
Ciirysaor  and  Callirhoe,  and  others  again  to  Hyllus.*^'  Here  Hyllus 
and  Callirhoe  alike  denote  Jehaleleel,  and  Geryon  is  Asareel. 
There  is  not  much  visil)le  resemblance  in  the  two  words  Asareel 
and  Geryon,  but  the  process  by  which  the  one  was  changed  into  the 
other  is  exemplified  in  the  cognate  word  Jezi-eel,  which  is  the 
Zeraheon  of  tlu'  Arabs  and  the  Gerineum  of  the  Crusaders, 
(ieryou.  whose  father  Chrysaor  is  probabh'  a  repetition  of 
liis  own  name,  kept  his  herds  in  Iberia,  or  Erythea,  or  Acarnania, 
and  liiul  for  their  safekeeping  a  herdsman,  Eurytion,  and  the  do^ 
( »i-t1ios  the  progenj^  of  Typhon.  Now  as  Eurytion  and  Orthos 
i-i-pri'seiit  JethiM-  and  Jered,  it  would  seem  that  Asareel  had 
!if(|nir«'d  supremacy  over  the  Elamite  (xedors.  Acarnan,  who  also 
r«'prfSfiits  Asareel,  and    wiio   is   also  called  Acarnas,  was  the  son 

'    I  ClirMii,  ii,  50. 
'•    I 'all-.,  i.  ;<5. 


THE    HITTITES   AT  THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  83 

of  Alcmaeon  and  Callirhoe,  thus  uniting  the  lines  of  Lechem  or 
Bethlechem  and  Jehaleleel,  which  could  only  be  by  his  marriage 
with  Ephratah.  In  the  Teutonic  story  of  Gudjun,  that  princess 
becomes  as  the  wife  of  King  Jonakr  the  mother  of  Saurli,  Ham- 
dir,  and  Erp,  thus  whimsically  associating  Asareel  with  Haniath 
and  Hareph.  In  Greek  tradition  Callirhoe  is  the  wife  of  Tros 
Chrj'saor,  Geryon,  and  Alcmaeon,  which  is  a  symbolical  way  of 
connectinor  these  names  with  that  of  Jehaleleel.  Returningf  to 
Ephratah,  or  Aphrodite,  the  mother  of  Hur,  or  Urukh,  we  find 
her  connection  with  the  latter  set  forth,  not  merely  as  the  mother 
of  Eros  or  Cupid,  but  also  by  her  being  called  the  daughter  of 
Aphros  and  Eurynome.  or  according  to  Epimenidcs,  of  Cronus  and 
Eronyme,  as  well  as  by  her  epithets  Erycina  and  Argynnis,  and 
her  Assyrian  name  Architis,  quoted  by  Macrobius.  All  of  these 
names  have  reference  to  the  wife  of  her  son  Hur,  namely,  Jeri- 
goth,  called,  as  the  wife  of  Orchamus,  by  the  name  Eurynome  and 
identified  with  Atargatis  or  Derceto,  the  Syrian  Aphrodite. 
Through  her  again  Asareel  is  made  the  ancestor  of  the  family  of 
the  Venuses  in  the  Indian  mythology,  which  gives  to  her  as 
Durga  the  name  Karali.  Her  son  Eros  is  counted  to  Beth- 
Lechem.  in  the  statement  that  Orus  was  the  son  of  Lycaon.  But 
in  Sanchoniatho  she  is  called  Berutli  and  made  the  consort  of 
Elioun  and  tlip  mother  of  the  Phoenician  Uranus.  The  name  of 
Asareel  is  inverted  to  name  the  cannibal  Laestrygones,  whose 
ancestor  was  Lamus  or  Lechem,  and  in  whose  number  Antiphates 
or  Netophath  appears.  Now  Netophath  is  of  Salma,  and  among 
tlie  sons  of  Sarpedon,  or  Hareph,  there  is  an  Antiphates.  Asareel 
is  represented  in  Pausanias  by  Lycurgus,  who  was  a  son  with 
(,'ephfus  of  AI(!US  of  Tegea.  According  to  this  authoi",  he  did 
notliing  of  impoi'tance  beyond  cutting  off  a  wai-rifu'  named 
Ai-('thus,  a  fact  mentioned  in  the  Iliad.  His  sons  Ancacus  and 
Epochus  <lied,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  Echenius,  son  of  yKropus, 
of  ('<'j»h('us,  of  Aleus.  Here  again  Zij)h  is  the  father  of  Arba, 
wl'.o  was  the  grandfather  of  Achiinan,  yet  Agapenor,  the  son  of 
AneaiMis  and  grandson  of  Lycurgus,  ])uilt  a  temple  to  Aphrodite 
in  till'  (!y])riaii  Paphos.  P>y  a  siiuihir  iii\fi"sion  Asai-ecl  is  callrd 
liVr-otlit'i-scs  of  Illyria,  who  iiiai'ricd  Aga\'c,  daughter  of  Cadiinis. 
And  hi'  is  another    Lycurgus,  the   fathin-  of   ()j)h('ltes,  but  Aj)ollo- 


84  THE    HITTITES. 

dorus  makes  Eurynome  the  wife  of  Lycurgus,  son  of  Aleus.  Amid 
the  confusion  that  reigns  in  all  these  traditions,  there  is  evidence 
that  Asareel  is  the  Sarili  of  Urukh's  inscription,  and  that  he  is 
the  father  of  Hur,  the  first  born  of  Ephratah. 

Urukh  built  a  temple  to  Belat,  his  lady,  who  may  be  Ephratah, 
his  mother.  His  son  Dungi  calls  his  lady  Ninmarki,  the  first 
part  of  which,  nln,  a  fish,  may  translate  the  Circassian  urge 
Bas([ue  arraya,  Yukahirian  olloga,  as  the  chief  element  in  the 
name  of  Jerigoth,  which  entitled  her  to  be  made  a  fish  goddess. 
But  Dungi's  own  name  is  doubtful  in  the  inscriptions,  and  does 
not  appear  in  the  Kenite  list,  although  Dione,  a  name  of  Venus 
or  Aphrodite,  may  have  arisen  out  of  it.  The  three  sons  of  Jeri- 
goth were  Jesher,  Shobab,  and  Ardon,  the  first  of  whom  gave 
name  to  the  Geshurites,  who  at  one  time  occupied  the  southern 
border  of  Canaan,  but  in  the  days  of  Joshua  dwelt  with  the 
Maachathites  to  the  north  of  Gilead  and  Bashan.  Ai-don  again 
was  the  namer  of  the  Rutennu  of  Mesopotamia  and  Assyria,  and 
at  the  same  time  the  Duryodhana  of  the  Mahabharata,  who  was 
the  determined  enemy  of  Yudisthira,  or  Hadad,  the  son  of  Bedad. 
In  the  time  of  Joshua,  when  all  southern  Palestine  was  in  the 
hands  of  Amorites  and  Philistines,  three  Hittite  princes  of  this 
line  of  Asareel  held  Hebron.  These  were  Sheshai,  Ahiman  and 
Talmai."  They  were  doubtless  Geshurites,  for  the  only  other 
Talmai  was  a  king  of  Gesshur,  and  father  of  Maacah,  the  mother 
of  Ab.salom.^  That  rebellious  son  of  David  named  one  of  his 
daughters  after  his  mother,  and  she  became  the  wife  of  Rehoboam. 
This  old  woman,  for  she  was  queen  dowager  in  the  reign  of  her 
grandson  Asa,  introduced  into  Judah  the  worship  of  the  Zerethite 
goddess  Miphletzeth,  the  Muballidhat  Serua,  daughter  of  Yupall- 
adli,  whom  tlie  Beerothite  Rehob  married,  and  for  this  was 
removed  fi'om  being  (jueen  by  the  i-eforming  monarch  of  the 
Jews.''  'i'lio  father  of  the  three  princes  of  Hebron  was  Anak.  the 
son  of  Arba,  and  between  Arba  and  Jesher  in  ascending  oi-der, 
must  bo  ])laced  Jair  and  Segub,  whose  father  had  married  int(> 
the  Gile-adite  family  descended  from  Zinn-an.'"     There  had  been, 

"  Joshua  XV.  14. 

«  2  Sam.  iii.  8. 

"  1  Kind's  XV.  13. 

'»  1  Chn.ii.   ii.  L'l,  22. 


THE   HITTITES    AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  85 

however,  an  earlier  alliance  of  this  kind,  for  Urukh  calls  himself 
kino-  of  Sumir  and  Akkad,  as  does  his  son  Dungi.  Zimran  may 
have  placed  himself  and  his  servants  under  the  rule  of  Urukh, 
whom  he  cannot  have  preceded  by  many  years.  In  an  inscrip- 
tion on  a  signet  cylinder  these  words  are  read  : — 

"  To  Urukh,  the  powerful  man,  king  of  Ur,  Hassimir,  viceroy 
of  Isbawufi-Bel,  thv  servant." ^^ 

The  name  Isbaggi  is  that  of  one  of  Abraham's  sons  by 
Keturah,  namely  Ishbak,  who  seems  thus  to  have  been  Urukh's 
contemporary  and  tributary.^-  It  remains  to  be  explained  how 
Urukh  and  Dungi  arrogated  to  themselves  the  title  of  kings  of 
Akkad. 

The  tirst  king  of  Akkad  or  Agade  was  Sai'gon.  He  tells  the 
story  of  his  infancy  in  the  following  words : — 

''  Sargina,  the  powerful  king,  king  of  Agade  am  I. 

My  mother  was  enceinte,  my  father  knew  not  of  it. 

My  father's  brother  oppressed  the  country. 

In  the  city  of  Azupirani,  which  by  the  side 

of  the  Euphrates  is  situated,  she  conceived  me  ; 

my  mother  was  enceinte  and  in  a  grove  brought  me  forth 

she  placed  me  in  a  cradle  of  wicker, 

with  bitumen  my  exit  she  closed,  and  launched  me 

i)n  the  i-iver,  which  away  from  her  carried  me. 

The  river  to  Akki  the  Al)al  floated  me. 

Akki  the  Abal  in  tenderness  of  bowels  lifted  me; 

Akki  the  Abal  as  his  child  brought  me  up  ; 

Akki  the  Abal  as  his  liusl)andman  placed  me, 

and  in  my  husbandry  Ishtar  prospered  me."'-^ 
A  similar  story  is  told  by  /Elian  of  Tilgamus,  a  Chaldean 
name,  answering  perfectly  to  the  Assyrian  Sargon.  Sacchoris, 
king  ot"  Baljylon,  being  informed  by  an  oracle  that  a  son  of  his 
daui^hter  would  take  possession  of  his  kingdom,  shut  her  up  in 
oli>>f  c(jnttn('inent  in  a  tower,  to  which,  however,  some  obscure 
man  uaim-d  acc(;ss  and  won  the  prisonei-'s  atleetion.  When  her 
son  was  1m>i'ii,  the  custodians,  fearing  the  wratii  of  the  king,  threw 


'1    K.-.-,„.i~  ,,f  tli<-  Past,  iii.  10. 
'■'   <  ;<-iii--is  x\\ .  2. 

1"'  }t>T..r.i-  of  til.-  I'ast,  V. :(, ;-,(;. 


86  THE   HITTITES. 

him  out  of  a  window  in  the  tower  and  he  would  have  perished  had 
not  an  eagle  received  the  child  on  its  outspread  wings.  The 
sagacious  and  benevolent  bird  deposited  the  infant  in  a  garden, 
the  owner  of  w  hich  took  care  of  the  eagle's  charge  and  called  the 
boy  Tilgamus.  When  the  child  came  to  manhood  he  took  pos- 
session of  the  kingdom  of  Babylon.^*  In  Greek  story  the  inci- 
dents of  Sargon's  account  of  his  infancy  are  transferred  to  Perseus 
and  his  mother  Danae,  and  somewhat  similar  is  the  legend  of 
Auge  and  her  son  Telephus.  But  in  Welsh  tradition  the  infancy 
of  Taliesin  answers  perfectly  to  that  of  Sargon,  for  he  was 
exposed  by  his  mother  in  a  coracle  which  was  drifted  to  the  fish- 
ing weir  of  Gwyddno  Garanhir;  a  petty  king  of  Cardigan,  whose 
son  Elfin  became  the  protector  of  the  child.  But  Taliesin, 
althouofh  his  name  agrees  witli  that  of  Tilgamus,  was  no  con- 
(jueror  save  in  bardic  contests.  It  is  a  coincidence,  also,  that 
Acca  Larentia,  the  wife  of  Faustulus,  who  was  the  herdsman  of 
King  Numitor,  was  the  foster  mother  of  the  twins,  Romulus  and 
Remus,  whom  Amulius,  the  brother  of  Numitor  and  usurper  of 
his  kingdom,  had  exposed  in  a  basket  on  the  Tiber.  The  basket 
drifted  into  shore,  and  a  she  wolf  suckled  the  children,  as  in  the 
story  of  Telephus  a  hind  is  said  to  have  done.  Then  Faustulus 
brought  the  twins  home  to  Acca.  Coming  to  years  of  manhood 
they  were  recognized  by  their  grandfather  Numitor,  whom  they 
restored  to  the  kingdom,  from  which  they  expelled  the  perfidious 
Amulius.  The  Latin  story  contains  part  of  the  tradition  of 
Grchamus  and  his  daughter  Leucothoe,  for  when  Amulius 
exposed  the  children  in  tiie  Tiber,  he  at  the  same  time  caused 
their  mother  Rhea  Sylvia  to  be  buried  alive.  The  nominal  con- 
nection of  the  stories  of  Sargon  and  Romulus  is  found  in  Sargon's 
son  called  Naram-Sin  or  Rim-Agu,  but  who  in  the  Kenite  list  is 
Harum.  Still  ancjthor  story  is  that  of  Telegonus,  whose  name 
correspon<ls  to  that  of  Tilganms.  He  was  born  to  Odysseus  of 
Ithaca  liy  Circe,  the  enchantress  of  the  island  /Eaea,  and  was 
there  deserted  l)y  his  father.  Hut  Circe  also  bore  two  other  sons 
named  Agi'ins  and  Latinus.  Once  more  our  hero  is  the  namer  of 
the  Telchiiis,  wondei-  woi'kers  of  Rhodes,  who  counted  among 
tlifui  Megalcsius,  (Jnneiius,  Niki)n,  ami  Simon,  with  Actaeus 
theif  jcadi'i-. 

'«     I).^  Aniiiialil.us,  xii.  21. 


THE   HITTITES   AT  THE  TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  87 

All  of  tliese  stories  centre  in  Regem,  the  eldest  son  of  Jahdai, 
who  is  a  wise  Odysseus  born  long  before  his  time,  an  Actaeus 
father  of  Telchin,  as  was  Odysseus  of  Telegonus,  and  an  Akkad 
who  stands  at  the  head  of  the  Akkadian  line  ;  for  the  cuneiform 
languages  accentuate  the  aspirate  of  Jahdai  or  Jachdai,  which  the 
Egyptian  and  Arabic  drop  in  Aadtous  and  Adite.  Sacchoris,  the 
father  of  the  deserted  wife,  is  Seir  or  Segir,  the  Horite,and  Akki 
the  Abal,  Acca  Larentia,  Auge,  mother  of  Telephus,  and  ^aea. 
the  abode  of  Circe,  take  their  name  from  his  father  Ajah,  the  son 
of  Zibeon  and  descendant  of  the  Horite  dux  Ebal.^ '  The  children 
of  Seir  were  Lotan,  who  is  the  Latinus  united  with  Telegonus, 
and  Timna  or  Timnag.  The  Horites  spoke  a  Semitic  language 
and  taught  tlie  same  to  Sargon  of  Agade.  Now  the  meaning  of 
Timna,  according  to  Gesenius,  is  '"  restrained  from-  intercourse 
with  men,"  and  certainly  Gesenius  never  dreamt  of  connecting 
one  whom  he  deemed  an  obscure  Canaanitic  woman  with  the 
story  of  Sacchoris  and  Tilgamus.  This  Timna  became  the  concu- 
bine of  Eliphaz,  the  eldest  son  of  Esau  and  the  mother  of  a  junior 
Amalek.^'*  This  must  have  been  subsequent  to  her  desertion  by 
Jahdai.  But  this  second  union  explains  the  connection  of  Tele- 
phus and  Auge,  and  the  adoption  of  Taliesin  by  Elphin.  We 
must  refjai'd  the  tale  of  Saro-on  as  a  true  one,  and  all  similar 
stories  as  imperfect  co{)ie,s  of  the  original.  It  appears,  therefore, 
that  Jahdai,  who  belonged  to  the  Zuzim  or  Achuzamites,  dwelling 
in  what  afterwards  was  the  land  of  Annnon,  while  a  young  man 
travelled  as  an  adventurer  to  a  certain  city  on  the  Euphi'ates 
called  Azui)irani,  where  Seir  or  Segii-  the  Horite  reigned  ;  that 
he  met  Timna,  the  daughter  of  that  king  and  sister  of  Lotan,  and 
by  her  had  a  son  named  Rekem,  whom  he  perfidiously  deserted  ; 
and  that  after  his  departure,  Ajali,  the  grandfather  of  Tinnui, 
protected  her  cliild.  Subse(|Uently  Timna  accepted  the  suit  of 
Eliphaz,  whose  father  Esau  ha'l  man-ied  Aholibamali.  the 
dau^diter  of  Anah,  Ajali's  brothei-.  When  Saigon  says  that  his 
fathers  l»r(jthei-  op])r('ssed  the  land  we  are  unal)le  to  follow  him, 
ti")r  the  i\enit<.'  list  does  not  mention  his  In-other.  Thus  Saiijon 
or  Sai'-iiuykiii  is  Ilegeiii  the   sou   of  .Jachdai,  'I'ele^onus   the   son 

'■'    ('••■n.  w.wi.  2(».  'Jl. 
•''    ( i<n.  xx.w  i     IL',  'Jl'. 


88  THE   HITTITES. 

of  Odysseus,  Telchin  the  son  of  Actaeus,  and  Tilgamus  the 
grandson  of  Sacchoris.  Such  is  the  story  of  the  infancy  of  him 
who  revolutionized  for  a  time  the  history  of  the  east  and  made 
liis  influence  felt  in  Egypt.  Few  names  are  more  widely  extended 
in  the  traditions  of  the  world  than  that  of  Regem.  To  the  Arabs 
he  is  known  as  Lokman  ;  to  the  Armenians  and  Georgians  as 
Thargamos ;  to  the  Hindus  as  Lakshman,  Ulkhamukha,  and 
Crishna.  In  their  annals  of  Sicyon  the  Greeks  repeated  his 
name  as  Telchin  and  Thelxion ;  in  Italy  he  was  Tarquin  the 
Lucumo.  Teutonic  song  preserves  his  memory  as  Regin  the 
smith,  and  Irish  history  as  Luighne  of  the  line  of  Heremon.  Even 
in  America  the  Irocjuois  Book  of  Rites  acknowledges  the  primacy 
of  Tekarihoken ;  and  the  pagans  of  Guatemala  adore  Hurakan. 
Already  in  connection  with  the  story  of  Jabez  the  tale  of  the 
Dispossessed  Princes  has  been  set  forth.  When  Jahdai  married 
tlie  Ammonian  Zobebah  and  thus  became  the  second  Amenemes, 
it  was  understood  that  the  ci'own  of  Memphis  should  descend  only 
to  their  joint  offspring.  Thus  the  infant  Jabez  gained  the  suc- 
cession, and  Regem  with  his  brothers  Jotham,  Geshan,  Relet, 
Ephah,  and  Shaaph  were  excluded.  Regem  was  in  the  Baby- 
lonian kingdom  of  >Seir  the  Horite,  but  Geshan  and  Relet  seem 
to  have  accompanied  their  father  to  his  new  kingdom  and  to  have 
settled  on  the  north-eastern  border  of  Egypt,  Geshan  in  the  land 
of  Goshen  named  after  him,  and  Relet  in  Beth  Ralet  to  the  north 
of  the  Arish  or  river  of  Egypt.  Between  these  two  domains  lay 
the  wilderness  of  Etam,  to  which  part  of  the  native  royal  family 
of  Egypt  had  withdrawn,  and  with  them  Relet  made  alliance, 
maiTving  either  a  daughter  of  Jezreel  or  his  sister  Zelelponi,  who 
is  the  (ircck  Persephone,  daughter  of  Ceres,  whom  Pluto  carried 
a\va\'  to  his  realm  of  darknes.s.  From  this  union  sprang  Maachah, 
thf;  head  of  the  Maachathites,  who  dwelt  for  a  time  with  the 
( It'shurites  in  southei-n  Palestine,  but  afterwards  were  driven  to 
.Iczi-c<-]  and  Megiddo,  south  of  Carmel,  and  finally  sought  refuge 
i"i-oin  tlie  Amorites  in  the  north  of  Ba.shan.^"  The  whole  family 
111'  .Jalulai  was  i-cgarded  as  Plutonian,  and  its  members  were  the 
gods  of  the  uiidci-  world.  Jahdai  himself  was  Hades  ;  Regem 
was  Oi-cns  oi-   I'ragum  :  Jotham,  Aidoneus  :  Geshan,  Agesander  ; 

''     1  ''hiMii.  ii.  4S,  iii:ik<'s  .Mauchuh  u  woman  1 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  89 

Pelet,  Pluto,  Plutus,  Polydectes,  and  Polydeginon.  So  also  in 
Egypt,  Balot  was  the  Elysium  ;  and  in  Assyria  Bit-Hedi,  the 
abode  of  the  dead.  This  imagery  will  be  found  throughout  the 
world,  indicating  that  the  Aadtous  of  the  Egyptians  were  the 
inventors  of  the  Funereal  Ritual  of  that  people  and  of  the  religi- 
ous system  which  it  illustrates.  The  Arabs  were  better 
acquainted  with  the  name  of  Pelet  than  with  that  of  any  other 
Adite  king,  except  Regem  or  Lokman.  Pelet  they  called  Walid, 
but  their  accounts  of  him  are  fabulous  in  the  extreme  and  con- 
tradictory. Walid  is  sometimes  called  a  son  of  Ad,  at  others  of 
Amalek,  and  it  is  related  that  before  the  time  of  Joseph  he  con- 
quered Lower  Egypt  and  was  the  first  to  assume  the  name  of 
Pharaoh.  After  a  few  generations  his  posterity  was  expelled  by 
the  native  Egyptians  and  finally  destroyed  by  Israel. ^'^  Riyan, 
the  son  of  this  Walid, was  converted  by  Joseph  to  the  worship  of  the 
true  God.  He  was  a  most  accomplished  prince,  for  he  conversed 
with  his  spiritual  instructor  and  prime  minister  in  no  fewer  than 
seventy  languages.  Some  Arabian  writers  maintain  that  the 
same  Pharaoh  lived  till  the  time  of  Moses,  a  case  of  longevity 
worthy  of  tiie  Shah  Nameh  and  Raja  Tarangini,  but  the  general 
opinion  is  that  Al  Walid,  the  Adite,  before  whom  the  Hebrew 
prophet  wrought  signs  and  wonders,  was  the  son  of  Masab,  the 
son  of  Riyan.  Riyan  may  stand  for  Regem,  or  for  his  son 
Harum,  but  Masab,  called  the  sou  of  Kabus,  is  undoubtedly  Mez- 
aluib.  "  Abulfeda  says  tiiat  Masab  being  one  hundred  and  seventy' 
years  old,  and  having  no  child,  while  he  kept  the  herds  (a  strange 
occupation  foi*  a  king),  saw  a  cow  calve,  and  heard  her  say  at  the 
same  time,  (J,  Masab,  l)e  not  grieved,  for  thou  shalt  have  a  wicked 
son,  who  will  be  at  length  cast  into  hell.  And  he  accordingl}^ 
had  tills  Walid,  who  afterwards  coming  to  be  king  of  Egypt, 
proved  to  be  an  impious  tyrant."  In  the  C'rishna  legends  P(det 
occupies  a  subordinate  position  as  J^ala<U'va,  the  faithful  brother 
of  tliat  liero.  In  the  Rainayana  he  is  put  in  the  place  of  Jabe/, 
as  Bhai'at,  by  whose  elevation  Rama,  Lakshman,  and  Sati'ugna 
we-re  dispossess(;d  ;  but  he  is  i-epcesented  as  a  gcmerous  brothel', 
hasteniiiL,'^  after  Rjiiiia  and  \ainly  seeking  to  indiK.-e  him  to  accept 
the  crown.      In  the  (Ireek  and  Latin  \-ersions  of  llittite  tradition 


90  THE   HITTITES. 

Pelet  rises  to  the  highest  dignity,  one  of  the  twin  brethren  typifi- 
ing  the  whole  Hittite  race  as  the  Dioscuri,  for  he  is  Polydeukes 
or  Pollux,  worthy  to  be  ranked  with  Castor  or  the  great 
Achashtari.  Castor  was  slain  by  the  sons  of  Aphareus,  but  the 
mighty  Pollux  avenged  his  brother's  death  and  brought  him  to 
an  intermittent  life  by  sharing  his  immortality  Avith  him.  This 
fable  must  relate  to  the  wars  of  Seti  Menephtah,  or  Zoheth, 
grandson  of  Ophrah,  with  the  Achashtarite  line  of  Ma  Reshah  on 
the  Arish  and  Serbonian  bog,  and  with  the  Maachathites  farther 
north  in  Beth  Palet,  and  may  refer  to  the  conditions  of  their 
league  agaiu.st  the  Egyptian  power,  as  involving  alternate  com- 
mand of  the  allied  armies,  generously  consented  to  by  the 
descendants  of  Pelet  in  spite  of  some  signal  weakening  of  the 
mi<dit  of  Ptosli.  The  Sanscrit  records  also  recoofnize  the  iiuasi 
divinity  (jf  Pelet  as  Pulastya,  the  strong  Yakcha,  fathei*  of  Kuvera, 
who  takes  the  place  of  Plutus  as  the  god  of  riches,  for  Kuvera  is 
Sheber,  the  eldest  son  of  Maachah.^^  Unhappily  the  Greeks  have 
preserved  little  or  nothing  of  the  history  of  Polydorus,  son  of 
Cadmus,  or  Getam,  his  father-in-law,  who  is  said  to  have  married 
Nycteis,  a  disguise  of  his  son  Maachah,  the  Macedo,  son  of  Osiris 
of  Diodorus,  and  to  have  been  the  fathei'  of  an  impossible  Lab- 
dacus.  But  northern  Europe  knows  him  well  as  Baldur,  son  of 
Odin  :— 

"I>aldiir  the  white  Sun-god  has  departed, 
lieautiful  as  summer's  dawn  was  he. 
Loved  of  gods  and  men,  the  royal  hearted 
Baldur,  the  white  Sun  god,  has  dei)arted — " 

He  was  the  brother  of  Asa  Thor,  and  came  with  the  rest  of  the 
Aesir  from  AsganI  in  th(i  far  cast.  Nothing  could  harm  Baldur 
the  good,  the  invulnerable  son  of  Odin,  it  was  thought,  so  that 
the  Aesir  amused  themselves  hurling  their  darts  at  his  body  and 
striking  at  him  with  sword,  lance  and  battle-axe.  But  the  mis- 
tl«'t<M',  that  belonged  neither  to  earth,  sea,  nor  sky,  had  taken  no 
oath  to  leave  him  umiKjlested  ;  and  the  blind  Hodur  with  no 
rliouuht  of  evil  in  his  mind,  obeyed  the  guiding  hand  of  the 
tempter  Loki,  and  launched  the  apparently  feeble  missile  full  at 
his    l.i-others   hi-fust,   wlio  fell  to  the  gi'ouml  piei-ced  through  and 

'•'    \'i-linu  I'uiaiiH,  UL'. 


THE    HITTITE   AT  THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  91 

through.  HermoJer  tiien  undertook  his  perilous  journey  to 
Helheim  to  bring  his  brother  back,  but  Hela  held  her  own.  Here 
Herinod,  or  Hermoder,  is  a  historical  personage,  Harum  the  son 
of  Regeni ;  yet  Pelet's  wonderful  story  is  wrapped  in  mystery 
which  the  light  of  future  Egyptian  studies  may  yet  dispel.  Once 
more  Pelet  is  Pirithous,  noblest  of  men  and  truest  friend,  who, 
hearing  of  the  exploits  of  Theseus,  invaded  his  land.  The  Athen- 
ian monarch  came  to  repel  the  foe  that  already  was  carrying  off 
his  herds,  but  when  Pirithous  beheld  him  in  all  his  manly  beauty 
he  forebore  to  tight,  and  stretching  forth  his  hand  cried:  'Be 
judge  thyself;  what  satisfaction  dost  thou  re(|uii"e?"  "Thy 
friendship,"  answered  Theseus,  full  of  ecjual  admiration  ;  and  the 
heroes  swore  eternal  fidelity.  Together  they  fought  the  Centaurs, 
whom  in  the  Teutonic  tale  Hodur  represents,  and  in  pleasant 
companionship  they  pursued  the  Calydonian  boar, or  the  Gileadites 
of  Zimri,  who  had  foresworn  allegiance  to  Akkad,  and  had  ranged 
themselves  on  the  side  of  the  Zeretliites  and  the  Gedors  of  Elam. 
But  the  happy  days  of  friendship  came  to  an  end  when  Pirithous 
sought  to  carry  off  Persephone,  for  though  his  faithful  friend 
Theseus,  who  had  stuck  by  him  to  the  last,  was  delivered  by  Her- 
cules from  the  bondage  of  the  under  world,  that  hero  failed  to 
rescue  the  Athenian's  second  self,  for  the  earth  quake'l  beneath 
his  feet  as  he  extended  his  hand  to  the  prisoner  on  the  enchanted 
rock,  and  Pii'ithous  was  left  there  for  ever.  No  one  has  a  bad 
word  for  Pelet,  but  in  every  quarter  his  praises  are  sung.  There 
must  have  been  something  singularly  attractive  in  a  character 
that  receives  such  universal  praise.  Achashtari,  or  Castor,  is  but 
a  shadowy  vision  in  the  distant  })ast,  but  Pelet,  or  Pollux,  is  true 
tl(;sh  and  Ijlood,  and  that  of  earth's  very  best. 

Returning  to  Regem,  we  find  him  in  Buddhist  story  as  THka- 
niukha.  tin-  son  of  king  Amba,  or  Okkaka,  and  his  (|ueen  Hasta, 
will)  with  his  thi'ee  tii'otliers  was  set  aside  that  Janta,  the  son  of 
a  vouiig  low-caste  woman,  might  be  set  u[)on  the  throne.  In 
tlif  Raiiiayaiia  lif  is  i-e;illy  repi'csentfd  \>y  IJama,  the  eldt-st  son 
of  I  )asai-atb;i,  king  of  ()udt',  or  Ayodya,  who  is  Harum,  the  son 
of  It'-gfm,  but  his  iioniiiial  I'epresciitative  is  jjakshmaii.  The 
tlu'iM-  bi-otlnTs,  Rama,  L;iksliman,  and  Satrugna,  were  disinhfritid 
in  fa\oui"  of  Bliarat,  whose  mothfi'   had   gainrd   ascendancy  o\rr 


92  THE   HITTITES.  . 

the  king.  This  pre-eminence  of  Bharat  agrees  with  the  Arabian 
exaltation  of  Walid,  and  seems  to  indicate  a  viceroyalty  of  Pelet 
under  Jabez,  which  the  magnanimous  Bharat  offered  to  resign  to 
his  elder  brother ;  but  Rama  and  Lakshnian  went  fortli  to  seek 
their  fortunes  elsewhere,  as  did  Ulkamukha  and  his  brothers  in 
the  Buddliist  tradition.  They  allied  themselves  with  the  Bharatas, 
but,  as  the  chief  supporters  of  Yudisthira,  Regem  appears  under 
the  name  of  Krishna,  a  Yadu,  the  son  of  Aditi,  and  father  of 
Dharma.  He  was  a  fatal  cliild,  like  Tilgamus  and  Romulus,  and 
like  the  former  was  brought  forth  in  a  prison  into  which  Kansa, 
a  tyrant,  had  thrown  his  sister  Devaki.  He  was  reared  b}-  Nanda 
in  the  land  of  cows,  and  became  a  mighty  warrior,  the  overthrower 
of  numberless  enemies,  and  the  right  arm  of  the  Bharatas.  Like 
Achilles,  he  was  vulnerable  in  the  heel,  and  in  that  part  of  his 
body,  as  he  was  one  day  reposing,  a  huntsman  shot  him  so  that 
h<'  died.  In  the  Arabian  traditions  Lokman  was  the  only  Adite 
of  note  who  escaped  when  divine  judgment  fell  on  the  nation  for 
its  idolatry.  The  prophet  Hud  had  vainly  sought  the  reforma- 
tion of  the  people ;  a  few  only  believed  him.  Then  drought 
attticted  the  land,  and  the  Adites,  instead  of  turning  to  God,  sent 
three  envoys,  of  whom  Lokman  was  one,  to  offer  sacrifice  at  Mecca 
and  pray  for  rain.  One  of  the  three  ascended  the  mountain  of  the 
Amalekites  and  sacrificed  the  victims,  when  three  clouds  of  vary- 
ing size  and  blackness  appeared  overhead,  and  a  voice  from  heaven 
cried  :  "  Choose  for  thy  nation."  The  envoy  chose  the  largest  and 
darkest,  when  descending  as  a  whirlwind  it  swept  him  away,  and 
hastening  to  the  Adite  land  involved  the  tribe  in  ruin.  But  those 
who  had  believed  Hud  lived,  and  Lokman  ruled  over  them  for  a 
long  time,  after  which  they  were  changed  into  monkeys.  Some 
say  that  lu;  reigned  a  tluMisand  years,  after  which  Yarub,  the  son 
of  Kalitan,  eoiHjuered  the  Adites.  Lokman  was  a  gi'eat  civilizer. 
In  Mareb,  the  capital  of  Sheba,  he  made  his  capital,  and  the  land 
altei'iiately  desolated  by  droughts  and  inundated  by  mountain 
torrents,  he  tui-ned  into  a  garden,  by  building  the  dyke  of  Arim, 
a  ui'oat  i-eservoir  which  I'eceived  the  surplus  waters  and  gave  them 
fiiitli  ill  time  of  drought.  He  was  called  ])hu  L'nuscour,  or  the 
man  of  the  vultui'es,  and  liis  vultures  liore  the  name  of  Lubad. 
I  bii-  is  what  the  (Quiches  of  ( iuatemala  say  of  the  Adite  calamity  : 


THE   HITTITES   AT  THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  93 

"  Such  were  the  wooden  men  and  pith  women,  such  the  children 
they  generated,  and  whose  descendants  so  multiplied  that  they 
sufficed  to  people  the  world.  But  fathers  and  children,  from  lack 
of  intelligence,  did  not  employ  the  tongues  they  had  received  to 
praise  the  benefit  of  their  creation,  and  never  dreamt  of  raising 
their  eyes  to  glorify  Hurakan.  Then  they  were  carried  away 
with  a  flood.  A  rain  of  resin  and  pitch  fell  from  heaven.  A  bird 
called  Xecotcowatch  tore  out  their  eyes  ;  another  called  Camalotz 
cut  oti'  their  heads  ;  and  a  beast  named  Cotzbalam  ground  their 
bones.  Such  was  the  end  of  these  ungrateful  men  ;  for  they  had 
failed  to  render  thanks  to  their  mother  and  their  father,  to  the 
face  of  the  Heart  of  Heaven,  whose  name  is  Hurakan.  And 
because  of  them  the  earth  was  darkened  and  it  rained  night  and 
day.  And  men  went  and  came  beside  themselves,  as  if  stricken 
with  madness  ;  they  sought  to  ascend  to  the  roofs,  and  the  houses 
crumbled  beneath  them ;  they  sought  to  climb  the  trees,  and  the 
trees  shook  them  ofl'  far  from  them.  And  when  they  went  to 
caverns  and  grottos  for  refuge,  immediately  these  shut  them  in. 
Such  was  their  punishment  and  their  destruction.  But  the 
creators  preserved  a  small  number  of  them  as  a  memorial  of  the 
wooden  men  they  had  made  ;  these  are  the  little  beings  that  we  call 
monkeys,  and  that  dwell  in  oui"  forests  to-day." ''"^  In  the  Rama- 
yana  tlie  hero  Rama  is  said  to  have  been  attended  by  an  army  of 
monkeys,  under  the  guidance  and  command  of  Hanuman,  the 
monkey  king.  Another  monkey  story  is  that  of  the  Arimi,  who 
mocked  Jupiter  when  he  asked  their  aid  against  the  Titans,  where- 
upon the  ofl'ended  deity  changed  them  into  apes.  Some  writers 
place  the  scene  of  this  tran.sformation  off  the  coast  of  Campania 
in  Italy,  where  were  the  Pithecus-ae,  or  Monkey  islands  ;  others 
situate  it  in  Asia  Minoi".  But  Strabo  explains  it  when  he  sa^s 
that  the  Tyi'rhenians  call  apes  ar'nn'i.  If  this  name  was  in  use 
among  the  Hittites  to  denote  animals  of  the  monkey  tribe  in 
ancient  "lays,  it  must  have  cliangcd  its  sigm'ti cation,  for  the 
Georgian  'ircnt'i  and  lias(|ue  oir'i  n  now  denote  a  deer.  In  Pei'u- 
vian,  how('V(;r,  Ibinui,  which  seems  to  bo  the  same  word,  means 
beast  in  g<'neral  :  and  in  the  same  Quiclnia  language  an  ex|)lana- 
tion    is    found    f)f   the   name   (J(,'reopes,  applied   t(j   the   apes   that 

■■-'"    15.  lie  I'.ijurliiiiir^',  N.'UiuiiH  Civilist'-L-H,  i.  55. 


94  THE    HITTITES. 

infested  Lydia  in  the  time  of  Otnphale  and  Hercules,  for  cara- 
cJiupa-y,  which  must  have  originally  been  a  name  for  a  monkey 
now  means  that  commoner  creature  of  arboreal  habits,  the  squirrel- 
It  beino-  o-ranted  that  ariin  was  a  Hittite  word  for  ape,  the  names 
of  Naram  Sin,  son  of  Sargon  ;  Harum,  son  of  Regem ;  Rama 
brother  of  Lakshman  ;  and  Arim,  the  dyke  of  Lokman,  show  how 
it  came  to  be  applied  to  a  people.  It  is  indeed  the  Armenian 
name,  for  Armenaeus  in  Moses  of  Chorene  is  the  son  of  Haic,  and 
grandson  of  Thargamos.'^ 

The  Buddhist  and  Brahmanical  stories  of  the  dispossessed 
princes  are  in  general  narratives  of  fact,  although  incorrect  in 
nuinejs  and  details.  The  same  account  is  given  in  the  Kagyur  of 
the  Tibetans  :  "  To  Ikshwaku  succeeds  his  son,  who.«:e  descendants 
Cone  hundred)  afterwards  successively  reign  at  Potala,  the  last  of 
whom  was  Ikshwaku  Videhaka.  He  has  four  sons.  After  the 
death  of  his  first  wife  he  marries  again.  He  obtains  the  daughter 
of  a  king,  under  the  condition  that  he  shall  give  his  throne  to  the 
s(m  tiiat  shall  be  born  of  that  princess.  By  the  contrivance  of 
the  chief  officers  to  make  room  for  the  young  prince  to  the  suc- 
cession, he  orders  the  expulsion  of  his  four  sons.  The  princes  set 
out  to  .seek  their  fortune,  and  the  narrative  proceeds  much  in  the 
same  way  as  in  the  Singhalese  legend.  The  descendants  of  Vide- 
jiaka,  to  the  numl)er  of  5.5,000,  reigned  at  Kapilawastu."  -  The 
Singhalese  legend  here  mentioned  is  that  called  the  Buddhist 
story,  and  it  tells  how  the  princes  came  upon  a  famous  ascetic, 
called  Kapila,  engaged  in  devotion  in  a  forest  near  a  lake,  where, 
(twing  to  his  piety,  there  was  no  strife,  so  that  the  timid  hare 
found  rest  in  it,  and  the  destroyer  w^as  miraculously  compelled  to 
Ci-a^e  destroying.  There  the  dispossessed  princes  built  a  city  and 
called  it  after  the  sage  Kapila.  There  also,  to  preserve  the  purity 
of  their  i-ace,  they  married  their  sisters,  a  practice  that  prevailed 
in  some  IJuddhist  countries  and  in  Peru.  The  name  Kapila  is 
iiiipoi'tant,  for  it  is  the  same  as  Al)al  applied  to  that  Akki  who 
broiiLilit  \\\)  Sargon.  It  is  the  name  of  the  Hoi-ite  Ebal,  which, 
iM't^iniiing  with  the  letter  I'/i/in,  is  called  Gaibal  in  the  Septuagint, 
and  ffoni  it  the  region  of  Gebalene,  in  which  Seir  oi-  Mount   Hor 


■I     ,M.,>rs  f'iiun'iH'iisis,   r.ih.  i. 

'-'     H:inly,   .M:iini:tl  cf  15u(Mlii>iin,  ^'^■2  imtt'. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  95 

was  situated,  derived  its  name.  If,  however,  Sargon's  account  of 
his  infancy  be  true,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  it,  Gebalene 
must  have  extended  across  the  desert  to  the  Euphrates,  for  on 
that  river  his  bark  was  launched,  and  on  its  bank  Akki  the  Abal 
found  him.  Ikshwaku  is  well  determined  as  Coz  the  Ammonite 
and  first  Amenemes.  In  the  Ramayana  it  is  said  ;  "  Ikshvaku 
was  the  son  of  Manu,  and  to  him  the  prosperous  earth  was  form- 
erly given  by  his  father.  Know  that  this  Ikshvaku  was  the 
former  king  in  Ayodhya."  ^^  In  the  Singhalese  story  he  is  repre- 
sented by  Okkaka,  the  gourd,  and  his  son  Amba  takes  the  place 
of  the  Brahmanical  Nabhaga  to  denote  Anub,  son  of  Coz.  But 
the  Tibetan  account  of  the  dispossessed  princes  rightly  puts 
Videhaka  in  the  place  of  Amba  as  their  father.  The  Arabian  and 
Quiche  traditions  of  a  great  destruction  of  the  Adites  must  refer 
to  their  expulsion  from  Egypt  and  subsequent  dispersion.  But 
the  story  of  the  dyke  of  Arim,  although  associated  with  the  ruins 
of  a  great  reservoir  between  two  mountains  in  southern  Arabia, 
is  evidently  a  reminiscence  of  the  great  lake  Moeris,  constructed 
in  Egypt  under  Jabez,  or  Amenemes  III.,  when  the  power  of  the 
Aadtous  was  at  its  height.  The  name  Sedd  Mareb  given  to  it 
probably  contains  a  corruption  of  that  of  the  P^gyptian  Moeris 
Lubad,  the  name  of  Lokman's  vultures,  and  Yarub,  that  of  the 
conqueror  of  his  Adites  after  his  death,  are  both  forms  of  Kapha, 
who  married  Sargon's  widow  and  followed  him  on  the  throne, 
and  the  Quiche  bird  Camalotz  is  his  successor  Samlah  of  Masre- 
kah,  the  Persian  Simurgh,  and  original  of  the  Stymphalides. 
These  particulars  call  for  a  fuller  insight  into  the  history  of 
Regem. 

Tradition  informs  us  that  Regem  or  Sargon  of  Agadc  married 
a  (laugh tt.'r  of  Urukh.  l)iod(M-us  says  that  Lapithus,  who  is 
Rapha,  iiiarrierl  Orsinome,  the  daughter  of  Kurynome  and  widow 
of  Arsinous.  Now  Eurynoine  was  tlie  wife  of  Orchaiuus  and  the 
niotlicr  of  Loncothoe,  and  she  lias  been  i<lentified  as  a  tish  goddess 
with  Jerigoth  oi"  Derceto.  Turning  fi'om  tradition,  which  I'ejM'e- 
sents  Regem  a.s  Ar.sinous,  to  the  Kenite  list,  the  dauphter  of  llur 
ami  Jerigotli  ap])ears  as  vVzubuh  oi- ( Jazul)ah.  InOreek  tradition 
she  is  niadt!  as  ( 'assie])e;i,  the  daughtei'  oi"  an    Ai'alais    instead   of 

■"    Muir,  Sanscrit  'I'.-xt.-i. 


96  THE    HITTITES. 

his  wife.  But  in  the  Babylonian  list  this  princess  immediately 
follows  Sargon.  In  Assyrian  her  name  is  read  Bauellit,  but  in 
Akkadian  it  is  Azagbau.^'*  Mr.  George  Smith  calls  her  Ellatgula, 
and  says :  "  Ellatgula  was  a  queen  ;  she  probably  succeeded 
Naram-Sin,  and  was  the  last  of  the  dynasty  of  Sargon.  Nothing 
is  known  of  her  reign,  and  at  its  close  Hammurabi,  a  foreign 
prince  who  was  perhaps  related  to  her  by  marriage,  succeeded  to 
the  throne."-^  The  three  forms,  Bauellit,  Ellatgula  and  Azagbau 
represent  part  of  the  difficulty  that  lies  in  the  way  of  him  who 
would  connect  the  ancient  history  of  the  east  with  that  of  the 
rest  of  the  world.  Nevertheless  the  Kenite  and  Babylonian  lists 
agree  with  Greek  tradition  in  making  Sargon  the  husband  of 
Azubah,  a  Zerethite  princess  of  the  line  of  Asareel,  who,  through 
her  mother,  was  also  connected  with  the  Elamite  Gedors.  In 
Indian  tradition  Krishna  is  the  husband  of  the  Gopias. 

It  is  now  clear  how  Urukh  called  himself  king  of  Akkad,  for 
by  this  union  Sargon  became  for  a  time  his  tributary,  and  it 
doubtless  pleased  the  Zerethite  to  call  himself  sovereign  of  a 
family  that,  in  the  person  of  Jahdai,  sat  upon  Egypt's  throne. 
Yet  it  is  remarkable  that  Sargon's  name  is  Assyrian,  while  that 
of  his  consort  is  Akkadian.  His  mother's  influence,  and  that  of 
her  family,  the  Ebalian  Horites,  must  have  been  responsible  for 
this  Semitizing  influence,  and  it  may  appear  in  the  story  of  Tar- 
([uin,  originally  called  Lucumo,  whose  ambitious  wife  Tana(|uil 
incited  him  to  assume  the  manners  of  the  Tuscans  and  aim  at 
royalty.  Tanacjuil  is  Timnag,  his  mother,  rather  than  his  wife, 
yet  the  memory  of  Azubah  or  Gazubah  niust  have  been  fragrant 
in  tlie  estimation  of  Sargon's  descendants,  who,  while  they  named 
the  great  centre  of  Hittite  authority  Carchemish  or  Ka-Rekem- 
ish,  the  enclosure  of  Regem,  after  him,  gave  the  name  of  his 
spouse  to  Sazalje,  the  fortified  camp  of  the  imperial  army.  Azu- 
l)ah  was  the  mothei*  of  Sargon's  son  Naram-Sin  or  Rim-Sin,  who 
is  the  Kenit(;  Harum,  for  in  some  traditions  concerning  this  son 
he  is  connected,  not  with  Regem,  but  with  Hur,  his  mother's 
father.  As  Orion,  for  instance,  he  is  called  the  son  of  Hyrieus 
arxl  as  Hcriiifs  he  is  said  to  have  been  brou^jfht  up  bv  the  Hoi-ac 

■■■*    I'ri.c.  Snc.  r.il).  Arch.,  .Jan.  11,  1S81,  ]<.  37. 
■-■'    R«-cor(ls  of  tlie  Past,  V.  C.}. 


THE   HITTITES    AT   THE   TIGRIS    AND    EUPHRATES.  97 

The  Semitic  influence  exerted  by  the  Horite  mothei-  of  Regem 
can  only  have  lasted  during  his  lifetime,  for  after  his  early  death 
the  Zerethite  Jether,  Shobab,  and  Ardon,  brothers  perhaps  of  Azu- 
bah,  must  have  restored  the  Hittite  language  and  customs  in  the 
Akkadian  kingdom. 

The  following  are  the  inscriptions  of  Sargon,  the  tirst  being  a 
continuation  of  the  story  of  the  infanc}'  : — 

1.  "  Forty-five  years  the  kingdom  I  took. 

The  people  of  the  dark  races  I  ruled. 
I     .     .     .     .     over  difficult  countries, 
in  chariots  of  bronze  I  rode.     I  governed 
the  upper  countries  (I  rule)  the  kings 

of  the  lower  countries 

titisallat  I  besieged  a  third  time, 

Asmun  submitted,  Durankigal  bowed     .... 

I  destroyed  and 

When  the  king  who  arises  after  me  in  after  (days)     .     .     . 
the  people  of  the  dark  races  (shall  rule)  over, 
difficult  countries  in  chariots  of  (bronze  shall  ride), 
shall  govern  the  upper  countries  (and  rule)  the  kings 
of  the  lower  countries     ....     titisallat  shall 
besiege  the  third  time  (Asmun  submitting), 
Durankigal  bowing   .     .     .    from  my  city  Agane     . 
The  second  inscription   consists   of   ten   paragraphs,   each  of 
which   is  headed   by   an  account  of  the  moon's  position  and  the 
favourableness  of  the  omen.   Omitting  these  astrological  nothings, 
it  reads  : — 

2.  "Sargon  at  this  position  to   Elam  marched   and  the  Elamites 

destroyed. 
Their  overthrow  he  accomplished,  thcii-  limbs  lie  cut  oti'. 
An  omen  for  Sargina  who  to  Syria  marched  and 
the  Syrians  destroyed  :  the  foui*  races  his  hand  concjuered. 
An   omen   for   Sargina,  who  at   this   position    the   whole  of 

Babylonia  subdued 
and  the  dust  of  the  spoil  of  Babduna  removed  and     . 

Akkad  the  city  he  liuilt     .      .  /,/'  its  name  ho 

proeluinit'd 

in  the  midst  he  placed. 

(7) 


98  THE   HITTITES. 

who  at  this  position  to  Syria 

^marched  and  the)  four  races  his  hand  conquered 

.  .  arose  and  an  equal  or  rival  had  not,  his  forces  over 
(the  countries  of)  the  sea  of  the  setting  sun  he  crossed,  and  in 
the  third  year  at  the  setting  sun 

his  hand  conquered  ;  under  one  command  he  caused 
them 
to  be  only  fixed  ;  his  image  at  the  setting  sun  he  set  up  ; 
their  spoil  in  the  countries  of  the  sea  he  made  to  cross. 
An    omen    for    Sargina,    who   his  palace  padi  five  bathu 
enlarged, 

chief  of  the  people  established  and  Ekiam-izallak 
he  called  it. 
Kastubila  of  Kazalla  revolted  against  him  ;  and  to  Kazalla 
he  marched,  and  their  men  he  fought  against,  their  overthrow 

he  accomplished, 
their  great  army  he  destroyed  :  Kazalla  to  mounds  and  ruins 

he  reduced, 
the  nests  of  the  birds  he  swept  away. 
The  elders  of  the  people  revolted  against  him  and  in  Akkad 

surrounded  him  and 
Sargina  came   out,  and   their   men  he  fought  against ;  their 

overthrow  he  accomplished  : 
their  great  army  he  destroyed. 
The  encampment  lie  l>roke  through. 
Subarti   in  its  strength  its  people  to  the  sword  he  subdued, 

and 
Sargina  their  seats  caused  to  occupy,  and 
their  men  he  fought  against,  their  overthrow  he  accomplished, 
their  gi-eat  army 

the  spoil  he  collected,  into  Akkad  he  caused  to 
enter.  '  -'' 
These  unsatisfacto)'y  documents  set  forth  Sargon  as  a  great 
warrioi"  and  oonciueror,  and  lead  one  to  suspect  that  he  was  a 
tyrant  as  well  and  came  to  a  tyrant's  end.  They  are  the  inscrip- 
tions of  a  scltisli  and  vain-gloi'ious  man.  His  chief  wars  were 
with  the  (;(;(l()rs  of  Elam  oi'  Subarti,  wars   in   wliich   he   had   the 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  99 

aid  of  Hadad  the  sou  of  Bedad,   and  his  brother   Pelet,  for,  as 

Krishna,  his  allies  were  Yudisthira  and  Baladeva,  but  he  says  not 

a  word  about  these  gallant  warriors.     Unless  the  statement  that 

he  conquered  the  whole  of  Babylonia  includes  the  overthrow  of 

the  three  sons  of  Urukh,  his  brothers-in-law,  one  of  whom  was 

the  Duryodhana  of  the  Mahabharata.  the  great  contest  between 

the  Bharatas   and   Kurus   is  unmentioned.     It  is  allowed  in  the 

Indian  epic  that  Kri.shna,  being  related  to   both   parties,  at  first 

was  undecided,  now  favouring  one  side  and  now  the  other,  but  in 

the  end  he  joined  the  Bharatas,  and,  fighting  for  them,  was  killed 

by  a  savage  Bhil.     It  is   clear   that  he  did  not  subdue  Gebalene, 

for  after  the  fall  of  Hushani  that  country  was-  held  by  the  strong 

hand  of  Hadad.      But  it-  seems   that   he   carried    his   arms   into 

Galilee,  whose  Cliesulloth  is  his  Kazalla,  for  Kastubila  of  Kazalla 

answers   to   Castabolum    of  Cilici.i   in  the   country   of   the   later 

Kue.   the   Goiui   of  Galilee,   the  Acha^ans    or   ^Egialeans  of  the 

Greeks.     Thus  the  Japhetic  allies  of  Chedorlaomer  on  the  sea  of 

the  setting  sun  felt  the  power  of  the  Akkadian  king.     Tradition 

adds  very  little  to  the   story  of  Regem.     As  the  Indian  Krishna 

he    is   a  profligate,   strong   and   handsome,    but    with    no  moral 

excellence.     As  Lakshman  in  the   Ramayana   he  is  but  a  foil  to 

the  merits  of  Rama,  called  his  l^rother,  but  who  is  really  his  son 

Haruin.     As   Tar([uinius   Priscus   he   is  a   great   conqueror  and 

nothing  more.     In  the  Greek  Telchin  he  appears  as  the  patron  of 

art  and  mystery  ;  and  in  Telegonus  he  is  the  slayer  of  his  father 

Ody.s.seus.     The  Teutonic  legends  give  him  as  Regin  th(,'  Smitli  a 

very  subordinate  position,  and  even  as  the  Scamlinavian  Regnar 

Lodbrok  he  is  a  barbarian  with  a  spice  of  savage  poetry  in  him. 

Tlie  media'val  tale  of  Valentine  and  Orson  contrasts  liis  rudeness 

with  the  culture  of  his  polished  brother  Pelet.      From  the  terror 

wliieh  the  warlike  exploits  of  Regeni  inspii'ed  sprang  the  fable  of 

the  (iorgons.       The  ca])ital  of  the  CJhorasmii,  who  dwelt  in  oi-  to 

the  noi'th  ol"   Hyrcaiiia,  and  are  well   identified   with   the  men  of 

(Jai-elieiiiish  in  eastwai'd  migration,  was  (Jorgo,  or  nu)i-e  ])i-obab]y 

(ioi-guin,    which    is    now    IJig'henx.      The    nioi'tai     Medusa,   whom 

Stlieno  and  Euryale  sui'rendered  to  Perseus,  denotes  the  Midiam'te 

alliance,    and    Euryale    represents    the    ])ostei-ity  of   Aharlicd,  the 

<rraiid.son  of  Reijeiii    thr()ii<r|i    Ifarum.      The   Goi-e'on   name  come.s 


100  THE    HITTITES. 

from  Ka  Regetn,  to  which  was  added  ish,  the  enclosure,  thus  con- 
stituting Carchemish  the  centre  of  Hittite  authority,  the  conquest 
of  which  was  the  great  achievement  of  the  reign  of  Perseus,  or 
the  second  Rameses.  With  this  namer  of  dragons,  krakens,  and 
other  monsters,  the  i-eptile  tribe  is  always  connected.  Snakes 
swarmed  around  the  Gorgon's  head ;  Krishna  slew  the  thousand 
headed  serpent,  but  another  emerged  just  before  his  death  from 
the  throat  of  his  brother  Baladeva ;  Fafnir  the  dragon  is  the 
brother  of  Regin  the  Smith  ;  and  Regnar  Lodbrok,  slayer  of  the 
serpent  that  encircled  the  bower  of  Thora,  also  married  Aslauga, 
daughter  of  Fafnisbana,  and  died  in  a  dungeon  full  of  vipers 
that  killed  him  with  their  venom.  An  explanation  of  this 
appears  in  the  early  historj'  of  Japan,  which  states  that  Zinmou, 
the  first  king  of  Japan,  was  the  son  of  Tamayori,  the  daughter  of 
Riozin  or  the  dragon  god  ;  but  other  authorities  make  this  prin- 
cess the  daughter  of  the  king  of  the  Loo  Choo  Archipelago,  the 
native  name  of  which  is  Riukiu.  "  In  ancient  times  the  kings  of 
the  Loo  Choo  islands  at  their  inauguration  wore  a  crown  in  the 
shape  of  a  dragon,  a  mark  of  distinction  reserved  for  them  and 
their  family."-"  In  Japan  also,  as  in  China,  a  dragon  is  the 
emblem  of  imperial  power.  With  Regem  or  Sargon  this  use  of 
the  dragon  must  have  originated,  and  on  the  walls  of  his  city  of 
Akkad  first  floated  the  awe-inspiring  banners  bearing  the  strange 
device  that  afterwards  waved  over  Carchemish,  the  dragfon's 
hold,  aufl  thence  accompanied  the  Hittite  exiles  to  manj^  distant 
lands. 

The  son  of  Regem  and  Azubah  was  Harum,  the  father  of 
Ahariiel  or  Hercules.  In  Italy  the  glory  of  Tarquin  eclipsed  his, 
for  lie  is  the  mild  and  obscure  son  Aruns.  In  Greece  he  is  the 
iiod  Hermes  oj-  Mercur\',  a  master  thief  and  the  messeno-er  of  the 
gods,  lirought  up  by  tb.e  Horae,  who  I'epresent  the  family  of  Ur 
(jr  (Jrukh,  rather  than  the  Ebalian  Horites.  And  he  is  Orion,  tlie 
giant  whom  some  ti-aditions  make  the  son  of  Poseidon  and 
Iviryuh,'  :  but  Euryale,  besides  l;eing  a  Gorgon,  denotes  his  son 
Abarliel.  in  another  story  he,  as  Hermes,  assisted  at  his  own 
Itii-tli,  for  that  god  witli  Zeus  and  Poseidon  sti'olled  one  day  into 
Hyria  in  Bd'otia,  v.bei-*;  the  aged  Hyrieus  hospitably  entertained 

'•'■    Tit-ititrti.  -Atmalis,  ]>.  ]. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  101 

them.  His  beloved  wife  was  dead  and  he  had  no  child,  so  the 
gods  took  the  hide  of  his  only  ox  which  he  had  killed  for  their 
benefit,  and  buried  it  in  the  ground,  where  it  underwent  marvel- 
lous transformation  and  came  forth  a  boy  whom  Hyrieus  called 
Orion.  Here  Hyria  and  Hyrieus,  like  the  Horae,  denote  Hur 
the  father  of  Azubah.  When  the  giant  grew  up  he  married  Side, 
the  pomegranate,  of  unknown  parentage,  who  is  probably  the 
same  as  Mei'ope,  the  daughter  of  CEnopion,  whom  he  met  and 
loved  in  Chios.  CEnopion  and  Orion  quarrelled,  however,  and 
the  blameless  king  made  the  giant  drunk  and  then  blinded  him. 
To  get  back  his  sight  he  waded  over  the  sea  to  Hephaestus  at 
Lemnos,  and  the  god  of  hre,  unable  to  heal  the  blind  man,  gave 
him  Kedalion  for  his  guide,  who  led  him  to  the  gates  of  day. 
There  the  sun  arose  upon  the  sightless  eyeballs  and  the  giant  saw 
once  more.  He  went  back  to  Chios  to  find  CEnopion,  but  could 
not,  for  they  had  hidden  him  under  ground,  which  probably 
means  that  he  slept  his  last  sleep  in  an  Egyptian  pyramid.  Many 
are  the  legends  of  Orion's  death.  Artemis  slew  him  with  her 
darts ;  Apollon  induced  her  to  shoot  at  his  black  head,  which 
alone  was  visible  as  he  waded  in  the  sea,  and  which  she  did  not 
recognize  to  be  a  part  of  him  whom  she  loved  ;  and  she  and 
Latona  sent  a  scorpion  that  stung  him  to  death,  because  he 
boasted  that  he  could  kill  anything  that  sprang  from  the  earth. 
His  connection  with  the  family  of  CEnopion,  son  of  Bacchus  of 
Chios,  is  clear,  for  "  Coz  begat  Anuband  Zobebah  and  the  families 
of  Aharhol  the  son  of  Haruni."^'^  He  died  in  Egypt,  for  Brugsch 
Pasha  fcnind  his  tomb  at  Sakkara,  on  which  his  name  is  written 
Han^msaf  Mcrenra ;  and  the  same  authority  traces  his  descent 
from  Khua  and  his  wife  Nobet  on  the  mother's  side.  But  Pepi 
Merira,  as  Jahdai  is  called,  was  no  father  of  Harum,  for  Regem 
intervened.  Haremsaf  is  identified  with  the  constellation  Orion 
and  with  Hariiiachis,  but  his  muimiiy  is  not  that  of  a  giant.  On 
the  pyi'amid  which  contained  this  sarcophagus  of  Haremsaf  is 
wi-itt(;n  : 

■'Thou  hast  made  me  to  live,  thou  hast  united  thy  bones, 
thou  hast  bi'ought  hack  what  has  swvun  away  from  thee  :  thou 
hast  regained  what  has  been  divided  from  thee,  for  F  am  Horus, 
the  avenger  of   \\'i>  fathei". 

'^^    1  Cliroii.   iv.  H. 


102  THE   HITTITES. 

"  I  have  struck  for  thee  :  thou  hast  been  struck.  1  have 
avenged  my  father,  my  father  the  Osiris  H.  M.,  from  the  on6 
doing  ill  to  him.     I  have  come  to  thee."-'^ 

Did  he  come  into  the  land  of  Egypt  from  the  Akkadian  king- 
dom to  avenge  the  death  of  his  grandfather  Jahdai,  slain  by 
assassins  before  his  son  Jabez  was  born  ?  It  seems  very  like, 
for  his  son  Acharchel  is  numbered  among  the  Hycsosor  Shepherd 
Kings,  and  must  liave  been  a  viceroy  of  the  great  Aahpeti.  That 
he  went  into  Egypt  there  is  no  doubt,  for  his  inscriptions  testify 
to  liis  conquests  in  that  land.  But  first  as  Rim-agu  he  professed 
to  descend  from  Kudur  Mabuk  or  Jether,  calling  himself  his  son. 
The  descent  was  through  his  mother  Azubah,  the  daughter  of 
Jerigoth,  the  daughter  of  Jethei;  This  was  his  title  to  Elam 
whicli  his  father  Regem  had  conquered.  Hence  we  find  "  Rim- 
agu,  ruler  of  the  lordship  of  Nipur,  inizkin  of  ancient  Eridu,"^" 
showing  that  Jered  even  was  old  in  his  day.  He  also  calls  him- 
self the  nourisher  of  Ur,  king  of  Larsa,  and  king  of  Sumir  and 
Akkad,  as  well  as  the  head  ruler  of  the  house  of  Nergal.  the 
renowned  man,  and  the  builder  of  Harris-galla,  to  prevent 
invasion.  Xergal  is  certainly  his  son  Acharchel,  and  it  is  probable 
that  Harris-galla  was  named  after  him.  His  great  conquest  was 
that  of  Karrak,  the  capital  of  the  Amalekite  Husham  in  the  land 
of  Moab.  It  was  Rama  then  and  not  Krishna,  Harum  and  not 
Regem.  who  fought  with  Midian,  Amalek,  and  the  Zerethites  in 
the  field  of  Moab  and  overthrew  their  supremacy  for  a  while  at 
Kurukshetra.  He  does  not  mention  Ardon  or  Duryodhana,  but 
the  land  of  (ieshur  named  after  Jesher,  Ardon's  elder  brother, 
fell  into  his  power :  "  Kissure  he  occupied  and  his  powerful  sol- 
diers Bel  gave  him  in  numbei-s." -''^  Again  he  is  Naram-Sin,  the 
son  of  Sai-gf)n,  who  went  to  Maganna,  whicli  is  the  most  ancient 
cuneiform  name  of  Egypt. 

"  An  omen  for  Naram-Sin 
who  at  this  position  to  Apirak  marched  and 

i pi  as  It  Ris-Vul,  king  of  Apirak 

and  Apirak  his  hand  conquered 

'"•'    I'nic.  Soc.   I'.ih.  .\icli.,  June  7,  1S81,  p.  Ill,  seq. 
^    Kfconls  .,f  the  F'ast,  v.  (\'>. 
•»    Rcconis.if  til.'  I'ast,  V.  OS. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  103 

An  omen  for  Naram-Sin,  who  at  this  position 

(to  Ma)  ganna  marched,  and  Maganna  he  captured,  and 

king  of  Maganna  his  hand  conquered. 

seven  and  one-half  to  after  him 

may  they  not  gather  iba."  ^^ 

M.  Fresnel  found  a  vase  at  Babylon  on  which  was  written : 
"  Naram-Sin,  king  of  the  four  races,  conqueror  of  Apirak  and 
Magan."  There  is  no  need  for  identifying  Apirak  with  Karrak, 
as  Mr.  George  Smith  proposed  to  do.  It  was  the  border  kingdom 
of  Egypt,  the  Avaris  where  tlie  Hycsos  had  their  fortified  camp 
situated  near  the  Pelusiac  mouth  of  the  Nile,  and,  as  a  kingdom, 
extending  to  the  Arish  or  river  of  Egypt.  Ris-Vul,  its  king 
whom  Naraiu-Sin  does  not  say  that  he  conquered,  was  Ma 
Reshah,  the  Egyptian  Moerisor  Mares,  and  the  Phrygian  Marsyas, 
friend  of  Cybebe  and  guardian  of  the  youthful  Sabazius.  Who 
the  enemies  were  whom  Haruni  met  there  and  in  Maganna  or 
Egypt  proper  may  yet  be  known.  Ovid's  dogs  that  tore  Actaeon 
are  many  ;  from  Sparta,  which  means  of  Etam  and  Jezreel  ;  from 
Crete,  the  Zerethite  descendants  of  Suphis  or  Ziph  :  from  Cyprus, 
the  line  of  Chepher  in  Mered's  descendants  ;  from  Gnossus,  the 
Kenezzites  of  Paehnan  and  Staan,  the  Shepherds  ;  from  Sicyon, 
the  Chushamites  of  Amalek  :  and  from  Arcadia,  the  Jerachmeel- 
ites  of  On  ;  all  these  dogs  tore  the  empire  of  Egypt  among  them.'''' 
The  untranslated  Iphisu  before  Ris-Vul  suggests,  Ibil  or  Apil-Sin, 
the  descendant  of  Zabu  or  Ziph,  the  Cretan  or  Zerethite,  as  a 
usurper  of  the  realm  of  Ma  Reshah,  which  was  known  in  latt'r 
ages  as  the  coast  of  the  Cherethites.  But  the  descendants  of 
Anub  seem  to  be  pointed  out  in  tradition  as  the  chief  enemies  of 
Harum  as  Oi'ion.  Anub  indeed  appears  in  the  list  of  Shepherd 
Kings,  but  so  does  the  inimical  Paehnan,  Apachnas,  or  Kennz. 
His  son  Tola}--  is  associated  in  ti'adition  with  (^res  the  kino-  of 
Crete,  and  seems  to  have  Iteen  an  outcast  from  the  Ammoniaii 
fold.  So  far  as  tlie  joint  testimony  of  Babylonian  and  Egyptian 
monuments  uocs,  Harum  was  the  aven<rer  of  his  o-randfather 
Jahdai  and  th(;  restorer  of  the  land  (jf  Egypt  to  trancjuility  and 
prosperity.    Manetho  recognizes  his  connection  with  the  Phnraonic 

••'2    R.-cordfi  of  til.-  I'ast,  V.  02. 
^'    Mf t;uiinr]ihoscs,  iii. 


104  THE   HITTITES. 

line,  but  erroneously  makes  his  Armais  the  same  person  as  the 
Greek  Danaus  and  the  opponent  of  Egyptus.  On  the  contrary, 
Harum  appears  as  the  opponent  of  the  Dinhavites,  whom  the 
strength  of  his  arm  helped  to  drive  southward  into  Elephantine. 
Harnm  is  the  hero  of  an  epic,  the  Ramayana,  which  tells  the 
story  of  his  exploits.  Confounding  him  with  his  father  Regem, 
it  makes  him  the  chief  of  the  dispossessed  princes,  and  turns  his 
father  into  his  companion  Lakshman,  after  whom  Lucknow  in 
Oude  was  named.  The  name  of  Dasaratha  is  given  to  Jahdai. 
It  is  not  a  fictitious  name,  but  one  pertaining  to  the  Zerethites, 
for  in  Illyria  and  with  the  Dardanii  dwelt  the  people  whom 
Pliny  calls  Dassaretae,  and  Strabo,  Dasaretii.  In  form  the  word 
recalls  the  Egyptian  Tosorthus,  so  that  it  is  probably  the  ancestral 
Zereth  in  one  of  its  protean  disguises.  Harum  was  a  Zerethite 
through  his  mother  Azubah,  but  Jahdai  his  grandfather  had  no 
connection  with  that  family.  Dasaratha  is  called  the  king  of 
Kosala,  which  must  denote  Geshur,  the  Kisure  occupied  by  Rim- 
Sin,  rather  than  Kazalla  which  Sargon  took  from  the  Goim  of 
Galilee.  This  Kozala  i.s  said  to  have  been  conterminous  with 
Oude  or  Ayodya.  In  India,  however,  the  true  Geshur  is  Gujerat, 
but  its  reception  of  that  name  took  place  many  ages  after  Rama. 
Regem,  then,  though  living  a  fictitious  life  as  Lakshman,  was 
dead  when  the  .story  of  Rama  begins,  for  that  prince  is  repre- 
sented as  under  the  cai'e  of  the  Zerethites,  and  notably  of  Jesher 
the  elder  brothei-  of  his  mother  Azubah.  While  he  was  still 
young,  the  great  sage  Visvamitra,  an  intangible  personage  living 
through  the  centuiies,  came  to  Ayodya  to  get  help  against  the 
tumultuary  giants  that  continually  interrupted  the  sacrifices  on 
the  banks  of  the  Sone.  Rama  accompanied  him  and  brought  the 
giants  into  subjection,  so  that  the  sacrifice  was  safely  performed. 
Tliis  is  the  Egyptian  campaign.  While  on  this  expedition  he 
learned  that  the  kino-  (jf  Mithila  offered  his  dauo-hter  in  marriasfe 
to  the  i)rinee  who  should  succeed  in  strinrjincr  an  enormous  bow 
that  had  descended  from  a  giant  ancestor.  This  is  the  Greek 
story  of  <Eiiomaus.  who  promised  Hippodamia  to  the  man  who 
should  escape  from  his  spear  in  a  chariot  race.  Pausanias  and 
Ayxjllodorus  enuruei-atc  tlie  many  suitors  who  fell  at  his  hand, 
and    among    thcui    tiaiiie    luiiymachus   and    Euryalus,    who    are 


THE    HirriTES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  105 

Haruin  as  Harmachis  and  his  son  Aharhel,  for  CEnomaus  is 
another  version  of  (Enopion.  Mithila  again  is  Metelis  between 
Onuphis  and  Canopus  in  the  Xoite  kingdom.  As  Orion  has 
Side  for  his  bride,  aud  a  daughter  of  Qi^nopion  who,  though 
called  Merope,  is  the  same  woman,  so  Rama  wins  by  his  strength 
in  snapping  the  bow  in  twain,  Sita  the  daughter  of  Mithila's 
king.  After  the  wedding  Rama  was  to  ascend  tlie  throne  of 
Ayodya,  but  the  mother  of  Bharat  insists  that  her  son  shall 
reign  and  his  brothers  go  into  banishment.  So  Rama  goes  forth. 
a  knight  errant,  performing  everywhere  deeds  of  chivalry.  But, 
taking  advantage  of  his  absence,  Ravana,  the  dark  and  gigantic 
king  of  Lanka  in  Ceylon,  carries  off  the  hero's  bride.  Rama 
starts  in  pursuit  of  the  ravisher.  On  his  way  to  the  south  he 
finds  two  kings,  Bali  and  Sugriva,  engaged  in  war.  He  takes 
the  part  of  Sugriva  and  subdues  Bali,  in  whom  we  see  the 
Kenezzite  descendants  of  Bela,  son  of  Beor.  Then  Hanuman, 
Sugriva's  sou,  joins  him  with  his  monkey  host  and  carries  Rama 
and  his  followers  safely  over  Adam's  bridge  into  the  kingdom  of 
Ravana.  The  giant  falls  in  battle  and  the  hero  wins  back  his 
bride.  The  Cecropian  name  Sugriva,  which  gives  the  Hebrew 
Gecrabbi  aud  such  words  as  scorpion,  scarabaeus,  and  crab,  beUnigs 
to  thii  Japhetic  Geker.  head  of  the  Ekronites  or  Gekronites 
who  named  Maaleh  Aci'abbim,  and  were  the  scorpion  men  of 
Chaldean  anticjuity.  The  legend  that  a  scorpion  stung  Orion  to 
death  doubtless  finds  its  explanation  in  the  connection  of  Anub 
with  this  family  of  .Japhetic  mercenaries.  The  c)ld  Greek  tradi- 
tions make  Cecrops,  the  first  Athenian  king,  a  native  of  Sais  in 
Egypt,  which  was  close  to  Xois  in  the  Delta.  The  worship  of 
Zobebah  in  Ekron  as  Baal  Zeljub,  who  as  Zeus  Apomyius,  oi-  the 
<lriver  away  of  tiies.  receivt.'d  honours  in  Elis  and  elsewhere  in 
Greece,  but  the  wood  foi'  wliose  sacrifice  had  to  be  broiiglit  from 
the  banks  of  the  Acheron,  shows  that  hei'  brother  Anul)  must 
liavf;  been  in  league  with  the  Eki'onite  family.  As  (Kiiomaus  he 
married  Stei-o])(,'.  the  Phnad  ilaughtei- of  Atlas,  and  this  Atlas,  also 
callecl  Daedalus,  is  .lediael  the  son  of  .laiiiiii,  i^^^ker's  lu'otlier.'''^ 
Harninian  then,  called  the  son  of  Sugri\a,  is  Just  the  Greek 
(Enoinaus  and    (Knopioii,   the    Kenite    .\iinb,   taking   the  jilace  of 

:"    1  r'hroii.  vii.  <;.  1(1.  11  :  .uid  ii.  27. 


106  THE   HITTITES. 

Harum  or  Arimus  as  the  chief  of  the  monkeys.  Thus  the  story 
of  Rama  defines  the  nature  of  the  Egyptian  struggle  as  one 
between  the  Kenezzites  or  Sekenens  of  Elephantine  and  the 
Ammono-Jahdaite  family,  of  which  the  youthful  Jabez  was  now 
the  head. 

The  Singhalese  have  a  strange  story  about  Harum.  Priya, 
daughter  of  Amba  the  Okkaka,  was  stricken  with  white  leprosy, 
on  account  of  which  she  was  carried  out  of  the  city  of  Kapilaand 
established  in  a  large  cave  dug  in  the  forest  near  a  river,  with 
provisions  and  fuel  and  other  things  necessary.  Rama  the  king 
of  Benares,  beincr  smitten  with  the  same  disease,  withdrew  from 
his  kingdom,  intending  to  die  in  some  cavern,  and  by  accident 
strayed  into  the  forest  in  which  Priya  lived  her  lonely  life.  But 
the  king,  overtaken  by  hunger,  ate  voraciously  of  the  fruit,  and 
even  of  the  leaves,  bark  and  root  of  a  tree,  which  made  him  free 
from  the  disease  and  "  pure  as  a  statue  of  gold."  Life  now  be- 
came valuable,  and  to  preserve  it  from  the  tigers  that  roamed 
abroad  and  made  night  hideous  with  their  roaring,  he  made  a 
ladder  and  climbed  into  a  lofty  kolom  tree  with  a  hollow  trunk- 
There  he  dwelt,  supporting  himself  with  the  remains  of  the  forest 
animals  slain  l)y  the  tigers.  One  morning  a  tiger  scented  the 
princess  in  her  cave  and  scratched  the  earth  vigorously  to  get  at 
her,  whereupon  she  screamed  and  the  tiger  fled.  Rama  heard 
the  cry  from  his  tree,  and  descending,  introduced  himself  and 
ottered  to  release  the  captive.  When  she  declined  to  come  forth 
on  account  of  her  disease,  he  brouo-ht  her  the  healing"  medicine 
from  the  tree  that  had  cured  him  ;  at  once  she  was  restored  to 
health,  and,  leaving  the  cave,  took  up  her  abode  in  the  kolom 
ti'ee.  Then,'  thii-ty-two  children  were  born  to  them  before  Rama's 
son  found  his  fathers  abode  and  besought  him  to  return  to  his 
kinu'dom  of  Benares.  But  Rama  was  pleased  to  stay  where  he 
was,  so  his  son  caused  a  city  to  be  Vmilt  in  the  forest  which  was 
called  Koli  fiftcr  the  kolom  tree  in  which  the  exiled  pair  had 
liv(;d  so  long.  When,  however,  the  thirty-two  sons  of  Rama 
s(;ught  in  mari'iagii  the  thirty-two  princesses  of  Kapilawastu, 
thiir  motlH'i-'s  nii'ces.  her  ))j-others  refused  to  allow  their 
daughters  to  marry  tree  men  and  grossly  insulted  the  Koli 
t'aniily.     Nevertheless,  the  sons  of  Rama  carried  oti"  the  princesses 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  107 

on  one  occasion  when  thej''  went  out  of  the  city  ostensibly  to 
bathe,  and  the  kings  of  Kapilawastu  had  to  swallow  their  indig- 
nation as  best  they  were  able.^^  This  legend  is  valuable,  not 
only  as  linking  Harum  with  a  daughter  of  Anub,  in  Rama,  hus- 
band of  Amba's  daughter  Priya,  but  also  in  explaining  the 
wooden  men  and  pith  women  of  the  Quiche  story  of  Hurakan, 
which  shows  double  connection  with  the  Arabian  story  of  the 
Adites  in  the  account  of  their  destruction  and  of  the  transforma- 
tion of  the  survivors  into  monkeys.  The  Quiches,  it  is  to  be 
remembered,  are  the  descendants  of  Coz  through  his  son  Anub 
or  Hunab;  The  same  association  of  the  Adites  with  wood  appears 
in  the  legend  of  Cybele,  who  changed  her  murdered  lover  Atys 
into  a  pine  tree.^*"  The  explanation  is  philological,  and  appears 
in  the  Khitan  words  for  tree  and  wood  ;  Lesghian,  Ji/iieta  ;  Cir- 
ca.ssian,  adj ;  Basque,  halts;  Yeniseian,  atsch ;  Koriak,  iitiit, 
uttiiit ;  Kamtchatdale,  uiida,  utha ;  Choctaw,  iti  ;  and  Aztec, 
quahuif.  Thus  the  Jahdaites  are  wooden  men  or  the  men  of  the 
tree. 

Harum's  memorials  are  everywhere.  He  is  the  Ly dian 
king  Hermon,  who  is  said  to  have  founded  Adramyttium,  and 
after  whom  the  river  Hermus  was  called.  The  Arabian  dyke  of 
Arim  and  gardens  of  Irem  bear  his  name.  The  monkey  and 
Typhonian  Arimi  of  Asia  Minor  and  Italy  were  originally  his 
descendants.  The  Greeks  made  Rapha  his  father  instead  of  his 
mother's  second  husband,  and,  calling  him  Hermion  son  of 
Europs,  represented  him  as  the  builder  of  Hermione.  As  the 
head  of  the  Armenian  line  after  Thargamos,  so  highly  vv^as  he 
esteemed  and  so  many  achievements  were  related  of  him  that  he 
had  to  be  repeated  as  Armenaeus,  Aramaeus,  Harnia,  and  Aramus, 
and  his  exploits  were  divided  among  these  mythic  ancestors  of 
the  royal  family  of  Armenia.'^''  In  Irish  history  he  is  well  defined 
as  Heremon  the  father  of  Irial,  l)ut  wrongly  called  the  son  of 
Milesius  or  Ma  Reshah.  Yet  Heber,  called  his  brother,  is  prob- 
ah)ly  Hebron,  Ma  R(!shah's  son.  The  story  of  the  two  Tullias 
appears   in    the    Irish    narrative   v/ith    variations.      In    the  Latin 

a-'-    Hanly,   Manual  of  BudliiKtri,  VA4. 
^    Ovid,   MctaiiiorphoKf'K,  x. 
^    MoHes  Chon-rifiisi.s. 


108  THE    HITTITES. 

story  Servius  Tullius  married  his  ambitious  daughter  to  the 
peaceful  Aruns  and  his  gentle  one  to  the  aspiring  Lucius  Tar- 
quinius.  But,  like  drawing  to  like  through  love  of  power,  the 
ajnbitious  and  turbulent  ones  put  their  mild  tempered  consorts  to 
death,  killed  Servius,  and  filled  the  kingdom  with  strife  and 
bloodshed.  The  Irish  story  is  briefly  summed  up  by  the  rhyming 
chronicler  whose  muse  does  not  breathe  Ossianic  fire  : — 

"  The  royal  princes,  Heber  and  Heremon, 
With  mutual  consent  and  kind  affection, 
The  isle  divided  ;  and  they  reigned  in  peace, 
Till  the  ambition  of  a  woman's  heart. 
The  wife  of  Heber,  urged  them  on  to  war. 
By  i)ride  o'ercome  she  thirsted  to  enjoy. 
And  to  be  called  the  (^ueen  of  the  Three  Vales, 
The  most  delightful  lands  in  all  the  isle. 
She  vowed,  and  raging  passionately,  swore 
That  she  would  never  sleep  on  Irish  ground 
Till  she  was  mistress  of  those  fruitful  plains. 
A  battle  followed  on  Geisiol's  fatal  field. 
Where  Heber  Fionn  fell  a  sacrifice 
To  the  ambition  of  a  haughty  wife."-* 

Heremon  reigned  fourteen  years  over  all  Ireland,  fought  unnum- 
bered battles  and  drove  out  the  Picts,  Brigantes,  and  Tuatha  de 
Danans.  His  being  made  the  son  of  that  incomparable  warrior 
Milesius  or  MaReshah.andhis  appearing  as  Hermon  and  Arimus 
with  Mele.'-:  in  Lydian  history,  as  well  as  the  mention  of  his  name 
in  the  Persian  annals  as  Aramin,  brother  of  Arish,  show  that 
Naram-Sin  did  not  concjuer  Ris-Vul  of  Apirak  or  Avaris,  but 
united  his  forces  with  those  of  Zobebah's  faithful  friend  and 
warrior  against  the  insurgent  Zerethites,  Kenites,  Kenezzites, 
Amalekites,  and  tlie  Horito  princes  of  Egypt. 

■*    Keating,  147. 


109 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

The  Hittites  at  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  (Concluded). 

The  history  of  Babylonia  is  somewhat  intricate  in  the  time  of 
Harum.  At  the  death  of  his  father  Regem,  the  widow  of  that 
monarch  and  mother  of  Harum  married  Beth-Rapha,  the  eldest 
son  of  the  Achashtarite  Eshton,  who  through  her  established  a 
claim  to  the  kingdom  of  her  father  Urukh.  No  monument  ex- 
pressly states  this  fact,  but  many  traditions  imply  it.  The  clue 
is  given  in  the  assertion  of  Diodorus  that  Lapithus,  who  has  been 
shown  to  be  this  Rapha,  married  Orsinome  or  the  widow  of  Ar- 
sinous,  who  was  the  daughter  of  Eurynome  ;  and  Eurynome  is 
Atarofatis  or  Jerigoth,  the  wife  of  Hur  or  Urukh,  and  mother  of 
Azubah.  In  the  Babylonian  list,  Azagbau  immediately  follows 
Sargon  and  immediately  precedes  Hammurabi ;  hence  Mr.  George 
Smith  supposed  that,  while  Azagbau  was  the  last  of  the  line  of 
Sargon,  Hammurabi  was  related  to  her  by  marriage.  In  Arabian 
tradition  Lokman  has  a  vulture  Lubad  which  recalls  the  Sim- 
urgh,  descended  as  Samlah  from  Rapha,  and  whose  name  repro- 
duces Lapithus.  It  is  the  Harpy  also,  and  Tarapyha,  the  chief 
god  of  the  Esthonians,  whose  form  was  that  of  a  gigantic 
l)ird.^  This  vulture  Lubad  is  the  same  as  Yarub,  called  the  son 
of  Kahtan,  instead  of  Eshton,  who  overthrew  the  line;  of  L(;kiiian. 
As  Europs,  he  ci'roneously  precedes  Telchin  in  the  Sicyonian  list 
of  royal  names,  and  as  erroneously  yet  suggestively  is  made  the 
father  of  Hermion.  The  stoiy  of  Haiiiinurubi  oi-  Beth-Rapha  has 
alrea<ly  been  sutKcit;ntly  illustrated.  The  cliit'f  event  of  his 
reign  was  a  victory  over  his  step-son  Haruin  : — 
'''  Month  Sabadu  22nd  ilay  in  the  yvAV 

when  Hammuralji  the  king  in  the  service  of  Ann 

and  Bel  triumphantly  marciied, 

and  the  |(^rd  of  Elam  and  King  Uiui-agu  lie  overthrew."  ' 

'    Malt.-  I'.niti,  (;c(iK.  vol.  \i. 
^     R.-coifis  (if  tl:.'  I',i-t,   %.  7'l. 


110  THE   HITTITES. 

This  king  made  Dindur  or  Babili,  that  is  Babylon,  his  capital, 
and  there  set  up  the  worship  of  Baal  Peer  under  the  name  of 
Merodach,  thus  allying  himself  with  Beor's  descendants,  the 
Hittite  kings  of  Elephantine  in  Egypt.  Only  ten  years  of  his 
reign  are  recorded,  but  it  must  have  been  one  of  extraordinary 
activity  in  warlike  expeditions,  building,  and  improvement  of  the 
country.  The  following  inscription  illustrates  the  work  per- 
formed by  him  : — 

"  Hammurabi  the  powerful  king,  king  of  Babylon, 

the  king  renowned  through  the  four  races, 

conqueror  of  the  enemies  of  Maruduk, 

the  ruler,  the  delight  of  the  heart  am  I. 

When  Anu  and  Bel  the  people  of  Sumir 

and  Akkad  to  my  dominion  gave, 

powerful  adversaries  into  my  hand  they  delivered. 

The  river  Hammurabi  the  delight  of  men, 

flowing  waters  giving  pleasure  to  the  people 

of  Sumir  and  Akkad  I  excavated. 

The  whole  of  its  banks  to  its  course  I  restored  ; 

the  entire  channel  I  filled,  perennial  waters 

for  the  people  of  Sumir  and  Akkad  I  established. 

The  people  of  Sumir  and  Akkad 

their  chief  men  I  gathered, 

authority  and  possessions  T  established  to  them, 

delight  and  pleasure  I  spread  out  to  them, 

in  luxurious  seats  I  seated  them. 

Then  I,  Hannnui-abi,  the  powerful  king 

ble^^sed  by  the  great  gods, 

with  the  powerful  forces  which  Maruduk  gave  me. 

a  great  wall  with  much  earth, 

its  top  like  a  mountain  raised, 

along  the  river  Hammurabi  the  delight  of  men  I  made."-' 
This  aiic<!stoi-  of  the  Lapps,  and  divine  Rawa  of  all  the  northern 
Ugrians,  was  a  man  of  much  spirit,  and,  in  some  respects,  of  great 
enlightenment;  but  the  proofs  of  his  zeal  in  establishing  one  of 
tlic  most  ilctcstal)li'  i<l()latri('s  and  in  promoting  human  sacrifices 
arc   SM   indubitable,  that   his  name  must  descend  as  that  of  an 

K.'C.rds  of  th.-  I'ust,  V.  ?:-!. 


THE    HITTITES    AT   THE    TIGRIS    AND    EUPHRATES.  Ill 

enemy  of  mankind,  in  spite  of  all  the  blandishments  by  which  he 
souofht  to  win  over  the  captive  people  of   Sumir  and  Akkad  to 
his  sway.     Of  his  successor  Samsu  Iluna,  alread}'^  set  forth  as 
Samlah  of  Masrekah   among  the   kings   that   reigned   in   Edom, 
nothing  of  any  consequence  is  recorded.     In  Irish  history,  on  the 
other  hand,  Orbha,  called  by  mistake  a  son  of  Heber  Fionn,  and 
made  a   successor  of   Heremon,  is  dismissed  in  a  single  line,  it 
being  simply  stated  that  he  and  three  of  his  brothers  were  killed 
by    Heremon's  son   Irial.     But  Samlah   is   called   Conmaol,  and 
made  another  son  of  Heber.     He  killed  Eithrial  the  son  of  Irial, 
and    governed    Ireland    thirty    years,    being   the   first    absolute 
monarch  of  the  line  of  Heber.      He  was  engaged  all  these  years 
in  contests  wMtli  the  descendants  of  Heremon,  and  at  length  lost 
his  life  by  the  hands  of  Heber  the  son  of  Tighermhas,  wdio  placed 
his  father  on  the  throne.     The   Irish   annals   mention  a   son    of 
Conmaol,  namely,  Eochaidh  Faobharglas,  wdio  made  Albin  tribu- 
tary, and  had  troubles  with  the  Heremonians,  by  whom  he  was 
killed  after  a  reign  of  twenty   3^ears.     Eochaidh   in   the    Kenite 
list  is  Ishhod  or  Aishhod,  the  son  of  Hammoleketh  or  the  Queen, 
who  was  the  sister  of  Gilead.^     By  the  union  of  Samlah  with  this 
queen,  the  line  of  Sumir  or  Zimri  was  allied  with  that  of  Kapha. 
In  th(i  lists  of  Ctesias  his  name  may  V)e  found  as  Ascatades.  while 
that  of  his  youngest  brother,  Mahalah  or  Machalah,  is  i-epresented 
by    Mancalius,   and   that  of   Machalah's   eldest   son    Heman,    by 
Amyntes.     The   second   of  the    three    brothers   was    Abiezer   or 
Abigezer,  whom  the  Arabs  call  Abou  Gaj'ar,  rightly  making  him 
the  father  of  Maouna  or  Me)notbai.''       The  old  alliauee   with  the 
Ethnanites,   Belaites,  oi-   Kenezzites,  was  ratified  by  his  marriage 
with  Hathath  the  daughter  of  Othniel,  by  wlu)ni   he  became  the 
father  of   Meonothai.    the    first    Amenhotep.      Ophrali   the  son  of 
Meonothai    gave    his    name    to    a    region    in    Canaan    known    as 
Ophrali    of    the    Abii'zrites.      (lideon.  the    judge  f)f  Israel,  was  an 
Alii<'Ziite,  but  whether  liy  rcsidcne*'  or  by  descent  remains   to   be 
determined.      It    is    remarkable    that   the  inscriptions  relating  to 
Sfunsn-iluna  make  no  mention   of  this  (|ueeJi.  and  that  the    Ii'ish 
annals  ai'c  silent  i-egarding  liei-.      In    Lydiun  liistoi'v  she  is  called 

'     1  Chiiiii.  vii.  Is. 
'I'.il.;.ri.  IMO. 


112  THE    HITTITES. 

Oraphale  the  daughter  of  Jardanes.  Herodotus  says  that  the 
Assyrians  called  Urania  by  the  name  Mylitta,  but  it  is  hard  to 
determine  the  place  of  this  queen  in  the  cuneiform  records.*^  Mole- 
keth  should  be  a  purely  Babylonian  divinity,  for  the  male  form 
of  the  name  Melcartus  was  adored  at  the  corresponding  Byblus 
in  Phoenicia.  The  Greeks  preserved  her  name  as  Ino  Leucothea 
and  crave  her  a  son  Melicerta,  but  made  her  husband  Athamas  or 
the  Kenite  Etam,  a  relation  which  they  intensified  by  calling  her 
the  daughter  of  Cadmus,  who  is  the  same  Etam  or  Getam.  Now 
there  is  no  evidence  that  she  was  in  any  way  connected  with  the 
Horite  family  of  Etam  ;  but  Mount  Carmel,  where  her  husband 
Samlah,  the  Lydian  Tmolus  or  Carmanorius,  was  worshipped  as 
Carmelus,  was  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jezreel  named  after  the 
son  of  Etam."  Similar  confusion  reigns  in  the  story  of  Meleager, 
who  is  another  Melicerta  and  Melcartus.  His  mother  Althaea 
may  be  taken  as  an  Aly tta  form  of  Mylittd,  but  his  father  Q^^neus 
is  a  myth,  and  Calydon,  of  which  he  was  king,  bears  the  name  of 
Gilead  the  brother  of  Moleketh.  As  the  wife  of  Samlah  was 
Moleketh,  he  must  have  been  known  as  Moloch,  a  god  whose 
bloody  sacrifices  agree  with  the  sanguinary  rites  that  originated 
the  stories  of  the  Simurgh  and  Stymphalides.  Thus  the  Ugrian 
Jumala  and  Arimionian  Moloch  are  the  same  deity. 

Ctesias'  mention  of  Ascatades,  Mancaleus,  and  Amyntes  a.s 
oriental  monarchs  in  the  line  of  Ninus  and  Belus,  shows  that, 
while  Abiezer  found  a  throne  in  Elephantine,  his  elder  brother 
Ishhod  and  his  younger  brother  Machalah  reigned  in  Babylon, 
and  that  the  latter  was  followed  by  his  eldest  son  Heman,  who  is 
celebrated  alono-  with  his  brothers,  Chalcol  and  Darda  or  Dardas: 
as  only  inferior  to  Solomon  in  point  of  wisdom.^  There  is  a 
strong  temptation  to  identify  Ishhod  with  Sin-Gasit,  the  Sin-Sada 
of  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson,  seeing  that  he  had  for  mother  Belat- 
Sunat,  but  the  fact  that  he  was  the  king  of  Amnanu,  a  name  that 
does  not  appear  until  five  generations  after  Abiezer,  opposes  the 
connection  of  the  two  names.  In  the  Babylonian  list  Samsu- 
iluna  is  followed   by   Eljisum,  Ammi-satana.   Kimtum-kittum  or 


H..nM|,,r.  i.  i:ii. 

It  will  yi-t  :i|i|)<'ar  tli.it  her  sdii  Matuilali  was  rt-lat<'d  to  tlit-  (Jctamites. 
1  KiiiLTs  u  .  HI. 


THE    HITTITES    AT   THE    TIGRIS    AND    EUPHRATES.  113 

Ainmi-saduga,  and  Samsu-satana.  Buddhist  tradition  preserves 
the  names,  but  in  great  confusion,  for  Upaehara  or  Abiezer  is 
made  the  father  of  Chetiya  or  Ishhod,  the  builder  of  Hastipura 
and  the  first  liar,  and  he  again  is  made  the  father  of  Muchala  or 
Machalah,  who  reig-ned  in  righteousness.''*  The  descendants  of 
Abiezer  are  also  well  defined  as  the  people  of  Abhisara,  whom  the 
Raja  Tarangini  always  unites  with  those  of  Darva  in  the  south 
of  Cashmere.  The  classical  geographers  and  Arrian  mention  the 
country  of  Abisarus  situated  in  the  same  direction,  thus  oivin"' 
to  tlie  king  the  name  of  his  people.  In  so-called  Indian  myth- 
ology the  Abiezrites  are  the  Apsaras-as,  or  water  nymphs,  to  whom 
Urvasi,  the  wife  of  Paruravas,  the  Indian  Orpheus  or  Rawa, 
belcjnged.  Vasishtha  was  born  from  the  soul  of  Urvasi,  sat  down 
by  the  Apsaras,  and  led  the  tribes  of  the  Tritsus.  In  India  the 
sons  of  Hammoleketh  find  solid  ground,  for  Vasishtha  is  Ishhod, 
and  the  Tritsus  are  the  descendants  of  Dardag,  the  youngest  son 
(jf  Mahol  or  Machalah,  while  their  connection  with  the  Apsaras 
and  Urvasi  completes  their  identification  with  the  family  of  Beth 
Raplia.^''  In  the  west  all  the  names  of  this  family  cluster  about 
the  Libya  Palus  in  the  Roman  province  of  Africa,  from  Gemellae 
or  Sandah  to  Tritonis  or  Dardag.  Mr.  Robert  Brown,  jr.,  has  set 
forth  the  connection  of  Po  Seidon,  who  is  Eshton,  the  father  of 
Rapha,  with  the  water-loving  Tritons  that  represent  the  Sanscrit 
Tritsus.^^  In  Sanscrit  story,  Ishhod,  whom  Homer  knew  simply 
as  that  Melchizedek-like  person,  the  old  Aesyetes,  is  a  personage 
of  great  importance.  Yet  it  is  hard  to  glean  history  from  it,  as 
it  sets  forth  a  caste  of  priestly  poets  and  wise  men  rather  than 
the  life  of  an  individual.  The  Rig  V^eda  contains  the  following 
passaire  re2ardin<{  the  Vasishthas  : — 

"  The  white  robed  priests,  with  hair  knots  on  the  right  stimu- 
lating to  devotion,  have  filled  me  with  delight.  Rising  from  the 
sacrificial  gra.ss  I  call  to  the  men,  '  Let  not  the  \'asishtiuis  stand 
too  fur  ort"  to  succour  me.'  By  their  libaticjn  they  brought  Indra 
hither  from  afar  across  the  Vaisanta,  away  frmii  the  powerful 
drauirht.      Lidra  preferre<l  the  Vasishthas  to  tlie  s(.)nia  ofiered  by 


H;u(iy  -  Manu:il,  12S. 
Miiii-  S.ui.scrit  T.-xts. 
]',r"Ui].  I'lisciiidii. 


114  THE   HITTITES. 

Pasadyumna,  the  son  of  Vayata.  So,  too,  with  them  he  crossed 
the  river  ;  so,  too,  with  them  he  slew  Bheda  ;  so,  too,  in  the  battle 
of  the  ten  kings,  Indra  delivered  Sudas  through  your  prayer,  O 
Vasishthas.  Through  gratification,  caused  by  the  prayer  of  your 
fathers,  O  men,  ye  do  not  obstruct  the  undecaying  axle  since  at 
the  recitation  of  the  Sakvari  verses,  with  a  loud  voice  ye  have 
infused  energy  into  Indra,  O  'Vasishthas.  Distressed  when  sur- 
rounded in  the  tight  by  the  ten  kings,  they  looked  up  like  thirsty 
men  to  the  sky.  Indra  heard  Vasishtha  when  he  uttered  praise 
and  opened  up  a  wide  space  for  the  Tritsus.  Like  staves  for 
drivinfif  cattle,  the  contemptible  Bharatas  were  lopped  all  round. 
Vasishtha  marched  in  front  and  then  the  ti'ibes  of  the  Tritsus 
were  deployed.  Three  are  the  noble  creatures  whom  light  pre- 
cedes. Three  tires  attend  the  dawn.  All  these  the  Vasishthas 
know.  Their  lustre  is  like  the  full  radiance  of  the  sun  :  their 
greatness  is  like  the  depth  of  the  ocean  ;  like  the  swiftness  of  the 
wind  your  hymn,  0  Vasishthas,  can  be  followed  by  no  one  else."^- 
The  mention  of  the  Bharatas  in  this  hymn,  as  the  enemies  of 
Indra  and  of  the  Vasishthas  and  Tritsus,  shows  that  the  contest 
referred  to  is  the  one  occupying  the  reign  of  Samlah  of  Masrekah, 
for  then  only  were  the  men  of  Gedor,  whose  deity  was  Jether  or 
Indra,  in  league  with  the  house  of  Kapha  against  the  Beerothite>. 
The  white  rolled  priests  are  the  Druids  thus  attired,  who  accom- 
panied to  battle  Gwenddoleu,  the  lord  of  the  cannibal  birds,  and 
afterwards  cursed  the  name  of  Gall  Power,  who  put  an  end  to 
their  ravages.  The  very  name  Druid  or  Derwycid  originated 
with  Darda,  the  son  of  Mahalah.  But  what  is  still  moi"e  inter- 
esting is  the  fact  vouched  for  by  several  traditions,  that  the 
Orphic  family,  to  which  Darda  belono-ed,  was  one  that  srave  birth 
to  the  most  celebrated  early  poets  claimed  by  the  Greeks,  includ- 
ing Homer,  Hesiod,  and  Tyrtaeus.  On  their  mother's  side, 
Isldiod,  Abiezer  and  Malialah,  were  Zimi'ites.  The  name  of  their 
ancestor,  Zimi'an.  is  dei'ived  from  the  Hebrew  root,  zarnar,  to 
sing,  tit  name  for  a  family  of  poets,  anti  this  in  Gaelic  became 
nnih.rd,  iiniJivan,  a  poem  or  song.  These  Zimri,  Sumerians,  or 
Andn-ans,  were  the  Homeridae,  who  made  their  home  in  the 
island  of   ( 'liios.  but    dwelt   also   in    Smyi-na,   a   Gimmerian  city, 

'-'    .\Iuii'-  S:in>ciit  T--xt>. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  115 

that  more  perfectly  retains  the  name  of  Zimran.  There  Homer 
is  said  to  have  been  born,  tlie  son  of  Meles  and  Critlieis,  at  the 
time  xthen  Theseus,  the  son  of  Eumelus,  reigned  over  the  city. 
Hesiod  is,  in  some  traditions,  made  a  relative  of  Homer,  or  a 
member  of  the  same  family,  and  his  uncommon  name  marks  him 
as  pertaining  to  the  line  in  which  Ishhod  appears,  and  as  inherit- 
ing the  traditions  of  the  poetic  Vasishtha.  Of  Tyrtaeus,  the 
Aphidnian,  who  encouraged  the  Spartan  army  in  its  contest  with 
Aristomenes  of  Messenia.  no  particulars  have  descended,  but  his 
name  and  office  stamp  him  as  one  of  the  Tritsus,  a  Dardag 
descended  from  Mahol.  By  poets  of  the  same  race  the  Kalewala 
and  Kalewipoeg  must  have  been  written.  And  it  seems  that  the 
88th  and  S!)th  Psalms  were  translations  and  adaptations  of  poems 
originally  composed  by  the  Orphic  family,  that  included  Heman 
and  Ethan,  or  compositions  by  members  of  that  family  who  had 
become  converts  to  the  Heltrew  faith.  The  Semitic  root  sadial 
has  the  meaning  of  putting  across  as  well  as  of  instructing,  so 
that  the  mysterious  word  Maschil,  prefixed  to  many  psalms,  may 
denote  a  translation.  The  bards  were  not  free  from  misfortune, 
for  Meholah,  the  father  of  the  wise  Heman,  Chalcol,  and  Dardag, 
gave  his  name  to  Abel  .^leholah  in  the  plain  of  Samaria  and 
north-west  of  Abiezer.^''  This,  like  Abel  Mizraim,  in  the  south, 
was  a  place  of  mourning,  the  mourning  of  Meholah.  A  tragic 
story  must  have  given  rise  to  this  name,  and  this  story  is  the  one 
with  which  the  name  of  Tmolus  is  associated  by  Clytophon,  and 
which  was  given  in  connection  with  the  history  of  Sandali.  A 
somewhat  similar  narrative  is  that  of  Milo  of  Epirus,  who  gave 
La(t<lamia,  the  last  of  the  Epirote  royal  family,  her  death  wound 
in  the  temple  of  Diana,  whither  she  had  tied  as  to  an  asylum. 
He  was  seized  with  matlness  and,  teai-ing  out  his  own  bowels, 
(lied  in  agony  :  and  plagues  fell  upon  the  whole  land.  ^leilanion 
again  and  Atalanta,  while  lunitiiig  in  ("alydon,  profaned  the 
sacred  enclosure  of  Jove,  and  were  for  this  transformed  into  lions. 
Meilanion  seems  to  ije  the  same  pei'son  us  Meleager  of  Calydon 
whose  history  is  linke<l  with  that  of  Atalanta.  His  motiiei', 
Althaea,  burned  the  billet  of  wood  on  which  his  life  depended, 
and  he  j)ei"ished  umlei"  her  curse.      The    story   of    .Meihuiion  and 


116  THE   HITTITES. 

Atalanta  answers  perfect!}'  to  that  of  Melanippus,  son  of  Ares 
and  Tritia,  and  Coniaetho,  the  daughter  of  Pterelaus,  the  temple 
of  Diana  or  Artemis  taking  the  place  of  the  enclosure  o&  Jove. 
A  curse  fell  on  the  country,  the  guilty  parties  were  immolated, 
and  human  sacrifices  instituted  to  avert  the  anger  of  the  goddess. 
Other  persons  named  Jklelanippus  were  the  sons  of  Hicetaon, 
Astacus,  and  Agrius.  Meilichos,  and  other  rivers  similarly  named, 
attend  Melanippus  and  the  characters  identified  with  his  tragic 
story,  recalling  the  Nahar  Malcha  of  Babylonia. 

The  statement  of  Apollodorus  that  Coniaetho  was  the 
daughter  of  Pterelaus,  taken  along  with  the  story  of  Melanippus 
in  Pausanias,  sheds  light  on  Chaldean  history,  although  it  leaves 
us  in  doubt  as  to  the  precise  calamity  that  culled  for  the 
mourning  of  Meholah.  Pterelaus  and  Kurigalzu  of  the 
Babylonian  records  are  the  same  name,  originating  in  the  word 
that  furnishes  the  Babylonian  geographical  term,  Zerghul.  That 
word  is  Jezreel.  or,  as  it  may  be  read,  Yezregel.  I^ow  Jezreel 
was  the  son  of  Etam,  and  he  is  the  Athamas  who  is  made  the 
father  of  Meleager  by  Ino  Leucothea,  and,  as  Getam,  the  Cadmus 
who  is  the  father  of  that  princess.  Atalanta,  connected  with 
Meilanion  and  Meleas^er  and  Camulus,  was  the  daughter  of 
Schoenus.  the  son  of  Athamas.  Meilanion  again  is  the  son  of 
Amphidamas  or  Abi  Etam.  Even  Milo  was  the  son  of  Diotimus. 
It  thus  appears  that  the  Cadmonites  of  Etam  had  established 
themselves  in  Balylonia,  and  that  the  first  Kurigalzu  of  the  lists 
ami  jn( liniments  was  Jezi-eel,  the  son  of  Etam,  This  family 
must,  therefore,  have  left  its  seat  in  the  wilderness  of  Etam,  on 
the  north-eastern  border  of  Egypt,  accompanying  the  allied 
Peletites  to  their  wars  on  the  baiik.sof  the  Euphrates;  and  Milisihu, 
son  of  Kurigulzu.  must  l)e  Meholah,  the  son-in-law  of  Jezreel  or 
Yetsreifel.^*  The  synchronism  of  the  lines  of  Etam  and  Kapha 
is  hard  to  estaljlish,  for  the  latter  married  Regeni's  widow,  while 
Pelet.  tilt'  brotlier  of  Regem,  married  Zelelponi,  the  daughter  of 
Etam.  Thus  Jezreel  or  Yetsregel  is  the  Indian  Satrugna,  the 
eonteinpDi-aiy  (jf  Regem  and  Pelet,  while  Mahalah  seems  to  be 
soiiif  i,o'iu_'rations  later.  Yet  Abiezer  married  Hathath,  the 
(l;in'_diti'i-  of  (Jtliniel  the  Kenezzite,  and  after  his  death  she  was 

''      \i,l:.v<\^  ,,t   till-   I'ast,    V.   7'.l. 


THE    HITTITES   AT   THE    TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  117 

united  to  Mesha  the  son  of  Jabez  With  Jabez,  Samlah  must 
have  been  contemporary,  for,  among  the  Kings  of  Edom  or 
Gebalene,  he  alone  occurs  between  Hadad  and  Saul,  and  Saul,  as 
Osortasen  III.,  can  only  have  taken  possession  of  Lower  Egypt 
at  the  death  of  the  great  worshipper  of  Sutekh.  It  is  certain 
that  Mahalah  was  allied  with  the  family  of  Etam,  for  he  only 
can  be  the  Amyclas  who  occupies  one  of  the  most  prominent 
places  in  the  Spartan  genealogies."^^  He  is  made  the  father  of 
Harpalus,  and  grandfather  of  Deritus.  But  in  Greece  the  homes 
of  the  aboriginal  members  of  his  family  were  traditionally, perhaps 
actually,  Thessaly  and  Euboea.  In  the  former,  Hestiaeotis  was 
named  after  Ishhod  and  inhabited  by  Perrhoebians.  In  Euboea 
which  bore  the  name  Ellopia,  Histiaea  was  situated,  and  from 
that  city  Amphiclus  is  said  to  have  migrated  to  Chios,  there  to 
reign  after  the  sons  of  CEnopion.^^'  Ishhod's  name  is  also  given 
as  that  of  the  Arcadian  Hicetas,  whose  father,  Aristocrates,  was 
guilty  of  the  same  outrage  as  Tmolus,  his  victim  being  the 
virgin  priestess  of  Artemis  Hymnia.  He  was  stoned  to  death 
for  this  crime,  and  a  second  Aristocrates,  the  son  of  Hicetas,  met 
the  same  fate.^^  The  name  Aristocrates  seems  foreign  to  the 
history,  but  Hymnia  connects  with  it  in  Heman,  the  eldest  son 
of  Mahalah.  It  is  also  evident  that  the  words  Hestiaeotis, 
Histiaea,  Hicetas,  are  related  to  Hestia  or  Vesta,  rendering  it 
prolmVjle  that  the  Vestals  were  instituted  by  Ishhod,  the  Sanscrit 
Vasishtha,  and  that  the  crime  which  led  to  the  mourning  of 
Meholah,  was  committed  against  a  member  of  this  new  sister- 
hood. Such  Vestals  celebrated  the  rites  of  the  Babylonian 
Mylitta  or  Sacti,  who  is  Moleketh.  They  kept  alive  the  sacred 
tire  whicii  was  the  only  emblem  of  divinity  in  their  round 
temples.  Now  the  land  of  lire  in  the  Zend  A  vesta  is  Suglula  or 
SogdiMua,  and  Sughda  is  the  Algomjuin  ■^hafi',  tire.  But  the 
Algon(]uin  dialects,  by  the  use  of  prepositions  and  other  gram- 
matical as  well  as  lexical  peculiarities,  are  si'parated  from  the 
Kiiitan  languages  propei-,  althougli  they  in  all  respects  show  con- 
necti(jn  with  the  Maya-<^)nich(j  group  of  Central   America,  whose 


'  ■   T!i<-  S|),ittiii,  iir  men  sciwii  hy  Cadiiius,  ;iri'  tlu-  .rezrccliin,  <ir  sown  nf  ('u><\. 
'''    I':iu<;iiii;is. 
'"    I'iiu-aiiia-. 


118  THE  HITTITES. 

peculiarities,  by  the  traditions  of  the  Quiches,  are  proved   to  be 
the  result  of  Semitic  influence.    The  languages  of  the  Old  World, 
with  which  the  preposing  dialects  of  the  New  hav^e  the  closest 
afiinities,  are   those   of  the    Mala}'    Archipelago,    and    the    very 
name    Malacca    is  a    memorial  of    Moleketh,  the  larger  part  of 
whose    family    in    eastward    migration    followed    the    southern 
littoral  and  oceanic  route  taken  by  the  descendants  of  Coz.     The 
statement  of  Pausanias,  that  Amphiclus  reigned  in   Chios  after 
the  sons  of  CEnopion,  points  to  an  ancient  connection  of  the  two 
families.     The  original  Hittite  word  for  fire  seems  to  have  been 
su,  which   is   the  present  Basque    and  Lesghian  form,  but   the 
Yeniseian  is  chott,  the  Iroquois  otf^ia  and  ojista,  the  Shoshonese 
i<haicat,  and  the  Peruvian  Sapibocono  cuati,  which  resembles  the 
Algonquin  skate.     The   Vestals  allowed   the    sacred    fire    to   die 
away  at  the  end  of  the  year,  but,  if  extinguished   at  any  other 
time,  it  portended  evil  to  the  city  or  state  in  which   the   worship 
was  observed.     The   story  of  Althaea  consuming   the   billet    on 
which  Meleager's  life  depended   seems   to  have   some  connection 
with  this  law.       The  sisters  of    Meleager   were   transformed,  on 
account  of  their  mourning  for  his  death,  into  meleagrides,  guinea 
fowls  or  turkeys.     The  Algonquin   Delawares   or   Lenni   Lenape 
have    a    sub-tribe    called    Unalachtigo    or    the    Turkey    clan. 
Meleager  and  Unalachtigo  are  related  to  the  Malayan  marah,  a 
peacock,  and  to  malk,  a  common  Malayo  Polynesian  name  for  a 
fowl.     The  oceanic  route  of  the  Lenni  Lenape,  Illinois,  and  other 
Algontjuins,  who  call  themselves  ilenni  or  men,  is  well  marked  in 
Borneo  and  the  adjacent  islands  \)y  the  presence  of  the  Illinoans. 
These  semitized   and    oceanic  Hittites   seriously   complicate   the 
problem  of  Kliitan  migration,  and  should  properl}^  have  a  treatise 
for  themselves.      Many  of  their  divinities  and  of  their  ti-aditions, 
(•specially  those  glorifying   the   rabbit   or  hare,  are  tiie  same  as 
those  of  tlu-  northern    and   continental    Hittites  of  pure   speech, 
but  otlii'is  are  bori'owed  like  theii'  language,  or  hav^e  grown   up, 
a^  has  tlieii'  conception  of  an  insular  heaven,  out  of  their  altered 
ciiiiijitions  of  life.      Jn  character,  occupations  and  arts,  there  is  a 
radical   distinctit^n    between   the   two    Hittite  streams   which   so 
iiiar\cllously  converged  in  the  New  World. 

Seiniii,  the  eleventh  Japanese   emperor,  placed   his   daughter 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  119 

under  the  name  of  Saikou  at  the  head  of  a  college  of  Vestals 
instituted  by  him.^^  The  Natchez,  who,  like  the  Japanese  and 
the  Hurons,  regarded  their  king  or  head  chief  as  the  son  of  the 
Sun,  are  said  to  hav^e  had  in  ancient  times  a  body  of  Vestals 
who  kept  up  a  perpetual  fire  in  a  round  or  oval  temple.^^  That 
they  did,  in  common  with  all  the  Mobilian  tribes,  maintain  such 
a  fire  in  such  a  temple  is  incontestible,  but  confirmatory  eviaence 
of  the  existence  of  a  class  of  virgin  priestesses  is  wanting. 
Charlevoix  and  Chateaubriand  luive,  however,  placed  on  record 
the  fact  that,  b}'  command  of  the  Sun,  the  women  of  the  Natchez 
were  compelled  at  least  once  in  their  lives  to  prostitute  them- 
selves, as  Herodotus  says  the  Babylonian  women  did  in  honour 
of  Mylitta.-^'  There  were  Vestals  also  in  Mexico,  part  of  whose 
duty  it  was  to  replenish  the  perpetual  incense  burner  in  the 
temple.  Failing  to  keep  their  vow  of  chastity  their  fate  was 
death.  They  seem  first  to  have  come  into  existence  in  the  reign 
of  Nauhyotl  in  Tollan.  Wishing  to  supersede  the  worship  of 
Quetzalcoatl,  he  established  that  of  Matlalcueye,  an  aquatic 
goddess  called  the  lady  of  the  frogs,  to  whom  human  victims 
were  ofiered.  It  is  not  stated  that  a  company  of  Vestals  was 
instituted  in  her  honour,  but  a  subsequent  part  of  Mexican 
history  attests  that  fact  and  points  to  the  infamies  of  the  Baby- 
lonian Mylitta :  "The  Tlamacazqui,  violating  the  laws  of  con- 
tinence under  which  they  were  bound,  proved  foremost  in  vice, 
and  tlit-^  Vestals,  guardians  of  the  sacred  fire,  became  generally 
the  first  victims  of  their  brutality.  Matters  came  to  such  a  pass 
that  the  princess  Cihua(iua<|uil,  chief  pi'iestess  of  the  goddess  of 
the  w;it(ji-s  ('Matlalcu(!ye),  having  left  Tollan  on  a  pilgrimage  to 
tlie  temple'  of  Ce  Acatl  at  Cliolullan,  allowed  herself  to  be  sought 
publicly,  even  in  the  sanctuary,  by  the  Tlachiach  'J'expolcalt/in, 
pontitioi'  QuetzalcohuatI,  and  bound  like  her  by  inxiolable  vows 
to  sji.cer' iota!  continence.  ' -'  ib'rson,  Ichcatl,  hecame  the  head 
of  a  iii-i'.flitary  priest]if>od.  'J'his  seems  to  l)e  n  vei'V  ancient 
story,    i'  r   the  goddess    .Matlalcueve,   and    the    liei'editai'v    jn-iest 

'-    Tii-i'i-li. 

■'    C '  1  it'-;uiliri,ii)(|,  \'ny,'i;,'c.s  en  Ajiii-ri(|uc  ct  cti  Italic. 

-'■    Il-i  .'I'.t.    i.   llt'.t;  Charl.'Vui.N,   JIi,<t.  (!<•  la  Nouvrllr   France,   vi.  IbL' :  (/hatcau- 
Idi.aii'l,  \''<y,i;.'i-,s,   I'ari.s,  lsi,'7,  ii.  ."."'). 

•'    I'.  <ii-  I'louilioiirK,  .N'aticiiis  Civilisi'-cs,  i.  I-STS. 


120  THE   HITTITES. 

Ichcatl,  look  not  unlike  Molecheth  ancMshhod,  while  the  conduct 
of  the  priest  and  priestess  corresponds  with  that  set  forth  in  the 
traditions  illustrating  the  mourning  of  Meholah.and  the  universal 
licence  it  exemplihes  agrees  with  the  abominations  of  Babylon. 
The  Peruvians  also  had  Vestals  who  were  called  the  brides  of  the 
Sun.  In  one  convent  in  Cuzco  there  were  a  thousand  virgins  of 
royal  blood.  Their  vows  were  perpetual,  and  if  they  broke  them 
they  were  buried  alive,  yet  if  any  had  a  child  it  was  saved  and 
devoted  to  the  priesthood.  Their  chief  work  was  the  preparation 
of  certain  kinds  of  food  for  the  Inca  and  his  court  and  of  royal 
and  sacredotal  raiment.  It  is  not  stated  that  they  maintained 
the  annual  lire,  although  it  is  very  probable  that  they  did  so,  for 
the  manner  of  lighting  that  fire  at  the  vernal  equinox  by  con- 
centrating the  suns'  rays,  collected  by  a  concave  burnished  metal 
mirror  upon  a  heap  of  dry  cotton,  corresponds  with  that  which 
Plutarch  attributes  to  Numa  Pompilius."-  The  Peruvians,  like 
the  Mexicans,  oti'ered  human  victims  to  the  Sun.  In  Italy,  Numa 
Pompilius  has  the  honour  assigned  him  of  establishing  the 
worship  of  Vesta  by  the  virgins,  but  another  name  connected 
with  them  is  that  of  Caecilius  Metellus,  who  is  said  to  have 
precipitated  himself,  on  the  occasion  of  the  burning  of  their 
temple,  into  the  llames  to  save  the  sacred  relics.  So  the  Natchez 
preserved  the  names  of  certain  women  who,  in  a  similar  con- 
flagration, cast  their  children  into  the  fire  to  appease  the  anger 
of  the  god."^^  The  name  of  Caecilius  Metellus  is  suspiciously 
like  Chalcol  of  Mahalah.  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson  finds  Khalk- 
halla,  the  complete  form  of  Chalcol,  as  a  name  of  the  Assyrian 
god  Ninip.-^ 

Returning  to  the  Akkadian  family  whom  Hammurabi  had 
deprived  of  the  kingdom,  we  find  a  contemporary  of  Naram-Sin 
or  Harum  in  Sin-Idinna,  the  son  of  Gasin,  who,  according  to  Mr. 
George  Smith,  is  hy  the  character  of  his  legends  closely  connected 
with  Riin-Agu.-"'  The  father,  Gasin,  is  Geshan  the  brother  of 
Regem,  but  his  posterity  is  not   mentioned  in   the   Kenite   list- 


I'tTuvian  Aiitiipiitics,  1.5S. 

Ch.'irlfvi.ix,  vi.  1>S. 

Ii;t\vliiis(in's  Hermlotus,  ajip.  bk.  1,  Essay  10. 

Il'Cortis  (,f  the  Past,  V.  oA. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  121 

Geshan  was  the  name  of  Goshen  in  Egypt,  and  of  a  region 
similarly  designated  in  southern  Palestine.-"  Sin-Idinna,  then, 
must  have  been  a  son  of  the  lord  of  Goshen  who  joined  the 
fortunes  of  his  uncle  Regem  in  the  east.  He  calls  himself  the 
nourisher  of  Ur,  King  of  Larsa,  and  of  Sumir  and  Akkad.  Like 
Hammurabi,  he  excavated  a  river  which  he  called  Kibigana,  and 
built  Bit  Parra.  He  also  celebrated  the  festivals  of  Ur  and 
"Samas  in  Bit  Parra  and  Bit  Nergal.  The  name  of  his  river, 
Kibigana,  is  that  o^  the  Amorite  family,  Gibeon  or  Gibegon,  the 
head  of  which,  an  Ebalian,  was  Zibeon  or  Zibegon,  the  father  of 
that  Ajah  or  Akki  the  Abal  who  took  care  of  young  Sargon, 
when  his  grand-daughter,  Timna,  deserted  the  child.  Esau  was 
connected  with  the  same  family,  having  married  the  daughter  of 
Zibeon's  second  son,  Anah,  namely  Aholibamah."-"  The  story  of 
Esau's  famil}'  is  found  in  many  lands,  on  account  of  his  relation 
by  marriage  with  the  Hittite,  Horite,  and  Ishmaelite  stocks. 
The  mention  of  Bit  Nergal  as  a  place  where  Ur  was  worshipped 
brings  forward  the  name  of  the  .son  of  Harum,  Rim-Acju.  or 
Naram  Sin,  who  was  Acharchel,  the  original  Hercules.  The 
difficulties  in  the  way  of  tracing  the  history  of  Aharhel  are 
numerou.s.  Transferred  to  difi'erent  countries  and  transliterated 
in  different  lancfuages,  the  name  Acharchel  was  confounded  with 
those  of  Yetsregel  and  Asareel.  In  languages  such  as  the 
Eg3'ptian,  which  make  no  distinction  between  I  and  /■,  and  in 
others  that,  like  the  Japanese,  have  no  I,  or,  like  the  Choctaw 
and  Aztec,  have  no  r,  it  is  confounded  with  Chalcol  and  Karkar. 
In  Greece  the  tendency  was  to  attribute  to  Hercules  the  acts  of 
every  great  warrior  of  the  early  days  of  the  world's  history, 
attriljuting  to  him  among  others  those  of  his  father  Harum.  In 
India,  on  the  other  hand,  Rama  was  the  favourite,  absorbing 
into  his  romantic  career  the  e.Kploits  of  his  father,  Regem.  and 
his  son,  Aharhel.  One  thing  that  is  certainly  known  regarding 
this  hero  is  that  he  was  counted  among  the  Hycsos  of  Egypt, 
for  in  the  two  versions  of  Manetho's  Shepherd  Kings  ho  appears 
in  immediate  pro.ximity  to  Apophis.  in  one  case  preceding,  and, 
in  tlie  otli(,'r,  following  tliat  in(;narcli.      The  reconciliation  of  the 

■-'"    .lu-liuii  X.  41. 

-■"    <  Ji-m-siH  WW  i.  2,  IH. 


122  THE   HITTITES. 

.  %  .♦       . 

discrepancy  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  this  Archies  lived  in 
the  reign  of  Jabez,  but,  as  the  latter  was  on  the  throne  when  he 
was  born,  his  name  preceded  that  of  his  second  cousin,  and,  as 
he  survived  the  hero,  his  name  followed  that  of  Archies. 
Manetho  calls  his  ninth  and  tenth  dynasties  Heracieopolitan,  but 
only  mentions  one  name  of  a  Pharaoh,  that  of  Achthoes,  who 
has  been  sufficienth"  identified  with  the  Hittite  Jachdai.  There 
were  two  Egyptian  cities  called  Heracleopolis,  one  surnamed* 
Mao-na,  to  the  south  of  Lake  Moeris  ;  the  other  called  Parva  and 
Sethrum  on  the  Mediterranean!  coast  near  Avaris  and  Pelusium. 
Avaris  was  the  Epirus  of  Homer  where  the  cruel  King  Echetus 
cut  off  men's  noses  and  ears.  It  marked  the  western  boundary 
of  the  Lydian  sub-kingdom  of  Mareshah,  while  the  Arish 
limited  it  on  the  east.  At  the  Arish  was  RhinoQolura,  or  the 
nose-docked,  a  city  in  which  Diodorus  says  that  Actisanes,  whom 
Strabo  calls  some  Ethiopian,  settled  the  malefactors  whose  noses 
he  had  cut  off,  trusting  that  shame  of  their  personal  appearance 
would  prevent  their  return  to  Egypt.  It  would  appear,  there- 
fore, that  Aharhel  exercised  sovereignty  over  the  region  in  the 
Sethroitic  nome  in  which  his  great  grandfather,  Jachdai,  had 
first  established  himself,  the  right  of  Regem  as  the  eldest  son  of 
Jachdai  being  thus  acknowledged.  To  the  west  of  this  domain 
was  the  Xoite  kingdom  founded  by  Coz,  or  his  son  Anub, 
Aharhel's  maternal  grandfather.  And,  in  whichever  Heracleopolis, 
the  son  of  Harum  made  his  abode,  he  was  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  fsimily  of  ^la  Resha,  repi'esented  equalh'  by  the 
Arisli  in  the  north-east,  and  by  Lake  Moeris  in  Central  Egypt. 
That  there  was.  therefore,  an  actual  Lydian  dynasty  of  the 
Heraclid;e  is  most  probable.  One  would  have  expected  the  name 
of  Acharchel  to  appear  in  the  Armenian  lists  in  connection  with 
Arineuac,  but  Armenian  history  branches  oH:"  into  the  story  of 
the  dominant  Egyptian  line  of  Paiapis,  Meesak  and  Manavazus.-'^ 
The  Irish  annals  are  clearest  upon  this  line.  'J'hey  make  tlie 
ijiistakc;  of  repi'esenting  Harum  or  Heremon  as  a  son  of  Milesius, 
wh(j  is  Ma  Reshah,  and  the  husband  of  Tea,  daughter  of 
Luuhaidli,  who  is  Lagadah  or  Laadah,  Ma  Reshah's  fatlier,  but 
tlii-si-   ci'rors    do   not   oiiscui'e    the   actual    fact    of    a    connection 


Kiiii^'s  of  Aiiiiciiia,  12,  20. 


THE   HITTITES  AT   THE   TIGRIS  AND   EUPHRATES.  128 

between  the  Lydian  family  and  that  of  Harum  and  Aharhel. 
They  are  right,  however,  in  calling  the  sou  of  Heremon,  Irial  or 
Irial  Faidh.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  learned  prince  and  a 
prophet  who  could  foretell  things  to  come.  He  overthrew  Orbha 
and  his  brothers,  who  had  basely  taken  away  the  lives  of  two  of 
his  elder  brothers  that  died  without  issue.  In  his  reign  the  land 
was  cleared  for  cultivation,  rivers  were  opened  up,  and  seven 
royal  palaces  built.  He  gained  four  great  victories  ;  the  first 
was  the  battle  of  Ard  Inmath  at  Teabtha,  where  Stirne,  son  of 
Duibh,  sou  of  Fomhoir,  was  slain  ;  the  second  battle  was  Teanra- 
huiofhe,  where  Eichto-he,  the  leader  of  the  Forahoraice,  fell ;  the 
third  was  Loch  Muighe  which  witnessed  the  death  of  Lugrot,  the 
son  of  Moghfeibhis ;  and  in  the  fourth  at  Cuill  Martho  he  over- 
came the  four  sons  of  Heber.  Eithrial,  who  succeeded  Irial, 
being  his  son,  who  cleared  more  land,  wrote  history,  was  remark- 
able for  his  valour  and  military  accomplishments,  and  was  killed 
by  Conmaol,  is  probably,  almost  certainly,  a  repetition  of  Irial.'^'^ 

The  Greek  story  of  the  historical  Hercules  is  altogether 
astray  when  it  makes  him  a  descendant  of  Perseus,  as  the  son  of 
Amphitryon  and  Alcmena.  If  that  parentage  suits  any  hero 
worthy  the  Herculean  name  it  must  be  Shimon,  the  Sem  Hercules 
perhaps  of  the  Egyptians,  the  son  of  Hadar  the  Beerothite  and 
Melietabel  the  sister  of  Beriah,  in  which  case  Amphitryon  will 
Ije  a  corruption  of  the  word  Mithra,  derived  from  the  name  of 
^bitred.  Melietal»ers  mother,  and  Electryon,  the  name  of 
Alc-iuena's  father,  will  go  l)ack  to  Elgadah  the  father  of  Tahath  II., 
Matrt'ils  husband.  Eurystheus,  the  son  of  Sthenelus.  to 
whom  Hercules  was  suV)ject,  should  be  Beriah  himself,  but 
Stli(_'iielu<,  the  name  of  liis  father,  is  a  Greek  transliteration  (jf 
Otlinii/1  or  Gothniel  of  the  Elephantine  kingilom,  whose  succi'ssor, 
Seti  .Monephthali,  drove  out  the  family  of  Shimon.  There  is 
one  nunie.  however,  connected  with  the  story  of  the  infancy  of 
Ilercul'"-  that  do(.'S  not  Iti-long  to  the  time  of  Shimon,  aufl  that  is 
Ipliicif-.  liy  which  his  twin  l)i"other  of  mortal  |)arenta,ge  is  called. 
Wlii'ii  Juno  sent  two  sei'pents  to  .devour  the  children,  and 
I])liic:f-  alarmed  the  household  with  his  cries,  the  infant  Hercules 

•"    '  i<-ii/.T.   Syiiiliolik  :  <  ;ni;,''iii:iut,  Iki'-!if,'iiiiis  (li>  rAiiti<|tiiti-. 


124  THE   HITTITES. 

took  one  in  each  hand  and  strangled  the  monsters.  This 
fabulous  trait  associates  him  with  Krishna,  who,  when  the  demon 
Putana  sought  to  kill  the  babe  with  her  poisonous  breast,  drained 
her  of  life.  Creuzer  and  Guigniaut  have  pointed  out  distinct 
connections  of  Hermes  and  Hercules  in  mythology,  but  these  are 
apart  from  the  traditional  account  of  the  latter  hero.  Diodorus, 
however,  states  that  when  Osiris  went  forth  on  his  warlike 
expeditions,  he  left  to  Isis  as  her  counsellor,  Hermes,  the  wisest 
and  most  faithful  of  his  friends,  and,  as  the  general  of  her  troops, 
his  relative,  Hercules.^^  The  two  names  were  associated  as 
Hermeracles,  to  denote  the  pillars  of  stone  generally  called  by 
that  of  Hermes.  The  Latin  Mercurius,  taken  to  represent  the 
Greek  Hermes,  really  denoted  his  son,  the  Mehercules,  invoked  in 
Roman  oaths,  whose  name  became  Mehercures  or  Mercury,  for 
the  initial  Me  is  the  honorific  particle,  meaning  honourable  and 
sublime.  Mehercul  answers  also  to  the  Chaldean  Nergal,  and 
explains  such  names  as  the  Palestinian  Maralah  or  Margalah, 
the  Caucasian  Marul,  Mergul,  and  Mingrelia,  and  the  Ligurian 
Merula.  In  the  Synchronous  History  of  Assyria  and  Babylonia 
the  names  of  father  and  son  are  combined  to  form  the  geogra- 
phical term  Arman-Agarsal.^^  Elsewhere  Agarsal  appears  alone 
or  with  Istar,  as  in  Car-Istar- Agarsal.  The  early  dates  of  these 
names,  and  the  mention  of  Bit  Nergal  in  the  inscriptions  of  Rim- 
Agu  and  Sin  Idinna,  indicate  that  Aharhel  exercised  sovereignty 
in  Babylonia,  l)ut  the  links  that  should  associate  him  with 
Harum  as  Naram  Sin  and  Rim  Agu  have  not  yet  come  to  light. 
There  is  a  Kurigalzu,  who  may  represent  him,  but  he  calls 
himself  the  son  of  Burna-Buryas  which  Aharhel  can  hardly 
have  been.  His  worship  of  Bel  and  Merodach  is  inconsistent 
with  the  prophetic  character  claimed  for  him  in  the  Irish  annals. 
Yet  he  was  King  of  Sumir  and  Akkad  and  of  the  four  races.^* 
After  him  a  break  occurs  in  Babylonian  history.  Ctesias  places 
him  early  among  his  Assyrian  Kings  as  Aralius,  the  son  of  Arius. 
In  Persian  history  he  is  supplanted  by  Saul  or  Zaul,  the  son  of 
Saum,  the  son  of  Nariman,  which    Nariman   is   Naram-Sin,  and 

"1    Din.l.  Sic.  i.  ],  !». 

■'■-    li.-cunis  of  th.'  Past,  iii.  .SO. 

■■'■    liccoriis  of  th.'  I'ast,  v.  84. 


THE   HITTITES   AT   THE   TIGRIS   AND    EUPHRATES.  125 

the  same  as  the  Persian  Aramiu,  brother  of  Kai  Kous  and  Arish. 
The  story  of  Aharhel  receives  some  light  from  Lydian  tradition 
which  mentions  the  dynasty  of  the  Heraclidae,  taken  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Greek  account  of  the  historical  Heraclidae,  who 
reconquered  Peloponnesus. 

According  to  Herodotus  the  first  Heraclid  monarch  of  Lydia 
was  Agron,  son  of  Ninus,  of  Belus,  of  Alcaeus.  of  Hercules.^* 
This  is  confusion  worse  confounded,  for  the  Assyrian  Ninus  and 
Belus  belong  to  the  Ethnanites,  and  the  mythic  Alcaeus  is  made 
Hercules'  grandfather.  Yet  Agron  is  a  name  of  much  import- 
ance, for  it  introduces  an  Aryan  or  Japhetic  element  into  Hittite 
history.  Agfron  is  the  same  word  as  the  Hebrew  Ekron,  denoting 
the  city  of  the  Philistines  named  after  Eker  or  Geker,  who  also 
gave  his  name  to  Acrabbi  or  Gecrabbi.  Hence  the  Memphite 
Necherophis  of  Manetho,  and  Uchoreus,  of  Diodorus,  the 
Athenian  Cecrops,  the  Lydian  Agron,  and  Indian  Sugriva,  are 
this  ancient  Eker,  father  of  the  Carians,  known  also  as  Agrius, 
Car,  Carus,  Carnus,  and  Caranus.  Already  his  family  has 
appeared  in  connection  with  the  Cozites  as  borrowing  from  them 
the  dfity  Baal  Zebub,  who,  as  the  god  of  Hies,  was  also 
worshipped  in  Gyrene  named  after  Ekron,  and  in  the  Grecian 
Elis  find  Epirus,  each  of  which  possessed  a  river  Acheron. "^^ 
Eker  himself  was  a  generation  older  than  Chedorlaomer,  and 
was  thus  the  contemporary  of  Abram's  early  years.  No  history 
^ives  a  complete  record  of  his  family,  but  that  family  is  well 
identitied  with  the  Buzites,  to  whom  Barachel,  the  father  of 
Elihu,  Job's  friend,  l)elonged.^''  He  was  of  the  kindred  of  Ram, 
for  Ram  was  the  father  of  Maaz,  Jamin,  and  Eker,  and  the  son 
of  the  ancestral  Jerachmeel.^''  Nine  generations  from  Eker  are 
given  in  the  Kenite  record,  the  chief  names  in  which  are  Buz  the 
tirst  and  Abihail  or  Abichail  the  eighth,  who  is  the  fatlier  of 
Micliael,  Mcshullam,  Shelja,  Jorai,  Jachan,  Zia  and  Heber.-'"^ 
\Vlure\er  in  ancient  geographical  ncmienclature  Geker,  Buz,  and 
Alijchail    are  found,    there    also    Acharchel     appears,    and    the 

•    H.i<.'l.>t.  i.  7. 

Ill yaiit,  Authfiiticity  of  the  Scri|itnn'S  :  I'iUiSiUiias. 

■  .I..1,  xxxii.  2. 

1  C'liioii.  ii.  25. 

■  1  Cl.f.n.  V.  13. 


126  THE   HITTITES. 

connected  Hariini.  It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  Acharchel  must 
have  married  into  the  Carian  line  that  furnished  the  Caphtorim 
of  Jabez  with  their  men  of  war,  but  the  point  in  the  genealogy 
at  which  this  union  took  place  is  not  intimated.  Herraon  or 
Arinms  was  a  Lydiah  king,  but  Greek  and  Indian  traditions 
concur  in  giving  him  a  daughter  of  Anub  for  a  wife,  and  she 
seems  to  have  been  the  mother  of  Acharchel.  That  hero  must 
himself  have  espoused  a  Carian  maiden,  doubtless  through  his 
mother's  influence,  for  she  was  of  Japhetic  descent  and  belonged 
to  the  kindred  of  Ram  in  the  line  of  Jamin.  Among  the  many 
consorts  oiven  to  Hercules  the  most  important  is  the  mother  of 
Hyllus,  for  that  prince  was  the  leader  of  the  Heraclidae.  The 
common  repoi't  is  that  Deianira,  the  daughter  of  (Eneus  of 
Calydon,  was  his  mother,  but  Apollonius  of  Rhodes  mentions 
another  Hyllus,  son  of  Hercules,  whose  mother  was  Melite,  the 
daughter  of  ^-Egeus.  But  Hercules  also  married  Megara, 
daughter  of  Creon,  King  of  Thebes,  whom  he  afterwards  gave  to 
lolaus,  the  son  of  his  brother  Iphicles.  Hyllus  again  married 
lole,  the  daughter  of  Eurytus.  Iphicles  was  no  brother  of 
Acharchel,  but  a  Buzite,  the  Abichail  wdiose  seven  sons  close  the 
Kenite  genealogy,  and  no  such  name  as  lolaus  occurs  among  his 
sons.  There  is,  however,  a  Joel,  answering  to  lolaus  and  Hjdlus, 
whost.'  posterity  dwelt  with  the  Buzites  in  Gilead,  according  to 
the  Kenite  record,  and  he  must  be  the  son  of  Acharchel.  If 
Acharchel  was  the  brother-in-law  of  Abichail  or  Iphicles,  his 
wife  was  a  daughter  of  Churi.  No  such  name  as  Q^lneus  occurs 
in  the  genealogies,  but  his  Calydon  is  given  in  the  name  Gilead, 
and  Michael  furnishes  a  Megara.  What  tradition  disguises, 
geographical  nomenclature  furnishes,  uniting  Byzantium,  whose 
founder  was  Byzas,  with  Chalcedon  as  colonies  of  Megara,  for 
Chalcedon  is  Gilead  with  the  accentuated  ayin  as  Gilgad. 

In  Lyilian  history  the  two  families  of  the  Heraclidae  and  the 
Mernniadae  are  represented  as  in  opposition.  The  latter  is  the 
same  as  the  Myrmidon  family  of  Aegina  and  Thessaly,  repre- 
sented ill  the  Kenite  record  by  the  Beerothite  line  of  Saul, 
Iliidur,  and  Shinion.  So  in  tlie  story  of  the  Heraclidae  proper 
there  is  opposition  from  the  family  of  Tisamenus,  which  has 
l^een  ideiititied  with  that  of  Shimon.     This  contest  was  wa^ed  in 


THE   HITTITE   AT  THE   TIGRIS  AND   EUPHRATES.  127 

Egypt  chiefly,  for  it  was  that  in  which  Thebes  finally  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  Epigoni,  with  whom  Adrastus  or  Hadar  was 
associated.  Creou,  as  King  of  Thebes,  which  bore  the  name  of 
Calydnus  from  an  ancient  monarch,  namely  Gilead,  must  have 
been  the  author  of  that  part  of  the  hundred-gated  city  called 
Karnak,  and  a  joint  ruler  with  the  Ammono  Hittite  King.  The 
Ekronite  Praetorian  guards  do  indeed  appear  to  have  held  sway 
during  the  troublous  times  following  the  death  of  Jabez,  but 
Acharchel  was,  in  all  probability,  not  alive  at  that  time.  The 
names  of  Iphicles,  Megara,  and  Calydon,  associated  with  that  of 
Hercules  are  simply  indications  that  he  married  into  the  Carian 
or  Ekronite  line  in  which  these  names  appear,  and  do  not  fix  the 
epoch  of  his  marriage.  But  tradition  places  Hercules  under 
Eurystheus  the  son  of  Sthenelus.  Othniel  or  Gothniel,  who  is 
this  Sthenelus,  had  no  such  son,  but  his  brother,  Seraiah,  had  a 
grandson,  Harash  or  Charash,  who  gave  his  name  to  Harosheth, 
supposed  to  have  lain  to  the  west  of  Hazor  and  Kadesh  in 
northern  Galilee,  but  whose  earliest  memorial  was  probably 
Korusko  on  the  confines  of  Nubia.  This  Harash  was  the  con- 
temporary of  the  first  Amenhotop  or  ^leonothai,  who,  as 
Menoecius,  is  wrongly  made  the  father  of  Creon  in  Greek  story, 
and  was,  therefore,  in  the  same  generation  with  Zipli  the  grand- 
son of  Jabez.  If  he,  as  Harosheth,  be  the  Eurj^stheus  of  the 
Greeks,  it  is  evident  that  an  important  part  of  Egyptian  histor}' 
has  yet  to  be  told  pertaining  to  the  troublous  period  after  the 
death  of  Jabez.  Eurystheus  persecuted  the  children  of 
Hercules,  and  was  killed  with  his  five  sons  by  Hyllus.  This 
must  have  taken  place  in  Egypt,  and  soon  afterwards 
the  Hei'aclidae,  as  part  of  Caphtorim,  must  have  been  expelled 
along  with  th(;  Ekronite  Philistines.  While  some  of  the  latter 
took  possession  of  Ekron,  the  main  ])ody  seems  to  have  passed 
into  (Jilead  and  Bashan,  where  the  Heraclid  line  of  Joel  also 
established  itself.  It  is  said  of  the  Buzitcs  that  '"  tliey  dwelt  in 
Gilead  in  Bashan  and  in  JK-r  towns,  and  in  all  the  suburbs  of 
Sharon  ujion  their  bordeis,"  or  "upon  their  exodus."'*^  Thev 
must,  tiiei'efore',  lia\r  occupie-d  two  distinct  ic'gions  ;  the  land  of 
Gil('a<l,  and  all  the  sea  coast   north  of   Philistia   up  to   the   region 

■■•'    1  Chr(*n.  V.  ]>;. 


128  TH«    HITTITES. 

of  the  Dorians  and  Acha^ans.  With  the  former  division  the 
Heraclidae  made  common  cause,  extending  their  joint  dominion 
from  Aroer  in  the  south  of  Moab  to  the  Euphrates.  What 
country  the  Heraclidae  sought  to  regain  is  undetermined,  but,  as 
their  ancestor  Sargon  was  the  first  Akkadian  king,  it  was  pro- 
bably his  ancient  domain  in  Babylonia,  over  which  the  Beerothite 
Ismidagan  or  Shemidag  ruled,  towards  which  their  efforts  were 
directed.  It  is  evident,  however,  that  the  invasion  of  that  region 
took  place  neither  in  the  time  of  the  Heraclid  Hyllus  nor  in  that 
of  the  so-called  Argive  Tisamenus,  for  Joel  and  Shimon  seem  to 
have  found  their  graves  in  Egypt.  Orestes,  w^ho  is  called  the 
father  of  Tisamenus,  is  apparently  the  same  person  as  Eurystheus, 
so  that  the  families  of  Seraiah  and  Beeroth  must  have  united  in 
Shimon  through  his  marriage  with  a  daughter  of  Harash,  as 
well  as  with  the  widow  of  Ishi.  It  must  be  left  to  the  Assyrio- 
logists  to  show  if  any  of  the  posterity  of  Acharchel  sat  on  a 
Babylonian  throne. 

It  only  remains  to  mention  the  Sumerian  line  which  was  not 
Hittite  but  Celtic,  but  the  relations  of  which  with  the  Hittites 
were  of  the  most  intimate  nature.  The  oldest  king  of  this  family 
seems  to  be  the  one  called  by  the  Babylonian  Nabonidus,  wdio 
preserved  one  of  his  inscriptions.  Saga  Saltiyas.*^  He  is  pro- 
bably Gilead  the  brother  of  Moleketh.  His  inscription  was 
found  by  the  later  Babylonian  at  Bit  Ulmas,  which  commemor- 
ates Ulam,  his  grandson.  His  connection  with  the  Zerethites  is 
shown  by  his  restoration  of  temples  "  which  were  from  the  time 
of  Zabu  in  ancient  days."  After  him  should  come  his  son  Peresh, 
who  may  be  Bui-na  Burj-as,  although  this  monarch  is  generally 
})lact'd  after  Ulam-Bur3'as,  and  the  initial  Burna  is  hard  to 
account  for.  But  TJlam-Buryas  is  certainly  Ulam  the  son  of 
Peresh,  and  father  of  Bedan.*^  The  time  of  Gilead  is  well 
dot'ei'iiiined  by  hi.s  sistei-  Moleketh,  the  wife  of  Samlah,  but  his 
predecessors  of  the  line  of  Zimran  must  have  been  in  alliance 
with  the  Amalekites  and  Zerethites  some  generations  before,  as 
the  Midianites  were  the  great  enemies  of  Hadad,  the  son  of 
Ik'dad.     The   Kenite  record  of  this  family  ceases   with    Bedan, 

'"    lk-c..rd.s..f  til.-  Past,  V.  80. 

"    R.-f.)rd.s  .,f  the  I'a.st,  82,  29  ;  1  Chron.  vii.  17. 


THE   HITTITES   AT  THE   TIGRIS   AND   EUPHRATES.  129 

and  does  not  furnish  the  intermediate  links  between  Gilead  and 
Zimran.  Manasseh  the  son  of  Joseph  appears  to  have  married 
into  the  line  of  Abraham  and  Keturah,  for  Zimrite  nomenclature 
reigns  amon^y  his  immediate  descendants.  Mirkhond  says  that 
the  mother  of  Gurshasf,  the  brother  or  son  of  Zaub,  was  a 
daughtci;  of  the  Israelite  Benjamin.''-  The  only  daughter  of  that 
patriarch  mentioned  in  Scripture  is  Maachah,  who  is  made  the 
wife  of  Machir,  the  son  of  Manasseh. ^^  Zaub  and  Gurshasf  look 
very  like  Joab  the  Kenezzite  and  his  son  Charash,  for  the  Persian 
delights  in  final  labials  which  are  no  part  of  the  original  words. 
There  is  no  reconciling  the  two  statements,  but  Benjamin,  doubt- 
less, had  other  daughters  than  the  one  whom  Machir  married. 
To  follow  the  fortunes  of  Hittites  and  Zimrites  on  the  banks  of 
the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  would  be  a  long,  arduous,  and  prosaic 
task,  for  the  golden  age  of  common  song  and  story  among  the 
nations  came  to  an  end  when  the  Pharaohs  drove  the  poets  out 
of  the  land  in  which  the  Kenite  scribes  collected  the  genealogies 
of  the  mighty  dead  ;  and  history  henceforth  became  the  story 
of  dispersion. 

<-•   Mirkhond,  205. 

^  '■   1  Clirun.  vii.  IG  ;  Genesi.s  xlvi.  21. 


(9) 


130 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

The  Hittites  in   Palestine  and  the   Neighbouring  Coun- 
tries  BEFORE   THE   RiSE   OF   THE   ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE. 

During  the  time  that  Jahdai  and  his  descendants  reigned  in 
Egypt,  Canaan  became  ahnost  altogether  Hittite.  The  Horite 
Phoenicians  kept  the  northern  Mediterranean  coast,  and,  to  the 
south  of  them,  Japhetic  tribes,  known  later  as  Achaeans,  Dorians 
and  Pelasgians,  held  the  shore  down  to  Gaza.  Then  came  a 
debatable  land  from  Gaza  to  Pelusium,  known  as  the  coast  of  the 
Cherethites,  not  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Geshurites  who 
were  of  old  the  inhabitants  of  the  land,  for  Jesher  belonged  to 
the  junior  division  of  the  Zerethite  nation.  It  was  a  debatable 
land,  as  the  Hepherite  Gezrites  were  there  with  a  western  Gedor, 
near  the  waters  of  Gaza,  and  the  Peltite  or  Maachathite  branch 
of  the  Jachdaites,  with  Beth  Palet  and  Madmannah,  and  the 
family  of  MaReshah,  with  the  Arish  and  Beth  Tappuah,  called 
after  a  son  of  Hebron.  All  of  these  were  Hittites.  East  of  these 
tribes  towards  Kerak  in  Moab  extended  the  Amalekites  of  Temeni, 
who  under  Jobab  and  Husham  ruled  in  Gebalene,  until  the 
Rechabite  Hamathites,  that,  under  Beeri,  Esau's  father-in-law, 
came  into  notice,  in  the  third  generation  sent  forth  the  warrior 
Hadad  to  overthrow  their  authority,  and  wrest  from  their  hands 
the  mineral  treasures  of  the  Sinaitic  peninsula.  Hebron,  that 
ancient  city,  built  seven  years  before  the  Egyptian  Zoan,  saw 
many  changes.  At  first  it  was  an  Amorite  foundation,  and  bore 
in  the  time  of  Abraham  the  name  of  Mamre.  We  are  not  told 
what  it  was  called  when  Ephron  the  Zocharite  dwelt  there,  nor 
do  we  know  how  long  he  remained  in  occupation  of  it.  During 
the  time  of  Zerethite  supremacy  in  Southern  Palestine,  while 
Baalhanan  was  on  the  throne  of  Gebalene,  it  was  taken  possession 
of  by  Arba  the  Geshurite  and  called  Kirjath  Arba.  At  what 
point  of  time  the  posterity  of  MaReshah  entered  upon  its  occupa- 
tion  is  liard  to  decide.     If  it   was   after  the  overthrow  of  the 


THE  eiTTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  131 

Zerethites,  they  can  have  possessed  it  for  but  a  short  time,  for  the 
Amorites  drove  the  Hittites  northward  not  long  before  the  exodus 
of  Israel,  and  when  Joshua  entered  Canaan  it  was  in  the  hands 
of  the  Amorite  king,  Hoham.  But  the  descendants  of  Arba  dwelt 
near  at  hand  in  the  plains  of  Hebron,  and  fell  before  the  arms  of 
the  children  of  Judah.^  It  is  probable  that  the  men  of  MaReshah, 
or  Rosh,  changed  the  name  of  the  city  to  Hebron  at  an  earlier 
period,  and  that  the  old  name  was  restored  by  Israel,  whose  friends 
the  lords  of  Rosh  had  been  in  Egypt,  for  Hebron  was  the  son  of 
MaReshah  and  viceroy  of  the  great  Aahpeti.  Round  about  it 
were  memorials  of  the  Rosh  in  Tappuah,  Maon  and  Beth-Zur, 
indicating  the  fact  that  settlements  of  the  family  had  been  exten- 
sively planted  in  southern  Palestine. 

One  Canaanitic  city  is  invested  with  the  mysterious,  the  city 
of  Jerusalem.  It  is  reported  by  the  orientals  that  the  Persian 
Feridun  built  the  city  in  the  year  1729,  B.C.,  which,  according  to 
the  Hebrew  Scriptures,  would  be  shortly  before  the  death  of 
Isaac-  Feridun  is  probably  the  same  person  as  the  Indian 
Duryodhana,  or  Ardon,  the  son  of  Hur  and  Jerigoth,  and  it  is 
veiy  likely  that  he  occupied  himself  in  adding  to  a  city  esteemed 
sacred,  and  which  afterwards  fell  to  the  descendants  of  his  elder 
brother  Jesher.  But  there  is  evidence  that  the  royal  line  of 
Jerusalem,  or  Salem,  continued  to  reign  until  the  time  of  Israel's 
conquest.  Melchizedek,  who  was  king  and  priest  in  the  days  of 
Abraham,  is  called  by  Cedrenus  and  others  the  son  of  Sidos,  but 
he  is  also  said  to  have  been  a  son  of  Heraclas  and  Astaroth.^  The 
Jebusites,  to  whose  race  he  belonged,  have  no  eponym  given  them, 
Ijut,  from  their  position  in  the  generations  of  the  sons  of  Noah, 
they  appear  to  have  Vjeen  the  descendants  of  the  tii-st  historical 
son  of  Sidon.  When  Joshua  entered  Canaan,  the  Amorite  king 
of  Jerusalem  was  Adoni  Zedek,  whose  name  replaces  Melclii,  the 
king,  by  Adoni,  the  lord,  and  has  Zedek  in  common  with  that  of 
the  ancient  })riest  monarch.^  As  he  is  called  an  Amorite,  his  con- 
nection   with    the  Sidonian,  or   Horite,   line  is  esta})Iished,  thus 


'  .fn-lma  X.  'A  ;  xiv.  15. 

'■'  DahiHt.iii,  i.  .50. 

'  I>ariiiK-<  loiil'i,  L''g<-ii'ls  <jf  C)l(i  'l"cstu!in;iit  Characters;  ('cdrciius. 

♦  Ci'U.  xiv.  l.S  ;  Joshtia  x.  1. 


132  THE   HITTITES. 

confirming  the  Sidonian  ancestry  of  Melchizedek,  which  is  also 
vouched  for  by  the  name  of  God  employed  by  that  king  in  bless- 
ing Abram,  for  Eliouh,  the  Highest,  is  the  name  of  the  chief 
divinity  in  Sanchoniatho's  Phoenician  History.^  But  there  is  a 
later  king,  who  is  not,  indeed,  called  the  king  of  Jerusalem,  but 
who  was  brought  there  to  die  after  his  thumbs  and  great  toes  had 
been  cut  off,  a  just  recompense  for  thus  mutilating  seventy  kings 
that  gathered  their  food  under  his  table ;  and  his  name  is  Adoni 
Bezek.*^  There  seem  to  have  been  two  places  called  Bezek,  the 
one  in  Samaria  and  the  other  south  of  Jerusalem."  In  the  latter 
place  the  men  of  Judali  and  Simeon  overcame  Adoni  Bezek,  and 
the  Canaanites  and  Perizzites  that  accompanied  him.  Their 
bringing  the  captive  king  to  Jerusalem  suggests  that  he  was 
formerly  ruler  over  that  city,  for  it  was  not  the  practice  of  the 
Israelites  to  bring  their  royal  prisoners  to  any  central  locality  to 
suffer  death.  If  he  was  such,  the  poetic  justice  would  be  complete. 
The  Jebusites  retained  possession  of  the  citadel  of  Jerusalem  till 
the  time  of  David,  who  di'ove  them  out  with  hard  fighting. 
Already  their  taunt  has  been  referred  to,  and  the  Pisechim  and 
Giverim,  whom  they  challenged  David  to  drive  out,  have  ])een 
explained  to  be  worshippers  of  heathen  deities  rather  than  the 
lame  and  the  blind,  whom  the  king  of  Israel  could  have  no  reason 
for  hating.  With  the  prefix  of  the  article  Jta  the  Pisechim  give 
a  plural  form  of  Paseach  as  Hubisega,  a  great  god  of  the  Akka- 
dians. Paseach  means  the  lame  or  limping,  and  this  word,  by  a 
change  common  in  the  Semitic  languages,  such  as  the  Chaldee  and 
Arabic  as  compared  with  the  Hebrew,  became  Pateach.  He  was 
thus  the  deformed  Pthah,  the  Vulcan  of  Memphis,  whose  images 
(Jambyses  derided  and  which  Herodotus  likened  to  the  Pataeci, 
pigmy  bow-legged  figures  placed  on  the  prows  of  Phoenician  ships. 
Sii"  Gardner  Wilkinson  has  collected  many  etymologies  given  by 
Bochart  and  others  for  the  word  Pataeci,  but  none  of  the  etymo- 
logists s(;em  to  have  dreamt  of  deriving  the  f  form  from  one 
in  ^•.''    Vet  the  learned  Egyptologist  allows  that  the  deformed  figure 


fluiiiljinlaiiil's  S,'inchi)iiiatlin. 

.Iiid^'cs  i.  7. 

. I  mitres  i.  7  ;  1  .Sam.  xi.  S  ;  Kitto's  Bible  Atlas 

Rawlinson's  lifrndotus,  l)k.  iii.  87,  note. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  133 

of  Pthah  gave  rise  to  the  story  of  the  lameness  of  the  Greek 
Hephaestus,  who,  like  Pthah,  was  Vulcan,  the  god  of  fire.  The 
deformed  mannikin  became  to  the  Greeks  a  kind  of  missing  link, 
so  that  his  name  as  Pithecus  -was  given  to  the  ape.  Pithecus  also 
and  Pataecion  equally  denoted  a  trickster.  When  the  Egyptians 
refer  to  the  family,  or  the  foundation  of  Paseach  at  Thapsacus 
or  Khupuscia,  they  call  it  Patasu  ;  and  the  Greeks  termed  the 
abode  of  the  Paseachites  in  Mysia  Pedasus.  The  Hebrew  Paseach, 
therefore,  is  the  Egyptian  Pthah,  the  Phtenician  Pataecus,  and 
the  Greek  Pithecus,  while,  with  the  article,  Hapisech  is  the 
Akkadian  Hubisega,  and  the  Greek  Hephaestus,  the  limping  fire 
god.  How  did  he.  find  his  way  into  Jei-usalem  and  become  a 
chief  divinity  of  the  Jebusites  ?  It  must  have  been  at  a  time 
when  the  family  of  Beth  Kapha,  or  Hammurabi,  the  brother  of 
Paseach,  was  powerful  in  the  land,  and  that  was  when  Samlah 
was  king  of  Gebalene.  Then  the  Jebusites,  who  in  the  time  of 
Isaac  must  still  have  professed  the  true  faith,  for  Rebekah  went 
to  Jerusalem  to  enquire  of  the  Lord  concerning  the  children  that 
she  was  to  bear,  having  abandoned  the  worship  of  the  Most  High 
God,  adopted  that  of  Hapisech  and  the  Giverim  that  probably 
represent  the  Cabiri,  who  were  the  attendants  of  Pthah.''  The 
word  Bezek,  save  in  sound,  is  quite  different  from  Paseach.  but 
its  meaning,  lightning,  is  more  dignified  than  the  limper,  and 
would  not  be  inappropriate  to  a  fire  god.  It  is,  therefore,  possible 
that  Bezek  was  a  complimentary  appellation  of  Vulcan,  retaining 
at  the  same  time  a  sound  generally  resembling  that  of  the  Hittite 
deity's  name.  Hephaestus  and  the  Cabiri  might  well  be  hated  of 
David's  soul. 

Pthah  was  adoi'ed  at  Memphis,  where  the  Hycsos  ruled  l)efore 
Thebes  rose  to  fame,  and  where  the  Piaetorian  guards  of  the  line 
of  Eker  had  a  (juarter  of  their  own.^"  That  (juarter  bore  the  name 
Sakkara,  which  now  denotes  the  Mcmphite  necropolis.  The  Sak- 
kai'ans  were  the  men  of  Gekron,  or  (n'ker,  whose  anc(!stoi*  was 
kn(jwn  to  thii  (ireeks  as  (Jecrops,  to  the  Indians  as  Sugriva.  Now 
Ptliah  boi-(,-  the  epithet  Sokari,  which  came  to  Paseach  through 
an  alliance  with  tlu;   Sakkai-uns.      'I'his  is  further  vouched  for  by 

'    (liu.  x\v.  "J'J  ;   I  |iTij(l<it.  iii.  ;<7. 
'"    Kawlinsiiti's  llrrod'.tu-,  bk.  ii.  ir,L',  Sir(;.  W.s  iidtc  .5. 


134  THE    HITTITES.  , 

the  Indian  story  of  the  young-  Brahman  Visakha.  He  wandered 
one  day  into  the  beautiful  garden  grounds  of  the  Naga  Susravas, 
and  by  the  side  of  a  lake  which  adorned  them,  saw  two  fair  young 
women  eating,  in  the  midst  of  the  greatest  profusion  of  fruit,  the 
tender  tops  and  grains  of  the  grasses  that  grew  on  the  banks. 
To  them  he  respectfully  offered  ground  rice  and  water,  of  which 
they  partook,  referring  him  to  their  father  for  an  explanation  of 
their  conduct.  Visakha  sought  the  Naga  and  learned  that  he  and 
his  people  were  under  the  sway  of  certain  fasting  Brahmans,  who, 
so  long  as  they  abstained  from  eating  new  rice,  had  the  power  to 
hinder  others  from  touching  the  abundant  produce  of  the  fields 
and  orchards,  which  they  could  no  more  partake  of  "  than  a  dead 
man  could  enjoy  the  water  of  a  river."  Visakha  found  out  the 
guardian  Brahmatchari,  with  a  single  tuft  of  hair  on  the  top  of 
his  head,  and,  after  much  waiting,  managed  to  smuggle  some  new 
rice  into  the  vessel  in  which  he  was  cooking  his  dinner.  At  once 
the  embargo  was  taken  off  the  fruitful  grounds,  and,  as  a  reward, 
Susravas  gave  his  daughter  Chandralekha  in  marriage  to  his 
deliverer.  But  the  king  of  Cashmere,  Nara,  son  of  Vibhichana 
and  grandson  of  Ravana,  who  was  also  called  Kinnara,  was  in 
love  with  Chandralekha,  and  sought  to  take  her  from  her  husband. 
Unable  to  withstand  the  kino-  Visakha  fled  with  his  wife  to  the 
protection  of  his  father-in-law.  Susravas,  rising  in  his  might, 
])urst  as  a  storm  upon  iS'ara,  involving  him  and  his  Kinnaras  in 
utter  destruction,  while  his  sister  Ramani,  arriving  too  late  to 
help  her  brother,  buried  the  villages  of  the  impious  monarch 
under  a  shower  of  .stones.^^  This  remarkable  story  points  to  a 
change  of  creed,  introduced  by  Paseach  as  Visakha,  and  to  his 
alliance  with  the  family  of  Eker,  sot  forth  by  Susravas.  The  con- 
nection of  Nara  with  Ravana  and  the  Kinnaras  seems  to  make 
him  of  the  Rapha  family  of  Abiezer,  who  married  the  Kenezzite 
fiathath.  Pthah  Sokari  has  of  fcen  been  compared  with  the  Indian 
Budha  Sukra;  they  are  the  same  person.^^  The  Sanscrit  tradi- 
tion is  as  confused  as  the  Greek  story  of  the  Dardanians,  but  it 
contains  all  the  elements.  Tara,  the  wife  of  Brihaspati,  was 
carried  ofl' bv  Soma,  and  to  them   was  born  Budha.     The  son  of 


KaJH  Taraiij^niii,  L.  i.  si.  '204,  .swj. 
(iui;^'iiiaut,  I'ocockf,  etc. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTIIIES.  135 

Budha  and  Ila,  the  daughter  of  Manu,  who  was  also  his  son 
Sudyumna,  was  Pururavas.  This  Pururavas  has  been  thoroughly- 
identified  with  Kapha  the  brother  of  Paseach,  but  the  Sanscrit 
writings  still  further  confuse  the  genealogy  by  making  Yasishtha, 
or  Ishhod,  of  Kapha's  family,  the  father  of  Sukra  and  of  an 
Anagha,  who  occupies  an  important  place  in  the  line  of  Paseach. ^^ 
In  Greek  mythology  Paseach  is  Bias,  the  brother  of  Melampus. 
It  was  the  wish  of  Bias  to  marr}''  Pero,  daughter  of  Neleus,  that 
led  Melampus  to  undertake  the  expedition  to  Phylace,  to  bring 
back  from  thence  the  cows  that  had  anciently  belonged  to  Tyro, 
the  mother  of  Neleus,  which  Iphiclus  kept.  The  brothers  are  said 
to  have  shared  the  throne  of  Argos  and  Mycenae  with  Acrisius  the 
son  of  Abas,  but,  ns  Kapha  was  the  contemporary  of  Regem,  or 
Sargon  of  Agade,  it  is  evident  that  tradition  has  imputed  to  the 
founders  of  the  Rephaim  and  Paseachite  families  that  which  was 
true  only  of  their  descendants. 

The  contradictions  of  Greek  tradition  are  well  illustrated  in 
the  story  of  Bias.  He  is  called  the  son  of  Amythaon,  who  was 
the  brother  of  Pelias  and  Neleus,  but,  while  he  marries  Pero,  the 
daughter  of  Neleus,  Pelias  marries  his  daughter  Anaxibia.  The 
name  Anaxabia,  however,  brings  light  into  the  Paseachite  genea- 
logy, although  the  Kenites  did  not  preserve  it  in  that  form.  In 
early  Egyptian  history  there  appears  among  prophetic  and  priestly 
names  that  of  Anxhapis.  It  is  the  name  of  a  man,  not  of  a  woman 
as  is  Anaxibia.  Anxhapis  was  the  son  of  Imhotep,  a  pei'son  of 
note,  celebrated  in  the  Festal  Dirge  of  the  Egyptians. 
'•  I  have  heard  the  words  of  Imhotep  and  Hartatef. 

It  is  said  in  their  sayings  ; 

After  all  what  is  prosperity  ? 

Their  fenced  walls  are  dilapidated. 

Their  houses  are  as  that  wliich  has  ne\'er  existed, 

No  man  comes  from  tlu^nce. 

Who  tells  of  their  sayings, 

Who  tells  of  their  atfaii's, 

Who  cncoui'agc.'s  our  hearts. 

V(.  go 

to  thf  placr  whcnci'  they  rrtuiii  not."" 

1-    Muii-,  .Saii.-crit  Tt-xt.s. 

I'     It-c.nNof  111.-  I';ist,  i\.  117. 


136  THE   HITTITES. 

Imhotep  was  the  son  of  Pthah,  so  that  he  conies  between  Anxhapis 
and  Paseach,  or  Bias,  called  the  father  of  Anaxibia.  There  was 
another  writer  among  the  Egyptians  called  Pthah  Hotep,  who 
compiled  a  book  of  Moral  Precepts  in  the  reign  of  Assa  Tatkara 
of  the  fifth  dynasty.^^  His  name  shows  that  the  family  of  Pthah 
was  associated  by  the  Egyptians  with  ethical  compositions.  In 
Eratosthenes'  table  of  Upper  Egyptian  kings,  one  called  Choma 
Ephta  follows  ]\jeres  Philosophus,  and  is  succeeded  by  Anchunius 
Ochy  ;  and,  lower  down,  after  Maris,  who  seems  to  be  a  repetition 
of  Meres,  comes  Siphoas  Hermes.  Cicero  calls  the  Egyptian 
Vulcan  not  Pthah  but  Opas,  and  Pliny  says  that  the  son  of  Vul- 
can was  ^Ethiops.^'^  Bryant  connects  these  names  with  the  city 
on  the  Tigris  called  Opis,  and  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson,  recognizing 
the  site  of  that  city  on  the  Physcus,  a  tributary  of  the  Tigris, 
derives  the  word  Physcus  from  the  Assyrian  Hupuska.^'^  The 
island  of  Rhodes  was  called  Ophiussa ;  it  contained  a  Physcus 
portus,  and  Physcus  of  Caria  was  under  its  jurisdiction.  The 
Opici  inhabited  Vescia  in  Campania,  and  the  neighbouring  island 
Pithecusa  was  famous  for  its  mountain,  Epopeus.  According  to 
Macrobius,  Cecrops  was  the  first  to  introduce  the  worship  of  Opis 
into  Greece. ^^  For  once  Bryant  has  found  the  truth  in  his 
laboured  etymologizing.  He  connects  with  these  names  the  place 
called  Oboth,  which  w'as  a  stage  in  the  wanderings  of  Israel  some 
distance  to  the  south-east  of  the  Dead  Sea,  on  the  borders  of  the 
two  Arabias,  Petraea  and  Felix. ^^  This  is  where  Ptolemy  places 
the  Ausitae,  and  the  prophet  Jeremiah  i-epresents  the  Edomites 
as  dwelling  in  the  land  of  Uz.-'^  The  name  of  Uz,  son  of  Aram, 
has  led  many  Biblical  critics  to  look  for  the  home  of  Job  in  the 
Hauran  east  of  Bashan,  but  there  was  another  Uz,  the  son  of 
Dishan  the  Horite,  who  gave  his  name  to  the  country  east  of 
Mount  Hor,  or  the  Idumean  range. ^^  Oboth  is  a  compound  of 
the  word  Ob,  denoting  first  a  bottle,  but,  secondarily  and  chiefly, 

'■''  LeiK.rmant,  Manual,  i.  209. 

"'  Cicf'io,  Df-  Xatiua  Deoriim,  iii.  22;  Pliny,  H.N.  vi.  35. 

''  IJryant,    Analysis  (jf  Mythology,  ii.   203  ;    Rawlinson's  Herodotus,  bk.   i.  189, 
note  H. 

'**  Macroliius.  Satui-nalia,  i.  10. 

''•  Analysis,  ii.  21.5  ;  Xunib(;rs  xxxiv.  43. 

-'J  liarncntations  iv.  21. 

-I  Ci-n.  xxxvi.  2S. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COrNTRIES.  137 

a  soothsayer,  magician,  necromancer,  one  that  has  a  familiar  spirit. 
It  is  the  root  also  of  the  name  Job,  from  which  it  differs  only  in 
Hebrew  by  the  insertion  of  the  letter  yod.  When  Elihu,  the  son 
of  Barachel  the  Buzite,  said  he  was  ready  to  burst  like  new  bottles, 
or  ohoth,  he  may  have  been  in  all  seriousness  making  a  play  upon 
the  name  of  the  afflicted  Job  whom  he  pretended  to  answer. 
Bryant  has  not  associated  the  patriarch  with  the  name  Oboth, 
but  he  has  rightly  shown  the  signification  of  that  name  to  be 
python,  daemon,  and  has  indicated  the  divine  enactments  forbid- 
ding the  Israelites  to  have  recourse  to  Ob,  and  the  fact  that  the 
witch  of  Endor  was  an  Ob,  or  Pythoness.  The  name  is  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  the  Old  Testament.  Few  things  could  be  more 
unexpected  than  the  relationship  of  the  Vulcan  of  many  lands 
with  the  patriarch  Job.  The  tradition  which,  taken  from  the 
Syriac,  is  appended  to  the  Septuagint  version  of  the  Book  ol  Job, 
identifies  him  with  Jobab,  the  son  of  Zerah  of  Bozrali,  and  this 
mischievous  piece  of  fable  has  had  the  effect  of  obscuring  the 
whole  history  of  the  kings  that  reigned  in  Edom,  and  of  turning 
the  pious  Hittite  sage  into  an  Edomite.  It  is,  however,  interest- 
ing to  find  that  the  Seventy  translated  the  name  of  Job's  third 
daughter,  Kerenhappuch,  by  Amalthaias-kei'as,  or  the  Horn  of 
Amalthaea,  which  is  the  same  as  the  Cornucoj)iae  of  the  Latins, 
a  word  that,  in  form  if  not  in  signification,  more  perfectly  rendei's 
the  original.  This  horn  of  plenty  was  given  by  Jupiter  to  the 
nymph  Adrastea,  when  he  had  broken  it  from  the  liead  of  tlie 
goat  Amalthaea  which  had  suckled  him,  and  tilk-d  it  with  a  pi'o- 
fusion  of  good  things.  The  name  Amalthat'a  belongs  to  Mylitta, 
or  Moleketh,  but  it  seems  to  have  become  in  some  way  tin-  pro- 
perty of  the  line  of  Paseach,  for  it  denotes  a  Sibyl  of  Cyme  in 
Asia  Minor,  who  was  also  called  Demophilc  and  Ik'i'ophilt',  and 
who  by  her  own  account  came  from  "a  counti'v  saei-ed  to  the 
mighty  Oj)S."--  Another  Sibyl  was  Demo,  who  belonged  to 
Cumae,  a  city  of  the  Opici  in  CampanifT :  and  another,  Sablie, 
whom  the  Hebrews  beyond  Pliilistia  say  was  the  daughter  of 
Bei"osus  and  Ei-ynianthe.'--''  'J'licre  was  also  a  Samian  Sibyl,  and 
a  Plii'VLjian,  who  proj)hesie(l  at  Aiicyi'a.     ( 'vine,  ( "umae,  and  Samos 

'-■'-'    l':ius;iiiias. 
-'■    I'aiisaiiias. 


138  THE   HITTITES. 

were  all  named  after  Shema,  or  Shemaiah,  a  member  of  the  family 
of  Paseach.  Trading  on  the  reputation  of  Job  as  a  prophet,  his 
descendants,  when  they  fell  away  into  idolatry,  pretended  to  have 
inherited  his  spirit,  and  so  disgraced  the  name  of  their  ancestor 
that  it  came  to  be  synonymous  with  necromancy,  just  as  that  of 
his  great  father  Paseach  has  descended,  through  the  Phoenician 
Pataeci,  to  the  modern  fetish.  The  Hapisechim  of  Jerusalem  were 
thus  Obim,  or  necromancers. 

In  Sanscrit  tradition  Job  is  known  as  Kapi  or  Kavi  who  is 
united  with  Paseach,  as  Puskarin,  and  with  the  Sankritis  who 
represent  Sukra  or  Eker.-^  Through  the  alliance  of  the  Kavyas 
witii  the  latter  family  they  became  Brahmans  of  Kshattriya  race. 
These  Kavyas  or  Kavis  were  men  of  great  wisdom,  priests  and 
composers  of  hymns,  and  the  name  Kavi  denotes  a  poet  inspired 
by  divinity.  The  Mahabharata  contains  a  remarkable  story  in 
which  Kavi  figures  as  the  father  of  Sukra  Usana,  head  of  the 
Asuras.  The  Suras  under  Brihaspati,  son  of  Angiras,  fought 
with  the  Asuras,  but  with  the  disadvantage  that,  while  Kavi 
could  resuscitate  his  slain,  Brihaspati  could  not.  Therefore  the 
Suras  sent  Katcha,  the  eldest  son  of  Brihaspati,  to  Sukra,  son  of 
Kavi,  to  learn  l\is  secret.  Katcha  was  well  received  by  the  son 
of  Kavi  and  won  the  affection  of  his  daughter,  Devayani,  but 
the  Danavas,  who  hated  Brihaspati  and  feared  lest  Katcha 
should  acquire  the  wisdom  of  Sukra,  killed  him  and  threw  him 
to  the  jackals.  Sukra,  at  the  request  of  his  daughter,  restored 
him  to  life,  but  a  second  time  the  Danavas  put  him  to  death, 
and,  cutting  his  body  into  pieces,  threw  them  into  the  sea.  Once 
more  the  Kavi  revived  Katcha.  The  third  time,  however,  the 
Danavas  made  away  with  the  Sura  prince  by  burning  his  body 
to  ashes  and  making  Sukra  drink  the  beverage  into  which  they 
tlii'ew  them.  Then  Katcha,  wl^en  revived  by  Sukra's  magic, 
answered  the  sage  from  the  recesses  of  his  own  person.  There 
was  no  way  to  restore 'the  son  of  Brihaspati  to  the  world  but  by 
he  sacrifice  of  himself.  Sukra  made  this  sacrifice,  and  Katcha 
Came  forth  from  the  I'cnt  body  of  his  teacher,  a  beino;  of  celestial 
beauty  and  endowed  with  all  the  dead  sage's  knowledge.  Katcha 
Iwi']  learned    his    lesson   wi'li,  and,  at  once   forgetting  the   hostile 

-■    Mnii,  Sruiscrit  Texts. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  139 

mission  on  which  he  had  come,  in  gratitude  for  Sukra's  self- 
devotion,  restored  the  son  of  Kavi  to  life  and  honour. ^^  The 
story  is  apparently  full  of  contradictions,  but  its  important 
feature  is  the  placing  of  Kavi  in  the  same  relation  as  Budha 
towards  Sukra  or  the  Brahmanical  family  of  Eker.  In  the 
legends  of  the  first  Budha,  the  son  of  Pururavas  called  Ayus 
seems  to  take  the  place  of  Kavi.  As  a  Hittite  vt^ord,  Job  is  the 
Basque  auba,  the  mouth,  but  the  commoner  form  is  ao  or  aho, 
and  the  Iroquois  is  osa,  but  in  Yenisian,  which  is  Siberian 
Iroquois,  the  word  for  mouth  is  hohii,  choboi,  and  hohui.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  Latin  os  and  Iroquois  osa  should  be  found 
to  designate  the  same  member. 

Job  is  said  to  have  been  the  greatest  of  all  the  men 
of  the  East,  a  statement  that  at  once  lifts  him  out  of  obscurity 
and  demands  his  recognition  among  the  princes  of  the  time  of 
Jabez.-^  His  father,  Paseach,  was  the  contemporary  of  Regem, 
whose  widow  was  married  by  his  brother  Rapha.  If  Regem's 
reign  came  to  an  end  at  the  same  time  as  that  of  his  father, 
Jachdai,  Jabez  would  be  on  the  throne  during  Paseach's  lifetime. 
Paseach  himself  was,  in  all  probability,  a  worshipper  of  the  true 
God,  for  as  the  first  Budha  he  seems  to  have  set  that  example  of 
peacefulness  which  Gautama  or  Siddharta  followed  in  the  sixth 
century  before  Christ.  He  belongs,  therefore,  to  the  same 
category  as  the  later  Saul  of  Rehoboth,  but  whether  like  him  he 
was  infiu(mced  by  the  practice  of  Jabez  and  his  prime  minister 
Joseph,  or  l)y  the  teaching  of  some  true  king  of  Salem,  the  city 
with  whicli  his  name  was  afterwards  associated,  canjiot  yet  be 
decided.  The  honour  which  Pthah  received  in  Egypt  must  have 
originated  in  Hycsos'  days,  at  the  time  when  his  brothei*  Rapha 
adopted  the  abominations  of  Baal  Peor  and  allied  himself  with 
Bela's  fh'scendants,  the  Kcnezzitcs  of  the  Elephantine  kingdom. 
The  story  of  Visakh;L  in  the  Raja  Tarangini  represents  him  in  a 
li;4U)"ativ('  way  as  a  missionary  to  the  JajJietic  li^kroiiites,  who 
wiTf  the  gua)'(lians  of  the  throne  of  the  Amenenies.  In  Irish 
history  he  is  known  as  h'iachadh,  a  name  somewhat  I'esenibling 
tlie    (ireek-    lie    Plia(;stus,   l)iit    his   son    Job    is    passecj    o\'er,  and 

■'■    .\I;ili;tl)li;uat.'i.    AiUiip.-irv.'i, 
-■■   .lol,  i.  :',. 


140  THE    HITTITES.  • 

Aongus  is  made  his  successor.-^  Fiachadh  is  improperly  made  'a 
descendant  of  Irial,  and  his  father  is  called  Smiorgioll,  a  name 
which  recalls  the  Simurgh  of  the  Persians.  When  Buddhism 
was  revived  in  India  in  the  sixth  century,  B.C.,  it  was  invested 
with  the  historical  incidents  that  pertained  to  the  original 
Budha,  Pthah,  or  Paseach.  Among  the  ancestors  of  Buddha 
were  ranked  Chetiya,  Upachara,  and  Muchala,  who  represent 
Vasishtha,  Apsaras,  and  the  father  of  the  Tritsus,  in  Brahmanical 
tradition.  But  their  ancestor  Eshton,  of  the  Kenite  list,  who  is 
the  father  of  Paseach,  is  the  same  person  as  Sudhodana,  the 
father  of  Buddha.-^  As  in  the  story  of  Visakha  the  great  enemy 
was  Nara,  so  in  that  of  Buddha  the  demon  Mara  strives  to 
destroy  the  sage.  There  seems  to  have  been  a  revival  of  Budd- 
hism in  the  west  as  well  as  in  the  east,  preceding  that  of 
Gautama  Buddha  b}'  fifty  years  or  more.  Three  names  that  are 
well  authenticated  as  those  of  philosophers,  who  flourished 
between  the  middle  of  the  seventh  and  the  end  of  the  sixth 
century,  B.C.,  are  associated  with  statements  that  belong 
properly  to  the  original  teacher  whose  names  under  different 
disguises  they  bore.-'-'  One  of  these  is  Bias  of  Priene,  whose 
name  is  identical  with  that  of  the  brother  of  Melampus.  He 
was  a  just  judge  and  reputed  the  chief  of  the  seven  sages. 
Another  is  Pittacus,  of  Mytilene,  in  Lesbos,  who  overthrew 
Melanchrus.  the  tyrant  of  that  island,  and  gained  a  victory  by 
stratagem  over  the  Athenian  commander  Phrynon,  whom  he 
caught  in  a  net.  Alcaeus,  the  poet,  with  whom  he  fought  against 
xVIelanchrus,  afterwards  turned  against  him,  reviling  his  quondam 
friend  as  'physcon.  the  fat  and  sarapous,  the  splay-footed.  But 
the  chief  name  is  that  of  Pythagoras.  Already  he  has  appeared 
in  connection  with  Hittite  history  as  the  owner  of  the  slave 
Zamolxis,  and  as  the  son  of  Mnesarchus,  two  names  that  set 
forth  Samlah  of  Masrekah.  He  was  a  native  of  Samos,  and  his 
daughter  ])amo,  wIkj  inherited  her  father's  wisdom,  recalls  Demo 
the  SiV)yl  of  Cuniae.  What  is  more  startling  is  the  statement 
of    ])iog<;ncs    Laertius    that     IVthagoras    carried    geometry    to 

■-'•'    K'-atiiip. 

-'*    IfardyV  Manual. 

-"'    l)i()L"-ii<'s  I^aertiu.s. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  A.ND  NEIGHBOUPJNG  COUNTRIES.  141 

perfection  after  Moeris  had  discovered  the  elements  of  the  science  ; 
for  it  has  been  indicated  that  Eratosthenes  places  Choma  Ephtha 
after  Meres  Philosophus.  His  sayings  were  regarded  as  the 
oracles  of  God.  He  prohibited  the  taking  away  of  life,  offered 
unbloody  sacrifices,  and  taught  the  doctrine  of  metempsychosis, 
in  all  of  which  respects  he  resembled  Buddha. 

The  traditions  of  the  Huron -Iroquois  tribes  are  not  numerous, 
but  they  shed  some  light  upon  the  history  of  Paseach  and  his 
son  Job.  According  to  Charlevoix  the  primitive  Huron  divinity 
was  a  woman,  Atahentsik,  who,  being  thrown  from  the  sky,  was 
received  on  the  back  of  a  turtle.  Her  grandchildren,  the  sons  of 
her  nameless  daughter,  were  Jouskeka  and  Thawitsaron.  Jous- 
keka  killed  his  brother  and  received  from  his  grandmother  the 
government  of  the  world.^°  This  Jouskeka,  or  Jouskeha  as  he 
is  sometimes  called,  is  as  near  as  the  Hurons  can  come  to  Paseach 
or  Hubisega,  as  they  are  destitute  of  labials.  They  call  them- 
selves Yendots  or  Wyandotts,  which  is  the  same  word  as  the 
Basque  yende,  meaning  people,although  the  Basque  lexicographers 
derive  it  from  the  Latin  gen-'i.^^  The  Achashtarite  origin  of  the 
Hurons  is  well  vouched  for  by  the  name  Ahatsistari,  the  fearless 
man,  which  is  almost  hereditary  in  the  line  of  Huron  chiefs.-^'^ 
They  also  adore  the  chief  person  in  the  junior  Achashtarite  line, 
namely,  Ma  Reshah,  the  namer  of  the  Arish,  whom  they  call 
Areskoui  and  recognize  as  the  god  of  war.  But  the  good  genius 
of  the  Hurons  is  the  evil  one  of  the  Iroquois,  who  term  him 
Tawiskano,  Tawiscara,  Saiewiskerat,  and  also  Tehofcennhiaron.^^ 
Tawiscara  is  the  Puskara  of  the  Sanscrit  traditions.  He  persist- 
ently opposed  the  work  of  Tharonhiawakon,  the  holder  of  the 
heavens,  who  represents  Beth  Zur,  the  namer  of  Saravene,  and 
the  Zervan  or  Zerouane  of  Persian  .story.  This  Beth  Zur  was  of 
the  line  of  Ma  Reshah,  the  Iro(|uois  Agroskoui,  from  whom,  no 
douljt,  came  tiie  much  disputed  name,  Irocpiois,  which  is  just  the 
word  meaning  man,  %ariously  set  forth  according  to  the  different 
dialects   as  onhre,   liikn'',  rokme.     As  Tharonhiawakon  he   was 

■  '    Ui.-ti)ir<'  lie-  la  Nouvellc  Knincc,  vi.  CiO. 

■'     I'.ti-r  I)o(,yi-ntat»;  Clurkc.  WyaiKlottH  aii(J  <itli»;r  Indian  trilicsnf  North  .\iu(irica. 
'-'    Liiijoiiic,  Historical  Notes  on  the  I'lnvirons  of  (,)ui'b(c,  II,  17,  11*. 
■•■'■    Til''  last  named,  Tehoti'imhiaron,  is  really  a  ditFcivnt    pi-i-son,   hut   the  lapse  of 
ages  has  confounded  liirn  with  Wisk. 


142  THE   HITTITES. 

the  maker  of  the  lakes,  rivers,  and  streams,  and  these,  for  the 
benefit  of  mankind,  he  made  without  impediment  of  any  kind, 
but  the  mischievous  Tawiscara,  a  veritable  Puck,  destroyed  his 
brother's  work  by  placing  rocks  in  the  water,  creating  falls  and 
rapids  that  hindered  all  progress.  Tharonhiawakon  *found  him 
out  in  his  evil  deeds,  and  a  conflict  took  place  in  which  he  was 
victorious,  for  the  unhappy  Tawiscara  had  only  a  blade  of  grass 
to  defend  himself  with,  while  the  river-maker  fought  with  a 
stag's  horn.  From  the  blood  that  issued  from  the  wounds  of 
Tawiscara,  kannhia  or  flint  was  formed,  and  from  this  metamor- 
phosis he  received  the  name  of  Tehotennhiaron,  the  letters  nnhia 
standing  for  kannhia.  These  flints  became  the  Mohawk  tribe 
whose  name  is  Kanienke.^*  It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  this 
tradition,  which  makes  Tawiscara  an  evil  genius,  was  not  origin- 
ally a  Mohawk  one.  The  Mohawk  dialect  is  most  nearly  related 
to  the  Huron.  The  Buddha  or  Quetzalcoatl  of  the  Iroquois  was 
not  Tawiscara,  however,  but  Hiawatha.  He  appeared  mysteriously 
in  the  realm  of  Atotarho,  King  of  the  Onondagas,  a  warrior  and 
a  tyrant.  Nothing  is  said  of  his  family,  save  that  Atotarho  ha,d 
put  some  of  them  to  death.  According  to  one  account,  the 
dauirhter  of  Hiawatha  met  her  death  through  a  scheme  of  the 
Onondaga  king,  but  another  states  that  she  was  killed  by  an 
enormous  bird  that  crushed  her  to  atoms.  This  great  bird,  at 
the  sight  of  which  Hiawatha  warned  his  daughter  to  prepare  for 
her  coming  doom,  is  now  well  known,  for  it  is  no  other  than  the 
Harpy,  the  Stymphalis,  the  Simurgli,  the  vulture  Lubad.  the 
man-eater  of  Gwenddoleu  :  but  the  Iroquois  chronicler  errs  in 
connecting  it  with  Atotarho.  Hiawatha  had  endeavoured  to  get 
the  Onondagas  to  consent  to  a  great  scheme  of  universal  brother- 
hood, involving  the  total  abolition  of  warfare,  but  his  assemblies 
were  always  dispersed  by  the  sudden  apparition  of  the  terrible 
Atotarho.  After  the  death  of  his  daughter,  the  peace-loving 
chief  sailed  in  his  white  canoe  to  the  land  of  the  Caniengas  or 
Mohawks,  and  there  succeeded  in  gaining  over  Dekanawidah, 
wlu;  is  supposed  not  to  have  been  a  genuine  Canienga.  Hiawatha 
was  adopted  into  the  Canienga  tribe,  and  was  ever  afterwards 
reccjgnized  as  its  representative.     Then  Odatsehte  of  the  Oneidas 

•*^'    Cuoq,  Lcxic)uc  de  la  lanque  Iroquoise,  180. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  143 

joined  the  league,  and  the  three  chiefs  waited  upon  Atotarlio, 
but  he  still  refused  to  have  anything  to  do  with  the  bond  of 
peace.  The  Cayugas  were  next  sought  out,  and  their  leader, 
Akahenyonk,  entered  the  league.  Atotarho  could  no  longer 
withstand  the  pressure  brought  to  bear  upon  him,  and,  as  a  chief 
place  was  given  to  him  in  the  confederacy,  he  became  as  eager  to 
extend  its  influence  as  he  had  formerly  been  to  oppose  it.  By 
his  means  the  powerful  Senecas,  or  more  properly  Sonontowanes, 
w^ere  added  to  the  league  under  their  two  chiefs,  Kanj'adariyo 
and  Shadekaronyes.  The  league  being  formed,  at  the  head  of  it 
was  placed  Tekarihoken,  reported  to  be  a  Canienga,  but  recog- 
nized as  the  representative  of  the  most  ancient  Iroquois  family, 
while  the  name  of  Dekanawidah  disappeared  from  view.  Mr. 
Horatio  Hale,  who  has  collected  some  Iroquois  traditions,  and  to 
whom  the  world  is  indebted  for  the  text  and  translation  of  the 
Iroquois  Book  of  Rites,  first  committed  to  writing  about  a 
century  ago,  is  of  the  opinion  that  Hiawatha  and  the  great 
Leafjue  belonof  to  the  fifteenth  century.  While  the  languao-e  of 
the  Book  of  Rites  may  justify  such  a  date,  and  the  actual  names 
contained  in  it  may  be  found  to  correspond  with  those  of  living 
chiefs,  the  fact  of  the  League's  foundation  goes  back  to  the  time 
when  Chaldean  kings  of  Hittite  birth  called  themselves  lords  of 
Kiprat  Arba  or  the  four  races,  a  title  preserved  in  the  Laur 
Cantons  or  four  quarters  of  the  Basque  legends,  and  in  the 
Pei'uvian  lordship  of  the  four  regions  of  the  earth.  The  Egyptian 
records  show  that  the  Hittites  were  united  in  Palestine  as  a  con- 
federacy of  tribes  under  a  leader  whom  they  call  a  grand  Duke, 
but  whom  the  Hittites  themselves  no  doubt  desimiated  a  Kins 
of  Kinfjs.^^ 

The  key  to  the  Iroquois  riddle  is  the  Canienga  name.  The 
Caniengas,  or  as  the  Abbe  Cuo(i  calls  them  Kanienke,  are 
American  Yeniseians,  whose  mounds  in  Asia  ri\al  those  of  the 
Ohio  and  Mississippi.  From  the  Yenisei  to  the  tributaries  of  the 
Obi  this  remnant  of  a  once  powerful  nation  dwells,  speaking  a 
well  defined  Khitan  language,  and  calling  themselves  indixidually 
Kliitts  Th()S(,'  who  inhabit  Inba/k  and  Turuchansk  call  them- 
selves  Cfjllectively    Kcnniyeng,   which    is   the    Kanienke    name.'"' 

■'■■''    H;tl<-,  Tiif;  InxjuoiH  F'ook  nf  Kites. 
^'    Kl^iprotli,  Asia  J'<,ly^,'l<,tta. 


144  THE    HITTITES. 

Other  tribes  are  Assan,  Kottuen,  and  Arin  or  Aral.  In  the  times 
of  the  classical  geographers  the  flint  men  were  known  in  the 
Caucasus  as  the  Heniochi,  and  it  was  reported  that  their 
ancestors  were  the  charioteers  of  the  Dioscuri.^''  To  the  present 
day  Anzuch  is  the  name  of  a  Lesghian  tribe,  and  the  Circassians 
call  all  the  Lesghians  Hannoatshe,  while  the  Mizjejians  term 
them  Sueli.  In  Sanscrit  story  the  wise  king  Janaka,  who  con- 
futes the  Brahmans  and  is  contemporary  w^ith  Vasishtha,  appears 
as  the  ancestor  of  the  Heniochi,  and  he  seems  to  be  the  same 
person  as  Jahnu,  descendant  of  Ayus.  The  ninefold  Angiras, 
also,  is  connected  with  Kavi,  being  taken  together  with  him  out 
of  the  ashes  of  the  lire.  But  the  most  lordly  representative  is 
Gancra,  the  Gano-es.  When  this  river  flowed  down  from  the 
mane  of  Siva,  it  overspread  the  sacred  place  in  which  Jahnu 
was  exercising  himself  in  devotion.  Irritated  by  this  want  of 
respect,  the  sage  drank  up  the  entire  river,  and  it  was  only  after 
the  earnest  entreaties  of  the  gods  and  rishis  had  been  addressed 
to  him,  that  he  allowed  the  imprisoned  stream  to  flow  forth  from 
his  ears.  Hence  the  Ganores  is  called  Jahnavi,  the  daughter  of 
Jahnu.  The  Angiras  also  were  drinkers  up  of  rivers.^*^  In 
Eratosthenes'  list  of  Upper  Egyptian  Kings,  Anchunius  Ochy 
follows  Choma  Ephta.  In  Grecian  legendary  history  Anaxagoras, 
called  the  son  of  Argeius  and  grandson  of  Megapenthes,  shared 
the  throne  of  .Vrgos  with  Bias  and  Melampus.  In  Buddhist 
story  Hansa  is  the  king  of  birds,  and  when  Gautama  cut  off  his 
hair  on  becoming  a  recluse,  it  soared  into  the  heavens  and 
assumed  the  form  of  a  han.sa.39  The  Arabs  are  said  to  call  the 
ibis  of  the  Nile  Abu  Hansa.  This  introduces  the  Arabian  Anka 
whicli  ranks  with  the  Harpy  and  the  Simurgh  as  the  devourer  of 
the  people  of  Al  Ras.  Some  writers  say  that  Schoaib,  the  son  o^ 
Mi  kail,  or  descendant  of  Hanoch,  was  the  prophet  who  preached 
to  the  p(.'0])le  of  Al  Rass,  and  that,  on  their  failing  to  believe  him, 
the  earth  opened  and  swallowed  them  up.  Others  make  the 
]jropliet  Handha  ebn  Safwan,  whom  the  Rassites  disregarded  and 
in  consef|uence  were  devoured  b\^  the  Anka.^"     In  Irish  history 

•■■"  Strabo  ft  ;tl. 

■"■''  Muir,  Sanscrit  Ti-xt-  ;   liaiuayaiia. 

■"•'•*  Hardy's  .Manual. 

"'  Sal.-V  K..nii.. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  145 

the  son  of  Fiachadh  is  Aongus,  a  ^reat  warrior  who  defeated  in 
thirty   battles   the   Scots,  Picts,  and  Firbolgs^^     The  story  of 
Hengist  the  Saxon,  as  told  by  the  British  chroniclers  has  already 
been  found  to  lie   in  a  lapful  of  very  ancient  traditions.     Dr. 
Latham,  quoting  largely  from  Kemble,   says  :  "  The   account   of 
Hengist's  and  Horsa's  landing  has  elements   which  are  fictional 
rather  than  historical.     Thus  when  we  find  Hengist  and  Horsa 
approaching  the  coast  of  Kent  in  three  kebls,  and  Aelli  effecting 
a  landing  in  Sussex  with  the  same  number,  we  are  reminded  of 
the  Gothic   tradition  which  carries   a  migration   of    Ostrogoths, 
Visigoths,  and  Gepidae,  also  in  three  vessels  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Vistula.     The  murder  of  the  British  chieftains   by    Hengist    is 
told  tot  idem  verbis  by  Widukind  and  others,  of  the  old  Saxons 
in  Thuringia.      Geoffrey  of  Monmouth  relates  also  how  Hengist 
obtained  from  the  Britons  as  much  land  as  could  be  enclosed  by 
an  ox-hide  ;  then  cutting  the  hide  into  thongs,  enclosed  a  much 
larger  space   than   the    granters  intended,  on   which  he   erected 
Thong  Castle  ;  a  tale  too  familiar  to  need  illustration,  and  which 
runs  throughout  the  mythus  of  many  nations.     Among  the  Old 
Saxons  the  tradition  is  in  reality  the  same,  though  recorded  with 
a  slight  variety  of  detail.      In  their  story  a  lapfull  of  earth  is 
purchased  at  a  dear  rate  from  a  Thuringian  ;  the  companions  of 
the  Saxon  jeer  him  for  his  imprudent  bargain  ;  but  he  sows  the 
purchased  earth  upon  a  large  space  of  ground,  which  he  claims, 
ami   by   the   aid  of  his   conn-adcs   ultimately  wrests  it  from  the 
Tliuringians."  ^-'     Di*.  Latham  also  shows  that  the  so-called  Jutes 
who  came  cn'er  with  the  Saxon  invaders  were  no  Germans  but 
the  pe<jple  of  Vectis  or   the  Isle  of  Wight.     Now   Hengist   was 
tlie  si)u   of   Vihtgils,   of  Vitta,  of   Vecta,  of  Odin  ;  what   is   this 
l»ut  Aongus  of  Fiachadh,  and  the  Indian  Janaka,  King  of  Mdeha, 
and  the   Iro([Uois   Kanienke,  derived   from  the  blood  of    Tawis- 
kura."*-'     Tilt!   man   whose   name   explains   these  genealogies   is  in 
tlic  Kenite  list  Hanoeh  or  Chanoeli,  called  the  son  (jf    llcuben.'*'* 
Iifuben  had  a  si^n  of  tliat  iiaiiu',  but  he  was  not  the  father  of 


'"  K.-;itin;<. 

''■  [j;itli.iiii,   I  ramlljiMpk  of  the  Mii^,'listi  Ii;uii,'u;i;;'t',  |)t.  i.  cli.  i. 

•  Tin-  Chmcli  Hi-t'iri:uis  ni  Vai'^]:mi\,  .S:i\(jn  L'hruniclr,  rtc,  p.  :^\. 

"  1  Cliinii.  V.  :i. 


146  THE   HITTITES. 

Joel.*^  In  Norse  story  Hanoch  is  Yngvi  the  head  of  the  Ynglin- 
gians,  whose  festival  of  Yule  was  held  at  Rugen  on  the  Baltic.^^ 
There  were  two  Joels,  one  the  son  of  Hanoch,  who  was  the  father 
of  Shemaiah  and  grandfather  of  Gog ;  the  other,  the  son  of 
Acharchel  and  father  of  Shema.  But  Hiawatha,  the  man  of 
peace  and  chief  of  the  Caniengas,  is  Job  in  the  topographical 
form  Oboth,  the  father  of  Hanoch  and  son  of  Paseach. 

Further  proof  of  the  identity  of  Tawiscara,  the  ancestor  of 
the  Kanienke,  and  Paseach,  is  found  in  the  coincidence  of  two 
American  traditions.  Cusick,  the  author  of  The  History  of  the 
Six  Nations,  relates  that  when  the  Iroquois  in  their  migrations 
came  to  the  Ohio,  they  found  an  enormous  grape-vine  trailing 
across  the  river  from  bank  to  bank.  By  means  of  this  natural 
bridge  a  large  number  of  the  people  made  their  way  to  the  other 
side,  but  the  vine  suddenly  broke,  so  that  many  were  unable  to 
cross.  Those  who  remained  behind  became  the  enemies  of  those 
who  had  passed  over.^''  With  this  may  be  compared  the  story 
told  to  Catlin  by  the  Mandan  chiefs.  "  The  Mandans  (Seepohskah) 
were  the  first  people  created  in  the  world,  and  they  originally 
lived  inside  of  the  earth  ;  they  raised  many  vines,  and  one  of 
them  had  grown  up  through  a  hole  in  the  earth  overhead,  and 
one  of  their  young  men  climbed  up  it  until  he  came  out  on  the 
top  of  the  ground  on  the  bank  of  the  river  where  the  Mandan 
village  stands.  He  looked  around  and  admired  the  beautiful 
country  and  prairies  about  him,  saw  many  buffaloes,  killed  one 
with  his  bow  and  arrows,  and  found  that  its  meat  was  good  to 
eat.  He  returned  and  related  what  he  had  seen  ;  when  a  number 
of  others  went  up  the  vine  with  him  and  witnessed  the  same 
things.  Amongst  those  who  went  up  were  two  verj^  pretty 
young  women,  who  were  favourites  of  the  chief's  because  they 
were  virgins  ;  and  amongst  those  who  were  trying  to  get  up  was 
a  very  large  and  fat  woman,  who  was  ordered  by  the  chief  not 
to  go  up,  but  whose  curiosity  led  her  to  try  it  as  soon  as  she  got 
a  secret  opportunity,  when  there  was  no  one  present.  When  she 
got  part  of  the  way  up  the  vine  broke  under  the  great  weight  of 

■*■'■  Numb.  xxvi.  5. 

^*  Mallet's  Northern  Antiquities. 

*''    Hale,  Iroquois  Book  of  Rites. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  147 

her  body  and  let  her  down.  She  was  very  much  hurt  by  the 
fall  but  did  not  die.  The  Mandans  were  very  sorry  about  this  ; 
and  she  was  disoraeed  for  being  the  cause  of  a  very  great 
calamity,  which  she  had  brought  upon  them,  and  which  could 
never  be  averted  ;  for  no  more  could  ever  ascend,  nor  could  those 
descend  wiio  had  got  up  ;  but  they  built  the  Mandan  village 
where  it  formerly  stood,  a  great  ways  below  on  the  river  ;  and 
the  I'emainder  of  the  people  live  underground  to  this  day."  *^ 
Catlin  remarked  the  light  complexion,  the  blue  and  grey  eyes,  of 
many  Mandans,  and  imagined  that  he  had  found  the  lost  crew  of 
the  Welsh  Madoc.  He  also  mentions  their  round  skin  coracles, 
blue  glass  beads  of  their  own  manufacture,  and  the  identity  in 
pattern  of  the  pottery  which  he  saw  the  Mandan  women  make 
with  that  found  in  the  mounds.  The  true  name  of  the  Mandan 
stock  seems  to  have  been  Wahtana,  which  is  a  variation  of 
Eshton,  the  name  of  the  father  of  Paseach.  Among  the  Esthonians 
of  the  Baltic  the  name  of  Paseach  is  not  prominent,  but  one  of 
their  divisions  is  Ungannia,  representing  Hanoch.^^  The  Mandan 
name  Seepohskah,  said  to  mean  the  pheasant,  is  the  Circassian 
Schapsuch  answering  to  the  Hittite  Khupuscia,  the  Basque 
Guipuscoa,  and  the  Akkadian  god,  Hubisega.  The  Iro(|Uois  and 
Mandan  tales  are  of  the  same  origin  as  the  well  known  Jack  of 
the  Bean  Stalk.  But  this  legend  is  generally  associated  with  the 
name  of  Hanocli.  Thus  the  great  abyss  of  Norse  mytliology  is 
the  Ginnunga-gap,  and  this  is  the  fatal  chasm  in  the  realm  of  the 
Phr3'gian  Midas,  which  closed  only  when  Anchurus,  his  son,  like 
the  Roman  Mettus  Curtius,  leaped  into  it  and  gave  rise  to  the 
weeping  of  Annacus.  Again  it  is  linked  with  Ancaeus,  the 
Samian,  to  whom  a  prophet  intimates  that  he  shall  not  drink  of 
tlie  fruitage  of  his  vineyard,  a  prophecy  which  he  answers  by 
raising  a  cup  of  new  wine  to  his  lips,  when  he  is  told  that  a 
wild  V)()ar  is  i*avaging  his  vines  ;  leaving  the  cup  untasted,  he 
gofs  to  meet  the  enemy  and  falls  a  victim  to  his  tnsks.  From 
this  incident  ai-ose  the  proverb  : 

"  Tlierf's  many  a  sli]i 

'  Twixt  the  cu|>  and  the  lip.'' 


<*•    Catlin,  Xortli  American  Indians,  i.  17S. 
«    Maltft  I'.run,  \  i. 


148  THE    HITTITES. 

And  he  is  Ocnus  who  twists  a  rope  of  hay  which  a  she  ass 
devours  as  fast  as  he  makes  it ;  an  industrious  man  with  an 
expensive  wife,  thinks  Pausanias,  but  at  any  rate  he  who  gets 
nothing  for  his  pains  twists  the  rope  of  Ocnus.  Ocnus  also  is  a 
bird,  the  most  beautiful  of  all  the  heron  tribe,  in  which  appears 
the  Indian  Hansa  and  Arabian  Anka.  As  Oeneus  of  Calydon, 
the  father  of  Deianira,  wife  of  Hercules  and  mother  of  Hyllus, 
he  is  still  the  same  as  the  Samian  Ancaeus,  for  he  also  is  a  planter 
of  vines,  but,  neglecting  to  honour  Artemis  after  a  rich  harvest, 
the  Calydonian  boar  destroys  all  the  labour  of  his  hands.  Once 
more  he  is  Gunadhya  who  has  written  a  poem  of  unparalleled 
ength  with  his  own  blood.  It  is  in  the  Pisacha  dialect,  however, 
and  King  Satavahana  will  not  give  the  price  asked  for  it.  Then 
Gunadhya  ascends  a  mountain  and  begins  burning  his  composi- 
tion, surrounded  by  all  the  beasts  of  the  forest,  who  shed  tears 
of  rapture  as  they  listen  to  the  beautiful  verses.  Satavahana, 
falling  sick  asks  for  game,  but  none  can  be  had  as  all  the  animals 
are  listening  to  the  story  of  the  poet.  Thereupon,  like  the 
second  Tar(|uin,  he  is  compelled  to  pay  the  original  price  for  the 
seventh  part- that  remains.  In  the  case  of  the  Cumaean  Sibyl, 
two  thirds  of  her  composition  was  love's  labour  lost.  So  far  as 
the  meaning  of  these  stories  can  be  peneti'ated  they  seem  to 
contain  the  record  of  two  distinct  events,  the  separation  of 
elements  once  united,  and  a  fall  from  prosperity  to  adversity. 
The  latter,  which  is  also  illustrated  hy  the  Buddhist  story  of 
Wessantara,  a  predecessor  of  Gautama,  and  by  the  Sanscrit 
legend  of  Harischandra,  refers  to  Job  the  father  of  Hanoch  ;  and 
thei-e  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  separation  of  tribes  once 
united,  and  the  union  of  the  disunited  by  the  self-sacrifice  of  one 
man,  as  in  the  case  of  Anchurus,  refer  to  the  same  patriarch. 

The  Iro'juois  legend  of  Hiawatha  places  at  the  head  of  the 
confederacy  Tekarihoken,  "  who  represents  the  noblest  lineage  of 
the  Iro(juois  stock."  This  is  undoubtedly  a  disguised  Regem  or 
Sargon  (jf  Agade,  no  Mohawk,  therefore,  but  an  Akkadian, 
Jachdaite,  or  Adite,  belonging  to  the  Zuzimite  family  of 
Achu/ani,  the  first  born  of  Ashchur,  the  Hittite  father.  The 
name  I't.'karihoken,  which  in  the  plural  becomes  Tehadii'ihoken, 
is  compounded  of  kc riJu),  a  wild  beast,  which  makes  kontiriho 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  149 

in  the  plural.  The  chief  so  called  is  the  same  as  the  Riozin  or 
dragon  god  of  the  Japanese.  He  is  Regeni  the  originator  of  the 
name  Ka-Regem-ish  or  Carchemish,  whicii  became  the  Hittite 
metropolis  and  seat  of  the  Hittite  Kings  of  Kings.  The  con- 
fusion of  his  name  with  the  Caniengas  or  Mohawks  arose  out  of 
the  luiion  of  his  descendant  Aharhel  with  a  daughter  of  Hanoch, 
the  Paseachite,  and  out  of  the  double  union  of  these  two  families 
with  the  Buzites,  descended  from  the  Japhetic  Eker,  from  which 
latter  union  originated  all  the  traditions  of  white  men  preserved 
by  the  Regemites  and  Paseachites  in  many  lands,  and  from  which 
also  may  have  been  derived  the  fairer  complexion  and  Indo- 
European  features  which  Catlin  and  others  have  observed  in 
some  American  Indian  tribes.  The  Onondagas,  whose  name 
comes  from  ononfes,  a  mountain,  are  the  Haniathites,  but  the 
Hamathites  of  the  line  of  Rechab  and  Beeri,  for  their  chief  is 
Atotarho,  the  great  warrior,  the  same  as  Hadadezer  and  the 
Sanscrit  Yudisthira,  who,  aiming  at  universal  authority,  never- 
theless allied  himself  with  Krishna  or  Regem  agfainst  the  Zere- 
thite  Kurus  and  their  Midianite  allies.  The  Senecas  or  Sonon- 
towane  are  but  another  Hamathite  line,  the  initial  s  being  of 
Elamite  origin,  for  in  Elam  Hamath  became  Sumudu  ;  and  as 
the  Iroqucns  have  lost  in,  with  the  other  labials,  two  ns  have  to 
do  duty  for  that  letter.  But  the  Elamite  Hamathites  were  of 
the  two  lines  of  Ezra  and  Salma,  so  they  have  two  representa- 
tives, of  whom  one,  Kanadariyu,  is  an  Iro(|uois  Gedoi"  in  the 
Gandhara,  Centaur  and  Gunther  form  of  the  name.  Shadeka- 
ronyes,  the  other  Seneca  chief,  is  harder  to  account  for.  but  the 
name  is  well  identified  with  the  Gedor  line,  being  the  same  as 
Satakarni,  a  name  that  occurs  thrice  in  the  Indian  list  of  Andhra 
kings,  whose  name  connects  them  with  Indivi  or  . I  ether.  The 
family  of  Gedtjr  was  at  first  in  league  witli  the  Zerethites,  but 
afterwards  seems  to  iiave  jcjined  the  sons  of  Naarah.  Three  of 
the  allii'il  ehitjfs  n\ust  for  tluj  piesent  disptmse  with  recognition. 
Thesi'  are  J  )ekanawi(lah,  the;  Mohawk  or  Canienga,  Odatsehte 
the  Oneida,  an  Iro((uois  (Jdysseus,  and  Akahenyonk,  the  Cayuga. 
The  iKUiif  of  l)('kan;i\vi(lali  I'i'scinblcs  tiiat  of  flu;  Andhra  King 
Skatnlhaswati.  He  niay  thus  possibly  be  the  Ix-ad  of  tlu;  Neto- 
phatliitcs  of  the   family   ol'  (y'liedoi'laoincr,  a  GrtM^k    Antiphates, 


150  THE   HITTITES. 

and  historical  Egyptian  Numhotep.  Supposing  this  to  be  the 
case,  we  can  assert  the  contemporaneousness  of  Regem,  Hadad, 
Gedor,  the  son  of  Jered,  Netophath,  and  Job,  the  son  of  Paseach, 
who  are  Tekarihoken,  Atotarho,  Kanadariyu,  Dekanawidah,  and 
Hiawatha,  although  the  latter  must  have  been  the  younger, 
belonging  virtually  to  the  next  generation.  The  so-called  League 
of  the  Iroquois,  founded  by  these  men  about  the  time  that  Joseph 
was  sold  into  Egypt,  was  the  original  Amphictyonic  League  of 
the  Greeks.  Amphictyon,  its  founder,  is  indeed  called  a  son  of 
Deucalion,  but  the  feminine  form  Amphictyone  is  always  con- 
nected with  the  name  of  Phthius.  In  the  league  were  found 
Thessalians  or  Zocharites,  Phthiotes  or  Paseachites,  Malians  or 
Mahalaites,  Perrhaebians  or  Rephaim,  Q^teans  or  Jahdaites, 
Phoceans  or  Japhetic  Buzites,  Dolopes  or  Eliphazites,  and  other 
tribes,  some  of  Hittite,  others  of  purely  Hellenic  origin  ;  but  it 
is  very  unlikely  that  all  of  these  constituted  the  primitive 
League  which  seems  to  have  embraced  only  the  four  tribes 
descended  from  Ashchur  and  Naarah,  although  there  seems  to  be 
evidence  that  the  Zocharites  and  the  Aryan  Ekronites  had 
representation  in  its  councils. 

While  Carcheraish  was  regarded  in  the  time  of  Hittite  domi- 
nation in  Syria  and  Mesopotamia  as  the  centre  of  the  confedei'acy, 
it  does  not  appear  that  the  ruler  of  that  city  had  any  extensive 
region  under  his  immediate  control.  In  this  I'espect  Khupuscia, 
or  Thapsacus,  was  superior  to  Carchemish,  its  king  being  called 
the  kinfj  of  the  Nairi  and,  sometimes,  the  kin^  of  the  Hittites.-''^ 
The  Nairi  occupied  all  northern  Mesopotamia  and  overspread  its 
limits  into  Syria  and  Armenia.  Thus  Paseach's  line  acquired 
great  reputation,  displacing  in  point  of  authority  that  of  his  elder 
brother  Kapha.  The  name  of  Hanoch  survived  among  the  Nairi, 
or  Mehii'ites,  as  Yanzu,  designating  more  than  one  king  of  Khu- 
puscia.''^ The  Nairi  of  the  New  World  were  the  Mexican  Nahuatl 
and  the  Nicaraguans.  The  story  of  their  advent  in  seven  vessels 
is  obscure,  but  it  is  stated  that  they  brought  with  them  a  deity 
env(iloped  in  sacred  wrappings,  some  Buddhist  relic  probably,  who 


Records  (if  tlic  Past. 
Rf'Cords  of  tli<?  Past,  vii 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  151 

was  known  as  Opu,  or  the  invisible.^-  Opu,  however,  is  not  an 
Aztec  word,  nor  do  we  know  what  reason  the  chronicler  had  to 
translate  it  by  the  invisible.  It  is  the  Ob,  Opis,  Opus,  of  the 
Hebrews  and  Greeks,  the  latter  of  whom  Pindar  sets  forth  in  his 
ninth  Olympic,  with  Opuntian  Locris  and  the  Oilean  Ajax,  as  the 
son  of  Zeus  and  Protogenia,  Deucalion's  daughter.^^  There  was 
a  Protogenia,  daughter  of  Calydon,  who,  as  Gilead  the  Buzite,  is 
more  likely  to  have  been  the  relative  of  Job  than  the  long  departed 
Zochar.  Homer  seems  to  have  known  the  patriarch  by  fame  in 
his  land  of  Uz,  for  he  represents  Jupiter  as  turning  away  from 
Troy  to  look  upon  those  most  just  men,  the  milk-fed  Abii,  and 
the  Mysians  and  Thracians.^*  Indian  writers  ascribe  his  virtues 
to  his  son  Hanoch,  calling  Janaka  the  father  of  his  people,  although 
the  afflicted  sajre,  dissruised  as  Suvarna,  Janaka's  father,  is  made 
a  distributer  of  gold  to  the  poor.  Janaka  was  constantly  engaged 
in  meditating  upon  the  life  to  come,  which  gave  him  a  tranquil 
mind.  "  And  these  words  were  repeated  by  the  king  of  Mithila, 
when  he  beheld  the  city  enveloped  in  fire,  '  nothing  of  mine  is 
burnt  here,'  so  said  the  king  to  himself." 

"  Though  worldly  i)e]f  I  own  no  more. 
Of  wealth  I  have  a  boundless  store  ; 
While  Mithila  the  flames  devour, 
My  goods  can  all  defy  their  power."  55 

The  life  of  the  philosopher  Anaxagoras  appears  to  contain  ele- 
ments that  belong  to  Hanoch,  who  has  already  been  identified 
with  the  Argive  monarch  of  that  name,  or  rather  to  his  father. 
Job.  He  was  told  that  his  disregard  of  earthly  things  indicated 
a  want  of  love  for  his  country,  when,  pointing  to  heaven,  he 
replied  :  "  I  have  the  greatest  affection  for  it."  When  told  of  the 
ileath  of  his  children  wliom  he  buried  with  his  own  hands  he 
answered :  "  I  knew  that  I  was  the  father  of  mortals."  The 
account  of  his  trial  for  impiety  and  his  appearance  before  his 
ju'lLres,  worn  to  a  shadow  and  stricken  with  disease  that  moved 
all   liearts  to  pity,  even  liis  release  at  the  recjuest  of  Pericles  and 


-    i;    de  I'ourtxiiirg,   Nations  civilist'cs,  i.  109. 

Pindar,  ( 'lyinp,  ix. 
■-*    Iliad,  xiii.  fJ. 
■''    Raja  Tarangini  ;  Muir's  Sanscrit  Texts,  i.  42t),  seq. 


152  .  THE   HITTITES. 

his  death  at  Lampsacus,  are  strange  coincidences  with  Job's  story, 
i'or  he  was  a  man  of  Paseach,  and  Barachel,  the  Buzite,  was  his 
friend.  One  touching  request  of  the  philosopher  was  his  last ; 
when  the  governors  of  Lampsacus  asked  what  they  could  do  for 
him  ;  "  Let  the  children  play  every  year  during  the  month  of  my 
death." ^^  It  will  be  difficult  to  separate  from  the  stories  of  Paseach 
and  Hanoch  the  facts  that  pertain  to  the  life  of  the  greater  son 
of  the  one  and  father  of  the  other. 

^   Diogenes  Laertius. 


153 


CHAPTER  XV. 

The  Hittites  in  Palestine  and  the  Neighbouring 
Countries    before    the    Rise    of    the    Assyrian    Empire 

(Continued). 

The  Iroquois  tradition,  which  is  connected  with  the  life  history 
of  that  indomitable  race,  and  which  there  is,  therefore,  no  reason 
to  doubt,  represents  Job  as  suffering  frorp  tyranny,  and  that  the 
tyranny  of  Hadad  in  Gebalene.  Now,  Job's  home  was  there  in 
the  very  heart  of  ITadad's  kingdom,  but  the  story  of  the  bird  that 
killed  Hiawatha's  daughter  belongs  to  Samlah's  time.  In  his 
youth  the  hermit  of  Uz  must  have  been  a  man  of  great  activity 
and  of  powers  of  organization.  It  is  not  unlikely  that,  with  the 
aid  of  the  Hepherite  Netophath,  he  organized  a  league  of  the 
Hittite  peoples  with  a  view  to  universal  brotherhood,  so  thoroughly 
congenial  to  a  heart  that  beat  with  the  warmest  sympathy  for 
want  and  suffering.  One  naturally  asks  whence  did  he  derive  his 
pure  faith  ?  Did  it  belong  to  him  only  in  late  years,  the  result 
of  the  great  religious  movement  that  took  place  in  the  reign  of 
the  Egyptian  Jabez  ;  did  it  come  through  the  alliance  of  his  family 
with  godly  Midianites  ;  or  was  it  the  effect  of  the  teaching  of  some 
later  Melchizedek,  in  that  Jerusalem  which  preserved  his  father's 
memory  as  that  of  a  heathen  god  in  after  days  ?  There  is  reason 
to  think  that  his  affliction  came  upon  him  in  what  would  now  be 
middle-age,  and  that  he  could  not  have  been  indebted  to  the  teacli- 
ing  of  Josepli's  Pharaoh  for  his  creed.  He,  therefore,  represents 
.m  early  protest  against  growing  idolatry  and  superstitious  ritfs 
of  the  foulest  and  most  murderous  kind,  tlieu  in  vogue  in  Baby- 
lonia and  Egypt.  His  enemies  were  not  Hittites  nor  Amoritus, 
but  Cliasdim  descended  from  Aljraham's  brother  Nalun",  and 
Sabaeans  of  the  family  of  Cush.  His  tliree  friends  wei'e  Hittites 
like  himself,  representing  three  branches  of  the  I'ace.  There  was 
lOliphiiz,  tin;  'i\naanite,  a  S(jn  perhaps  of  Husliani,  who  had  been 
king  in  (jlel)alene,  the  namer,  it  may  be,  (jf  tin;  fJebel  el  Tarfuyeh 


154  THE   HITTITES. 

near  Zerkeh,  which,  as  an  ancient  Delphi  purged  for  a  time  from 
idolatry,  was  the  meeting  place  of  the  League.  And  with  him 
sat  Bildad  the  Shuhite,  belonging  to  the  branch  of  the  Achash- 
tarite  family  in  which  MaReshah  ranked  highest,  the  nearest, 
therefore  to  Job  in  tribal  kinship.  And  the  third,  Zophar  the 
Naamathite,  was  of  the  race  of  Zochar,  for  the  Naamathites  were 
descended  from  Naam,  the  son  of  Caleb,  the  son  of  Jephunneh, 
whose  father  was  Ephron  the  Hittite.  It  is  strange  that  of  the 
three  lines  of  Hepher  which  contributed  so  largely  to  the  League, 
no  member  came  to  condole  with  the  afflicted  patriarch,  and  that 
the  Achuzamites  of  Egypt  and  Akkad  stood  aloof  from  him.  But 
there  was  a  young  man  present,  whose  father  must  have  been 
Job's  friend,  a  man  of  foreign  race  and  alien  blood,  whether  he 
came  from  the  Maaleh  Acrabbim,  south  of  the  Dead  Sea,  or  from 
Phai'aoh's  guard-house  at  the  mines  of  Sinai,  Elihu,  the  son  of 
Barachel  the  Buzite,  of  the  kindred  of  Ram,  a  warrior,  doubtless, 
like  all  his  race  and  a  descendant  of  the  great  king  Cecrops. 
That  the  League  was  formed  by  this  time  is  evidenced  by  the 
representation  of  five  distinct  families  in  the  company,  composed 
of  the  Chelubite  sage  and  his  four  friends.  They  may  have  been 
members  with  him  of  the  great  Council.  The  29th  chapter  of 
Job  .shows  the  high  position  which  he  held  in  Gebalene,  and  inti- 
mates that  he  was  a  warrior  as  well  as  a  righteous  judge  and  a 
man  of  great  benevolence,  for  he  "  bi-ake  the  jaws  of  the  wicked 
and  plucked  the  spoil  out  of  his  teeth  ;"  he  chose  out  also  the  way 
of  the  people,  "  and  dwelt  as  a  king  in  the  army."  ^  But  in  the 
following  chapter  the  work  that  he  had  done  in  consolidating  the 
tribes  and  reclaiming  them  from  a  life  of  rapine,  barbarism,  and 
misery  is  well  set  forth  in  contrast  with  the  treatment  which  he 
received  at  the  hands  of  those  for  whose  welfare  the  best  years 
of  his  life  had  been  spent.  "  For  want  and  famine  they  were 
solitary,  fleeing  into  the  wilderness,  in  former  time  desolate  and 
waste.  Wlio  cut  up  mallows  by  the  bushes  and  juniper  roots  for 
their  meat.  They  were  driven  forth  from  among  men  ;  they  cried 
aft(-r  thciii  as  after  a  thief;  to  dwell  in  the  clitls  of  the  valleys, 
in  caves  of  the  eai'th  and  in  the  rocks.  Among  the  bushes  they 
bi-axed  :  uinh-r  the  nettles  they  were  gathered  together.  They 
'  .r.i.  xxix.  17,  '.ir). 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  155 

were  children  of  fools,  yea,  children  of  base  men  ;  they  were  viler 
than  the  earth.  And  now  am  I  their  song,  yea,  I  am  their  by- 
word."- Such  were  the  younger  men  that  had  the  patriarch  in 
derision,  whose  fathers  he  would  have  disdained  to  have  set  with 
the  dogs  of  his  flock.  This  evidence  is  very  striking.  The  wars 
of  Chederlaomer,  of  Bela,  and  Jobab,  arw:l  Husham,  and  Hadad, 
had  demoralized  the  Hittites  of  Gebalene.  A  numerous  people, 
they  were  without  organization.  Tribe  fought  against  tribe,  and 
rising  nations,  less  numerous  but  more  united,  were  already  begin- 
ning to  make  them  a  prey.  The  most  of  the  tribes  were,  doubt- 
less, the  vagabonds  that  Job  describes  them  as  being  when  he 
undertook  their  cause.  He  had  united  them,  given  them  peace 
and  a  strong  government,  so  that  a  judge  was  on  the  earth  again 
and  prosperity  abounded.  The  inwardness  of  Job's  grief  is 
apparent.  A  prophet  of  the  true  God,  a  lover  of  peace,  a  preacher 
of  unity  and  the  benefits  of  a  well  regulated  national  life,  he  had 
had  hard  work  to  gain  acceptance  for  his  reforms.  In  the  pros- 
perity that  followed  the  reception  of  his  counsels  he  had,  no  doubt, 
told  the  people  to  behold  the  divine  blessing,  heaven's  justification 
of  his  advice  and  efforts.  And  now  he,  the  doer  of  it  all,  the  man 
above  all  others  who,  speaking  humanly.  Providence  should  bless, 
is  suddenly  smitten,  not  only  by  the  Chasdim  and  Sabaeans,  mere 
human  foes,  but  by  heaven's  elements,  fire,  and  hurricane,  and 
loathsome  disease.  What  wonder,  when  his  own  wife  said  to  him 
'''  Curse  God  and  die,"  that  those  whom  he  had  weaned  from  Baal 
Peor  and  Tannnuz,  seeing  in  their  teacher  one, 

"  Wh<iin  unmerciful' disaster 
Followed  fast  and  followed  faster," 

should  regard  his  sufferings  as  the  judgments  of  the  gods  whom 
he  had  dethroned,  an(i  deride  their  chief  earthly  benefactor  as  a 
false  pi-oph('t  and  a  fit  victim  of  the  anger  of  outraged  deity  ! 
Even  the  four  friends,  who  had  not  lost  their  faith  in  God,  could 
not  undei'stand  the  .succ(^ssion  of  strokes,  save  as  acts  of  punish- 
ment foi"  sin  c(jnniiitted,  for  histoiy,  down  to  their  time,  presented 
no  pHi-allel  case  ;  and,  long  since  their  time,  the  world  hiis  been 
slow   to  eoni])rehend,  oi-  I'athei'  to  .•i])])i-ehend,  the  great  problem 

■    .Jul)  x\.\.  :■!-!». 


156  THE   HITTITES. 

of  the  permission  of  evil,  physical  as  well  as  spiritual,  in  the  earth, 
a  cause  of  suffering  to  God  and  man,  and  thus  to  those  who  are 
God's  men  as  well  as  to  the  rest  of  humanity.  Job  saw  his  God 
dishonoured  and  his  great  work  nigh  to  dissolution.  The  chief 
councillors  among  the  kings  stood  aloof  from  his  sick-bed  ;  Regem 
and  Hadad,  and  Gedor,.and  Netophath,  and  Pelet,  were  unrepre- 
sented even  by  members  of  their  tribes.  The  League  was  a  rope 
of  sand.  Add  the  story  of  Hiawatha  to  that  of  Job,  and  some 
idea  may  be  formed  of  the  poignancy  of  the  great  statesman's 
anofuish.  Could  he  but  have  seen  himself  down  the  ages  as  an 
Ob  or  Fetish  man,  the  chief  representative  of  that  devil  worship 
his  soul  abhorred,  he  would  have  had  yet  greater  cause  to  lament 
the  day  on  which  he  was  born.  It  was  his  revived  greatness  that 
brought  this  change  about,  and  made  him  an  object  of  superstitious 
adoration.  The  Lesghian  Andi  seem  to  be  the  only  people  among 
the  northern  Khitan  who  made  him  their  supreme  god  under  the 
name  of  Zob,  but  the  Latin  Jove  is  likely  the  same  word,  picked 
up  from  the  Hittite  Opici  of  Campania.  That  doubtful  honour 
was  conferred  more  largely  upon  his  father  Paseach  and  his  son 
Hanoch,  as  the  Circassian  Pkhah,  the  Lesghian  Betschet,  the 
Mordwin  Paas  and  Shkipaas,the  MaskokiEfikisa,and  the  Peruvian 
Apachic;  and  as  the  Circassian  Antsha,  Basque  Jainko,  and  Koriak 
Angan.  Zophar  the  Naamathite,  the  son  of  Nacham,  or  Nagam, 
who  was  the  father  of  Keilah,  or  Kagilah  the  Garmite,  is  men- 
tioned by  Apollonius  of  Rhodes,  who  calls  him  Nasamraon 
Caphareus.^  Apollonius  makes  a  nymph  Acacallis,  who  is  Kagilah, 
the  mother  by  Apollo  of  Garamas,  who  is  Garmi,  the  son  of 
Kagilah  ;  and  this  Garamas  is  the  father  of  Nasammon  Caphareus, 
or  Zophar,  the  son  of  Nacham.  The  Abbo  Santa  Maria  picked  up 
some  remarkable  e^enealoo-ies  in  Seneo^ambia  relatinoj  to  the  his- 
tory  of  the  ancient  world,  which  contain  elements  of  truth  mingled 
with  much  fable  or  confusion  of  fact.  In  one  of  his  Egyptian 
dynasties  he  has  the  name  Kaphranahom,  but,  unhappily,  it  is  in 
the  midst  of  elements  having  no  connection  with  the  Zocharite 
11  ne.^      It  is  useful,  however,  as  showing  the  constant  association 


■'    1  Chron.  iv.  19  ;  Argdiiaiitic-s,  iv.  1400,  mq. 

'    La  Tradition  Vivaiite  des  N(,'gres,  Actcs  dc  la  Socii'te  d'Etbiioi,'rapliit\  Tome  iii 
Paris,  1X71,  ]>.  7'J. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  157 

of  Zophar  and  Naham  as  in  Nasammon  Caphareus,  and  indicates 
that  Capernaum,  or  Capharnaura,  preserved  the  name  of  the  friend 
of  the  patriarch,  as  the  Carian  Bargylia  became  a  memorial  of 
Barachel  the  Buzite.  Apollonius  finds  his  Acacallis,  Garamas, 
and  Nasammon  Caphareus  in  Cyrene,  which  is  full  of  traces  of 
the  tribe  of  Zochar,  but  which  was  also  a  genuine  Greek  colony 
founded  by  the  Ekronites  or  Buzites.  The  story  of  this  colony 
told  by  the  father  of  history,  in  which  Battus  represents  a  Buz, 
and  Arcesilaus,  a  related  Aharhel,  is  in  entire  consistency  with 
the  union  of  the  three  lines  set  forth  in  the  fifth  chapter  of  First 
Chronicles  ;  but  to  follow  out  every  trail  indicated  in  the  march 
of  early  Hittite  history  would  be  to  tell  the  story  of  all  the 
ancient  world.^ 

Job,  in  all  probability,  removed  from  Oboth  in  the  land  of 
Uz  to  Memphis  in  Egypt,  where  his  father  was  honoured  as 
Pthah,  and  himself,  perhaps,  as  Hapi  the  god  of  the  Nile.  His 
family  was  one  of  river  namers.  In  northern  Syria,  Paseach's 
name  was  given  to  the  Oronte.s  as  the  Thapsacus.  and  the 
Assyrian  Physcus,  on  which  Opis  was  situated,  honoured  him. 
Hanoch  or  Chanoch  named  the  Ganges,  the  Yenisei,  and  the 
Canif'nga  or  Mohawk  river  in  the  State  of  New  York.  So  Job 
replaced  the  Nahaliel  or  Nile  name  derived  from  Jehaleleel  with 
his  own  as  Hapi.  Far  away  in  Siberia  it  was  transported  to 
name  the  Obi,  and  in  the  New  World  the  Ohio  was  originally 
the  beautiful  mouth.  The  removal  to  Egypt  took  place  in  the 
reign  of  Jabez,  who  gathered  around  his  court  a  galaxy  of  noble 
men.  In  Memphis  proper  or  in  the  military  suburb  of  Sakkara, 
Aharhel  the  son  of  Harum  married  Job's  grand-daughter,  the 
daught(!r  of  his  son  Hanoch  and  sister  of  the  older  Joel,  from 
whom  descended  in  successive  generations  Shemaiah,  Gog,  Shimei, 
Micah,  Reaiah,  Baal  and  Beerah.''  But  the  son  of  Aharhel  was 
the  younger  Joel  named  after  his  maternal  uncle,  a  ti'ue  Hyllus 
son  of  Hercules,  and  his  son  was  Shema  the  father  of  Azaz  and 
tlio  grandfather  of  Bela.''  These  twin  lines  of  Paseach  and 
Pegeiu   were,   with   the    Buzites  of  Eker,   the    wise  men   of  tlu; 


1 1. T.. (lot.  iv.  ].>>  :  1  Cluon.  v. 
1  Chroii.  V.  4. 
1  Cliroii.  V.  8. 


158  .     THE   HITTITES. 

Hycsos  line,  and  the  soldiers  who  gave  it  victory  for  a  century 
over  all  its  foes.  By  the  commingling  of  the  two  stories,  known 
among  the  Greeks  as  the  Trojan  War  and  The  Seven  against 
Thebes,  in  British  tradition,  the  posterity  of  Hanoch  became  the 
Saxon  Hengist,  enemy  of  Hadar  or  Eidiol,  confused  with  Conan 
Meriadawc,  or  Baalchanan  the  holder  of  sovereignty  in  Gebalene. 
When  Philistim  and  Caphtorim  were  at  length  driven  out  of 
the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  the  three  races,  leaving  a  body  of 
Ekronites  in  Philistia  and  the  plains  of  Sharon  to  the  north  of  it, 
made  their  way  to  Bashan,  the  old  home  of  the  Paseachites,  and 
there  began  the  foundation  of  that  Hittite  sovereignty  which 
Carchemish  and  Thapsacus  presided  over  in  Mesopotamia  and 
Syria.  There  is  one  fact  associated  with  this  abode  of  the  tribes 
that  the  historian  can  hardly  record  without  regret ;  it  is  that 
Og  or  Gog,  for  the  name  begins  with  an  ay  in,  the  King  of 
Bashan  who  fell  by  the  arms  of  Joshua,  was  of  the  line  of 
Paseach  and  Job,  for  in  no  other  connection  does  the  name  occur, 
and  the  testimony  is  clear  that  he  who  reigned  in  Ashtaroth  and 
Edrei  was  of  the  remnant  of  the  Rephaim.  Yet  this  Og  can 
hardly  have  been  the  Gog  of  the  genealogy,  who,  unless  some 
generations  containing  names  of  no  historical  importance  have 
been  suppressed,  is  the  fourth  in  descent  from  Job.  Gog 
may,  however,  be  the  first  Lydian  Gyges,  the  contemporary  and 
friend  of  Magnes,  who  is  Meon  or  Megon  the  great-grandson  of 
Hebron  the  son  of  Mareshah,  and  the  father  of  Beth  Zur.  The 
traditions  of  Job,  or,  to  use  the  Iroquois  name,  Hiawatha,  must 
have  survived  among  these  men  of  Bashan  constituting  the 
strength  of  the  Hittite  tribes,  as  by  them  they  were  led  to  seek 
continually  the  revival  and  extension  of  their  confederacy. 

For  the  history  of  the  Hittites  in  Canaan  and  the  neighbour- 
ing countries  prior  to  the  conquest  of  Joshua,  the  Egj^ptian 
monuments  are  the  chief  authority.  Without  their  aid,  tradition 
could  only  furnish  vague  conjecture.  Unhappily,  however,  there 
are  no  Egyptian  records  of  conquest  in  Palestine  giving  definite 
information  before  the  reign  of  Israel's  oppressor,  the  third 
Thothnies  and  second  Ramescs.  In  an  inscription  of  Una,  a  high 
officer  of  Teta  and  Pepi  Merenra,  the  Anm  of  the  Herusha  are 
spoken  of  as   an   inimical   and   conquered    people,  but  the  region 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  159 

occupied  by  them  is  not  indicated.  The  conjunction  of  the 
names  Amu  and  Herusha  suggests  the  Ma  Reshethites  of  the 
Emim,  who  were  no  Joubt  enemies  of  Hadad  ;  but  their  being 
mentioned  along  with  the  land  of  Khent  or  Kenuz  and  with  the 
negroes,  makes  the  identification  doubtful.^  The  first  inscription 
that  records  northern  warfare  is  that  of  Aahmes  the  son  of  Bana. 
His  father,  Bana,  son  of  Reant,  had  been  an  officer,  of  Sekenen 
Ra  of  the  ancient  line  of  Jaaken,  who  alone  disputed  sover- 
eignty with  the  great  Aahpeti.  Aahmes  entered  the  service 
of  Neb-Pehti-Ra,  who  should  from  his  name  be  Ziph  the  grand- 
son of  Jabez  or  Aahpeti,  but  who  is  generally  made  the  same  as 
Aahmes  or  Mesha,  the  father  of  Ziph.  He  also  served  under 
Amenophis  I.  or  Meonothai,  the  adopted  son  of  Mesha,  and  under 
Thothmes  I.  or  the  first  Tahath,  who  was  Mesha's  nephew,  being 
the  son  of  Bered  and  a  daughter  of  Jabez.  All  of  these  so-called 
kings  were  vicegerents  under  Jabez  who  survived  them.  It 
follows  that  the  war  in  which  Aaiimes  took  part  was  not  carried 
on  aofainst  the  Hvcsos,  inasmuch  as  Jabez  was  himself  the  chief 
Hycsos  Pharaoh.  He  fought  in  Nubia  and  apparently  against 
the  revolting;  Kenezzites  of  that  region,  but  his  chief  cam- 
paign  was  at  Avaris  where  warfare  was  carried  on  by  land 
and  by  water.  The  name  of  the  enemy  who  had  taken  pos- 
session of  Avaris  is  not  mentioned,  but  as  a  later  campaign 
was  made  in  Mesopotamia  against  the  Rutennu,  and  as  Sharhana, 
supposed  to  be  Sharuhen  in  southern  Palestine,  was  a  city  to 
which  the  expelled  from  Avaris  were  followed,  a  city  that  lay 
within  the  domain  of  the  Geshurites,  the  inference  is  that  the 
Zerethites  or  Cherethites  were  the  offenders,  an  inference  justified 
h)y  the  maritime  superiority  of  that  people.''  The  Zerethites 
had  been  expelled  from  Egypt  shortly  after  the  reign  of  Ziph  or 
Cheops,  and  their  fortunes  had  been  shared  by  part  of  the  family 
of  the  Kenite  Ezra  or  Gezra,  which  had  been  allied  with  them 
throuf'h  the  union  of  Ezra's  son,  Mered,  to  Bithia  the  daughter 
of  Cheops.  Thus  the  Geshurites  descended  from  the  Clierethite 
Jesher,  the  Gezrites  of  Ezra,  and  the  Amalekites,  were  the  chief 
occupants  of  southern  Palestine  during  the  Hycsos  or  Acliuza- 


R.cciii,-  of  tljf  PiiHt,  ii.  'A. 

K«(VT(J>  of  the  Piist,   vi.  5. 


160  THE   HITTITES, 

mite  rule  in  Egyyt.  Sisyphus  made  another  attempt  to  ascend 
the  hill  of  Egyptian  sovereignty.  In  the  language  of  the 
Hittites  this  attempt  would  be  represented  as  a  rolling  of  the 
ball  towards  the  goal  of  the  enemy,  for  much  of  their  historical 
imagery  is  taken  from  the  national  game  played  still  in  the 
Pyrenees,  on  the  plains  of  Siberia,  in  Japan,  and  all  over  the 
North  American  continent,  and  popularly  known  as  Lacrosse. 
The  Quiche  traditions  frequently  set  forth  warlike  contests  as 
games  of  ball.  The  Zerethites  then  had  summoned  the  players, 
including  the  descendants  of  Zabu  and  Apil  Sin,  the  Asherites  or 
Assuru  of  Assyria,  the  men  of  Ardon  or  the  Rutennu  of  Mesopo- 
tamia, their  brethren,  the  Geshurites  of  the  south,  the  Midianites 
or  Zimrites  preparing  to  ascend  the  throne  of  Gebalene,  the 
Gezrites  of  Kenite  birth,  and  the  Amalekites  whose  supremacy 
as  the  first  of  the  nations  was  gone  ;  and  with  these  they  tossed 
the  ball  of  defiance  towards  the  Hycsos  goal  of  Avaris.  Between 
the  Ari.sh  and  Avaris  lay  the  men  of  Rosh,  descendants  of 
Mareshah  and  sons  of  Hebron,  and  near  at  hand  wei'e  the 
Heraclidae  descended  from  Regera,  the  Maachathites  of  Relet, 
and  the  Goshenites  of  Geshan.  These  defenders  of  Egypt  could 
not  withstand  the  shock  of  the  men  of  the  north  ;  they  were 
driven  back  before  the  players  of  the  game  of  death,  and  reached 
Avaris,  the  stronghold  of  the  empire,  only  in  time  to  find  the 
Cherethite  fleet  in  occupation  of  the  city.  Thus  the  stone  was 
rolk"]  up.  and  the  ball  planted  in  the  enemy's  goal.  Rut  Sisyphus 
was  to  meet  Sisyphus.  Another  Ziph,  a  second  Typhon,  grand- 
son of  Aahpeti,  stemmed  the  invading  tide  by  land  and  sea,  and 
the  pestilence  was  driven  out  of  Avaris  and  back  to  its  Palestinian 
home.  The  revenge  game  was  well  played,  and  the  Hycsos  ball 
went  triumphantly  through  and  through  the  goals  of  Cherethite 
ambition  and  sovereignty.  This  was  probably  the  time  when 
the  Rosh.  smarting  under  recent  defeat,  captured  Kirjath  Arba 
and  caller!  it  Hel:)ron  after  the  son  of  their  eponym,  when 
Tappuah.  Maon,  and  Beth  Zur,  were  colonized  or  garrisoned  l)y 
them,  and  wlu-n  they  planted  Mareshah  in  the  vicinity  of 
SliJirnlien,  with  Kubeibeh  near  at  hand  to  mark  the  ancient 
friends! lip  !)etween  tluit  hero  and  Zobebah  the  mother  of  Jabez, 
their   Pliaraoli.     Tlie   Captain  General   of  marines  followed  the 


THE  HITTITES  IX  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  161 

victorious  Egyptian  armies  northward  into  Mesopotamia,  and 
helped  to  smite  the  Cherethite  Rutennu  in  that  distant  land. 
This  appears  to  have  been  the  chief  disturbing  event  in  the  long 
reign  of  Jabez.  In  it  also  may  be  seen  the  beginning  of  the 
long  struggle  between  barbaric  cruelty  and  superstition  and  the 
principles  of  enlightenment  and  humanity,  which  marked  the 
life  of  Saul  of  Rehoboth,  after  whose  death  the  Zerethite  became 
triumphant,  and,  under  the  son  of  Achhor,  stained  all  the  altars 
of  Palestine  with  the  blood  of  human  victims.  The  Dardanian 
war  that  followed  was  more  than  a  quarrel  over  a  faithless 
woman  :  it  was  a  contest  between  light  and  darkness,  a  i-eliu'ious 
war  fraught  with  the  most  momentous  consequences  to  the  human 
race.  Had  Sisyphus,  lord  of  Assvria,  Bal)ylonia,  and  Palestine, 
succeeded  in  rolling  his  stone  up  the  pyramids  and  in  planting  it 
there,  had  the  tribes  of  Tollan  driven  their  ball  through  the 
Chichimec  goal,  the  world  would  have  fallen  vnider  the  domina- 
tion of  the  most  bloodthirsty  race  that  ever  disgraced  humanity, 
and  have  been  bound  in  tiie  chains  of  the  vilest  superstition 
that  ever  fettered  the  soul  of  man.  Thanks  to  young  Ziph  and 
the  long-suffering  Saul  and  the  gallant  warrior  Hadai-,  the  Zere- 
thite power  of  darkness  was  repelled,  again  and  again,  in  its 
attempts  at  Egyptian  conquest,  and  was  banished  from  the  soil 
of  Palestine.  But  the  atrocities  committed  Viy  the  great  Assyrian 
conquerors  in  after  days  prove  that  the  murderous  spirit  was  not 
extinct  in  the  Cherethite. 

Aahmes,  tiie  marine,  connects  the  name  of  Thothnios  I.,  who 
is  Tahath,  son  of  Bered,  and  grandson  of  Jabez  tlirough  his 
motlier  whom  the  Greeks  call  Stlienoboea  and  the  Persians 
Sen<la]ieh,  with  the  concjuest  of  Mesopotamia  and  ovci'throw  of 
th(;  Rutennu:  and  his  calling  Xeb-Pehti  tlio  justitied  shows  that 
Ziph  had  died  before  this  final  overtlu'ow  took  ])lace.  Another 
AahiiH's  suriiaiiuMl  Pciiuislu'iu  had  been  a  follower  of  Ziph  in 
his  iioi-thern  caiiqiai'jn  and  of  Thothiiies  in  Mesopotamia,  where 
lif  took  twenty-one  hands  of  wnn-ioi's  killed  by  him,  for  which 
h<'  was  i"e\\ai-de(l  with  gold  armlets,  collars,  bi'aci'l(>ts,  an 
oi-nanicnteil  sword,  and  two  gold  war  axes.'"  I'nder  the  second 
Thothnies,  gramlson  of  tin-   lii'st  and  the  husliand  of   Mati-ed,  the 

1"    Ji,<-.,nl'-..f  til-  I'a-t,   iv.  7. 
(11) 


162  THE    HITTITES. 

daughter  of  Mezahab,  he  fought  against  the  Shasu  or  Shuhites, 
the  race  to  M-hieh  Ma  Reshah  belonged.  These,  however,  must 
be  the  Shuhites  who  remained  behind  in  tlie  land  of  Moab  and 
in  Jashubi-Lehem,  the  linen  workers,  potters  and  gardeners  of 
these  countries.  These  Shuhites  probably  shared  the  fortunes  of 
the  Zerethites,  for  their  home  was  in  Mesopotamia,  south  of  the 
Nairi,  and  in  Babylonia,  in  early  Assyrian  days.  They  were  in 
two  divisions,  the  elder  branch,  descended  from  Er  the  father  of 
Lecah,  being  the  Lakai  of  the  Assyrian  inscriptions,  and  the 
junior,  comprising  the  posterity  of  Ashbea,  Jokim,  Chozebah, 
Joash,  and  Saraph,  being  the  Sukhi  or  Shuhites  proper,  of  the 
same  documents.  They  are  often  connected  with  the  Amalekites, 
with  whom  they  may  have  made  common  cause  against  the 
Egyptians  in  the  Sinaitic  peninsula.  They  appear  to  have  been 
a  feeble  folk,  for  Aahmes  Pennishem  took  so  many  prisoners  of 
the  Shasu  that  he  did  not  care  to  reckon  them.  But  he  received 
a  silver  war  axe,  with  more  bracelets  and  collars,  for  his  conduct 
in  the  Shuhite  campaign.  These  cultivated  Shuhites,  the  first  to 
excel  in  the  useful  arts,  became  the  savajxe  and  intractable  Sacae 
of  later  generations.  Thothmes  II.  fought  no  doubt  the  battles 
of  Mezahab,  his  father-in-law,  and  in  the  same  service  must 
Amenophis  II.  or  Ophrah  have  made  the  campaign  recorded  by 
him  in  the  temple  of  Amada  in  Nubia.  The  campaign  was  in 
the  land  of  Asshur,  from  which  he  brought  the  bodies  of  seven 
slain  kings,  one  of  which  was  set  up  at  Napata  to  let  the  negroes 
see  the  prowess  of  their  monarch,  but  the  other  six  were  sus- 
pended on  the  walls  of  Thebes,  an  evidence  that  the  line  of 
Jabez  was  still  in  power  in  the  city  of  No-Ammon.  Then  came 
a  period  of  anarchy  in  Egypt.  Mezahab  died  or  disappeared, 
but  the  Hycsos  would  not  acknowledge  Tahath  as  their  king. 
With  Ophrah  of  Elephantine  and  Saul  of  Abydos,  the  husband 
of  ^latred  fought  against  the  Thebans,  but  suffered  disaster  at 
the  hands  of  the  gallant  Philistines  and  the  Heraclidae  and 
descendants  of  Paseach,  who  bore  arms  with  them.  Saul  tran- 
(|uilized  Gebalene  for  a  tijne,  but  who  can  tell  wliat  hordes  from 
Western  Palestine  poured  in  upon  Lower  Egy'pt  during  the  pericjd 
that  the  struggle  lasted  in  the  south  ?  Certain  it  is  that  the 
Zei'ethites   won   back   their   possessions    in    Palestine,  and  set  up 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  163 

their  strongholds  on  the  eastern  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea.  They 
retook  Hebron  and  called  it  Kirjath  Arba.  But  there  is  no 
record,  save  that  which  Josephus  preserves  from  Manetho,  which 
gives  any  information  concerning  the  tumultuary  army  that 
invaded  Upper  Egypt  and  drove  the  kings  of  that  country  into 
Ethiopia.  Josephus  calls  their  leader  Osarsiph,  a  priest  of 
Heliopolis,  and  identifies  him  with  Moses.  It  has  been  already 
suggested  that  the  name  may  be  a  cori-uption  of  Zur-vuna  or 
Beth  Zur,  the  descendant  of  Ma  Reshah,  which,  if  it  were  estab- 
lished, would  make  the  army  of  iconoclasts  the  raisers  of  the 
siege  of  Thebes  instead  of  an  invading  host  from  Palestine. 

When  Saul  died,  the  Zerethites  and  Zimrites  got  the  upper 
hand  in  Moab  and  Canaan.  The  Hittite  tribes  were  in  a  measure 
subject  to  Baalchanan,  his  successor,  as  king  of  Gebalene,  but  they 
owed  immediate  allegiance,  not  to  that  prince,  but  to  his  father 
Achbor,  known  in  Babylonian  history  as  Isbi-barra,  king  of 
Karrak,  in  Egyptian  as  Sapalala,  or.  Seplul,  grand  duke  of  the 
Kheta,  and  in  India  as  Sisupula,  king  of  Chedi.  Indian  history 
makes  him  subject  to  Jarashandha,  who  is  Baalchanan.  From 
indications  given  in  British  tradition,  as  well  as  by  his  residence 
at  Karrak,  Achbor  is  authenticated  as  a  Temanite  or  Amalekite, 
in  the  language  of  Merlin,  an  Albanian.  While  Achbor  presided 
over  the  council  of  the  allied  Hittite  chiefs,  and  his  son,  Baal- 
chanan, exercised  depotism  in  Gel)alene,  a  young  warrior  arose  in 
southern  Egypt,  whose  career  has  been  already  sketched,  Hadar, 
the  son  of  Saul.  Sunnnoning  his  faithful  and  warlike  Bedrothites,. 
he  went  to  the  help  of  Thothmes,  whose  daughter,  ^lehetabel,  he 
marricil,  and  gained  over  to  the  side  of  that  monarch  his  brother- 
in-law,  Michael  of  Xois.  The  Kenez/itcs  under  Ophrah,  oi-  his 
son  Ishgi,  swelled  the  army  of  Thothmes,  who,  with  three  kings 
in  his  train,  once  more  besieged  Thebes,  and  this  time  successfully. 
Philistim  and  Caphtoi'ini  capitulated  and  tlien,  step  by  step,  they 
were  driven  noi'thward  by  the  ever  vietorious  Hadar,  hardly 
recognized  .on  tin;  moiniments  as  Thothmes  T\''.  Then  Thothmes  II. 
assumed,  as  the  head  of  a  new  Egyptian  dynasty,  the  title  of 
Kanicsi'.s  I.  As  such  it  is  stated  at  Kai'iiak  that  he  was  the  first 
to  seek  out  th(;  Ilittites  in  the  \allcy  of  the  Orontes,  where  he 
nia<le  a  treaty  of  peact^  with  their  king,  Se])lul,  or  Achbor.     The 


]64  THE    HITTITES. 

Orontes  is  a  mistake,  and  cannot  possibly  be  the  place  or  river 
called  Hanruta.  In  the  case  of  Rameses  I.,  if  it  denote  a  river,  it 
is  probably  the  Arnon  in  Moab,  some  of  the  southern  streams  of 
which  are  not  far  from  Zerkeh  and  Kerak,  where  Achbor  held 
state,  within  easy  distance  of  the  Jebel  el  Tarfuyeh,  or  original 
Delphi.  There  is  no  record  of  any  fighting  on  this  occasion. 
Philistim  and  Caphtorim  were  quite  enough  to  keep  Rameses 
engaged,  so  that  the  treaty  between  him  and  Seplul,  brought 
about  through  the  good  offices  of  Hadar  and  Michael,  and  of  the 
Kenezzite  Ishgi  who  took  home  to  Elephantine  the  fair-haired 
and  blue-eyed  Zimrite  princess  Taia,  was  formed  for  the  purpose 
of,  keeping  the  Hycsos  Hittites  and  their  Japhetic  defenders  in 
check.  The  Zerethites  remembered  how  the  line  of  Jabez  had 
driven  their  ancestors  of  the  family  of  Cheops  from  the  throne  of 
Memphis,  how  Ziph,  or  Xeb-Pehti,  had  repelled  them  in  their 
attempt  to  regain  the  valley  of  the  Nile,  and  how  the  descendants 
of  MaReshah  had  overspread  southern  Palestine  and  made  their 
colonial  metropolis  in  Hebron.  There  was,  therefore,  no  love  lost 
between  these  Zerethites  and  the  expelled  from  Egypt,  who  now 
lay  between  them  and  the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  all  the  way  from 
Hazerim  in  the  wilderness  to  Gaza,  in  which  country  they  had 
wreaked  their  vengeance  on  the  Kenezzites  who  had  helped  to 
(h'ive  them  out  Ijy  exterminating  their  relatives  the  Avim.  This 
act  of  vengeance  on  the  worshippers  of  Baal  Peor  would  consti- 
tute another  reason  for  enmity  between  these  two  branches  of 
the  Hittkite  race. 

Rameses  I.  died,  and  the  reign  of  young  Rameses  II.,  other- 
wise Thothmes  III.,  began,  and  Hadar  as  Thothmes  IV.  fought 
the  battles  of  the  enslaver  of  Israel,  aided  by  his  wife,  Mehetabel, 
the  (^ueen  Regent.  Were  it  not  for  tradition  it  would  be  impos- 
sible to  construct  the  history  of  Hittite  Palestine  from  the  Egyp- 
tian monuments,  for  Rameses  II.  industriously  chiselled  out  the 
name  of  his  sister  and  her  husband  on  the  monuments  they 
erecte(i,  and  ascribed  their  warlike  achievements  to  his  l)oastful 
self.^^  The  great  e\ent  of  Hadar's  life  was  the  Zerethite,  or 
])ardanian,  war.  which  placed  liim  on  the  throne  of  Gebalene, 
coiiiinoiily  known  as  the  Siege  of  Trcjy  ;   which,  as  told  by  Homer, 

'I    Kawliiison's   HcrMili>tiis,  ajip.  bk.  ii.  ch.  8. 


THE  HITTITES  IX  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  165 

jjrotesquely  mixes  up  persons,  places,  and  dates,  in  immortal  verse. 
Yet  tiie  ground-work  is  well  vouched  for  by  many  widely  separ- 
ated traditions  in  Greece,  India,  Britain,  and  in  the  New  World. 
As  a  result  ot"  the  pacification  that  took  place  when  Rameses  made 
his  treaty  with  Seplul,  or  Achbor,  his  son  Baalchanan  king  of 
Gebalene,  visited  Michael,  the  brother-in-law  of  Hadar,  in  his 
Xoite  kingdom,  and  requited  his  host's  hospitality  by  carrying 
away  his  bride,  whom  the  widely  divergent  Greek  and  British 
traditions  concur  in  calling  Helen.  Baalchanan,  the  Parisian,  as 
a  descendant  of  Peresh  the  Gileadite,  and  an  Alexander,  as  the 
Harischandra  of  the  Indian  writers,  thus  combined  in  himself  the 
pei'sons  of  Priam  and  his  son.  This  outrage  called  Michael  and 
Hadar  to  arms,  and  with  Hadar  went  his  son  Shimon,  the  Aga- 
memnon of  the  Greeks.  So  far  as  can  be  gathered  from  tradition, 
for  no  published  Egyptian  text  gives  the  history  of  this  war, 
Hadar  and  Michael  were  aided  by  the  Philistines  and  the  expelled 
Caphtorim,  including  the  Ammono-Hittite  line  of  Jabez  soon  to 
be  known  as  Moschi  and  Cappadocians,  the  direct  Achuzamite 
line  of  Acharchel  or  men  of  (Jarchemish,  the  Posh  of  MaReshah, 
the  Paseachites  descended  from  Job,  and  the  Maachathites  of 
Pelet's  son,  Maachah.  Hadar's  victory  had  the  effect  of  driving 
all  the  Zerethites,  with  the  exception  of  those  who  dwelt  on  the 
borders  of  Egypt,  and  who,  if  Homer's  Catalogue  of  the  Ships  is 
to  be  relied  on,  fought  as  Cretans  against  their  Dardanian  brethren, 
out  of  southern  Palestine.  Another  exception  is  Anak,  the  son 
of  Arba,  who  held  out  in  the  city  of  Hebi'ou.  The  Geshui-ites 
took  refuge  for  a  time  in  the  Havu'an,  but  most  of  the  Zerethites 
betook  themselves  to  Assyria,  where  their  family  was  still  supreme. 
Ibular  reigned  in  Edom,  its  last  king,  for  during  his  reign,  or  at 
its  close,  a  liund  of  inva'lei's,  whose  home  is  linrd  to  determine, 
entei-ed  the  land  of  Moali.  They  are  called  Hornets  in  the  trans- 
lations of  the  Hebrew  Scri[)tures,  because  that  is  the  Hebi-ew 
ni'iining  cjf  tlieii-  name,  but  the  word  \arions]y  rendered  Zoi'ite, 
Zoi'iitliite,  Zai-eathite,  ilenotes  the  Jteople  \vlio  founded  Zorali,  on 
till'  hordei-s  of  i^liilistin.'-  'I'li<'y  were  Ifoi-ites,  or  Anioi'ites.  des- 
cended fi'oni  Ileaiidi  and  .Man;diatli,  the  |ii'incipal  sons  ot'  the  ances- 

'■'■  1  C'luMii.  ii.  'ui,  .")}  ;  iv.  L'.  S'M-  my  .nticlf  .m  Tln^  lloi-iii'ts  ..f  Scri|itun-,  l'r»-liy- 
tf-riaii  ijn:ut<rl\-  aiiil  I'l  iii<-it'.n  lti-\iiw,  Oct.  1^7."),  |>.  (177:  Ivm'iI.  wiii.  2S  ;  1  )cul. 
vii.  20  ;  .U,-\k  x.\iv.  12. 


166  THE   HITTITES. 

tral  Shobal,  and  allied  with  the  family  of  Bethlehem,  descended 
from  Manahath's  grandson,  Chedorlaomer.  The  traditions  which 
bring  the  Phoenicians  from  the  islands  and  Arabian  shores  of 
the  Persian  Gulf  lelate  probably  to  these  allied  Horites,  traces 
of  whose  presence  are  found  in  the  geographical  nomencla- 
ture of  that  region.  Pressed  upon  by  other  tribes,  Ishmaehite 
and  Midianite,  they  made  their  way  northward,  and  came  in 
countless  swarms  into  the  land  vacated  by  the  Zerethites.  But 
they  did  not  come  alone  ;  the  Moabite  and  the  Ammonite  accom- 
panied them.  Michael  was  the  last  of  the  Xoite  dynasty,  and  if 
we  are  to  credit  the  Maya  legends,  the  Moabites  were  his  subjects 
in  the  Delta.  Wliether  they  were  expelled  by  Rameses,  or  were 
transported  by  Hadar  to  the  land  they  had  helped  him  to  acquire 
or  voluntarily  left  their  home  in  the  Delta  for  a  pleasanter  abode 
among  the  rivers  that  flow  into  the  Dead  Sea  and  the  Jordan,  we 
cannot  tell.  But  they  came,  the  Ammonites  to  the  old  dwelling 
place  of  the  Zuzim  in  Ham,  and  the  Moabites,  separating  from 
their  tyrannical  brethren  to  begin  a  national  life,  in  the  land  so 
well  identified  with  their  name  ;  while,  all  around  them,  swarmed 
the  Amorite  Zorathites.  Moab  and  Ammon  were  strong  enough 
to  resist  the  attempts  of  the  Hornets  to  displace  them,  but  Zippor, 
king  of  Moab,  could  not  prevent  the  southern  Amorites  depriving 
him  of  part  of  his  territory.  Moses  has  preserved  the  Amorite 
war-song  that  celebrates  this  conquest: 
"  Come  into  Heshbon, 

Let  the  city  of  Sihon  be  built  and  prepared  ; 

For  there  is  a  fire  gone  out  of  Heshbon, 

A  flame  from  the  city  of  Sihon  ; 

It  hath  consumed  Ar  of  Moab, 

The  lords  of  the  high  places  of  Arnon. 

AVoe  to  thee,  Moab  ! 

Thou  art  undone,  0  people  of  Chemosh  ; 

He  hath  given  his  sons  that  escaped  and  his  daughters 

Into  captivity  unto  Sihon,  the  Amorite  king. 

AVe  have  shot  at  them  ; 

Hcslibon  is  perislied  even  unt(^  Dibon, 

We  have  laid  them  waste  even  unto  Nophah,  which  reacheth 
unto  Medeba."  '^ 

'■*   Niimlt.  xxi.  '27. 


THE  HITTITES  IX  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  167 

The  name  of  Heshbon  is  associated  with  that  of  Eshban,  a  son  of 
Dishon,  the  Horite.^*  Another  band  of  Amorites  entered  Gilead 
and  Bashan,  but  they  do  not  seem  to  have  exercised  royalty  there, 
for,  when  Israel  conquered  Canaan,  their  kinf^  was  Og,  or  Gog,  of 
the  family  of  Paseach.  They  must,  however,  have  contributed 
largely  to  the  population  and  soldier}'  of  tiie  Paseachite  kingdom, 
as  Og  is  called  the  king  of  the  Amorites.^'^ 

Crossing  the  Jordan  into  Canaan,  the  Amorites  swept  all 
before  them  to  the  borders  of  the  Philistines,  and  even  planted 
Zorah  and  Eshtaol  in  the  midst  of  that  warlike  people.  They  drove 
the  Hittites  out  of  Beeroth,  Hebron  and  Lachish,  and  perhaps 
from  Jarmuth,  although  it  is  more  probable  that  it  was  a  Jerah- 
meelite  city.  The  solitary  Amorite  king  of  Jerusalem,  whom  the 
sacred  character  of  his  city  had  invested  with  respect  and  granted 
immunity  from  conquest, hailed  the  restoration  of  Horite  dominion, 
and  in  recompense  for  his  welcome  was  recognized  as  the  head  of 
the  Amoi-ite  confederacy  of  kings.  Then  the  Hittites  sufi'ered. 
Threescore  and  ten  kings  gathered  the  crumbs  that  fell  from 
Adoni  Bezek's  table,  mutilated  men,  whose  miserable  imprison- 
ment enhanced  the  warlike  reputation  of  the  Amorite  monarch  ; 
and  most  of  these,  if  not  all,  were  Hittites.  The  Anakim  alone 
remained  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hebron,  in  which  the  Amorite 
H(jham  reigned,  and  the  rest  of  the  Hittites  were  to  be  found 
north  of  Samaria.  But  there  was  a  remnant,  and,  by  no  means  a 
small  one,  of  those  who  had  long  held  Egyptian  sovereignty,  on 
the  north-western  or  Libyan  border  of  Egypt,  among  whom  many 
tribes  of  Midian  were  found,  and  these  were  the  ancestors  of  the 
Berber  tribes  of  northern  Africa.  The  centres  of  the  Egyptian  wars 
with  the  Hittites  in  the  time  of  the  great  Rameses  were  Kadesh 
Naphtali  above  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  and  Megiddo  on  the  river 
Kishon.  B(jth  of  these  were  Achuzamite  foundations,  the  foi'uier 
lj<-iiig  named  after  the  ancestral  Gazez,  the  father  of  .Jachdai,  and 
tli(,'  latter,  after  Maachah,  Jachdai's  grandson.  They  were  thus 
assuci;ited  with  the'  leading  Hittite  tribe,  which  afti'rwards  made 
(Jarclieiiiish  the  sc'at  of  its  authoi'ity.  Vet  Kadesh  was  a  name 
intiti;ute|y   ecmneeted    with    tin;   Aiualekites,  in   whose   tri))e    the 

"  i;.-ii.  xxxvi.  L>(;. 

!■■     .lo^ll.    il.    10. 


168  THE   HITTITES. 

kingship  or  presidency  of  the  Hittite  confederacy  was  at  this 
time  vested.^*^  The  son  and  successor  of  Seplul  as  head  of  the 
Confederacy  was,  according  to  the  Egyptian  monuments,  Mara- 
sara.  and  he  was  followed  in  succession  by  his  two  sons,  Mautenara 
and  Khitasara.^^  It  has  been  already  stated  that  Seplul,  the 
Kenite  Gachbor  and  Babylonian  Isbi-barra,  was  an  Amalekite. 
A  text  of  Sennacherib,  which  mentions  Ispabara,  king  of  Illipi  or 
Albania,  and  his  city,  Akupard.u,  confirms  this  fact.  But  that  same 
text  links  with  Akupardu  another  city,  called  Marugarti.^^  There 
is  only  one  other  geographical  name  belonging  to  the  Hittites  men- 
tioned in  the  Assyrian  inscriptions  that  comes  as  near  as  Maru- 
garti  does  to  Marasara,  and  that  is  Mairsuru,  which  is  probably 
the  same  place,  for,  although  Sbalmanezer  assigns  it  to  Kharru 
and  not  to  Albania,  the  Cyrus  river,  which  bears  the  name  Kharru, 
constituted  Albania's  southern  boundary.^^  It  seems  that  Mair- 
suru comes  nearest  to  the  original  name,  for  among  the  Alani, 
who  were  descendants  of  Elon  the  Amalekite,  appears  a  king 
Beorger,  whom  Cassiodorus  mentions  as  an  invader  of  northern 
Italy.'^*^  But  for  a  remarkable  fragment  of  ancient  histoiy  pre- 
served by  Herodotus,  we  should  have  had  to  look  in  vain  for 
definite  traces  of  Khitasara,  Marasara's  son.  Herodotus  calls  him 
Cytissorus,  but  makes  him  the  son  of  Phrixus  the  Colchian,  a 
name  that  only  connects  with  the  Amalekite  family  in  the  person 
of  Peresh  the  Gilea'iite,  through  whose  descendants  Baalchanan, 
son  of  Achbor,  inherited  the  Dardanian  throne."^^  Strabo  quotes 
Ephorus  to  the  effect  that  this  son  of  Phrixus,  whose  name  he 
abbreviates  to  Cytorus,  was  the  eponym  of  Cytorum  in  Paphla- 
gonia,  a  place  mentioned  by  Homer  in  his  enumeration  of  tlie 
Trojan  forces.-^  The  Temenite,  or  Amalekite,  origin  of  the 
Paphlagonians  has  been  already  indicated.  Few  statements  better 
display  the  remoteness  of  Homer  from  the  events  he  professes  to 
relate  than  those  regarding  the  Paphlagonians.     The  very  name 

"■'  <;cii.  xiv.  7. 

''  Lciiciriiiant's  Manual,  i  ;  Records  of  the  Past,  iv.  27,  seq. 

■'<  KecurdH  of  the  Past,  vii.  (lO. 

'i'  Itecords  of  the  Past,  v.  39. 

■-"'  Cas>iu<lorus,  Cliron.  Rxist.  et  Olyb.  Coss. 

■-'  llen,(i..t.   vii.  T.)7. 

-■-■  Stral).  xii.  'A,  10. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  169 

Paphlagouia  is  a  corruption  of  the  name  of  that  Baalchanan  out 
of  whom  he  makes  Priam  and  Alexander  Paris  ;  but  not  content 
with  this,  he  repeats  the  perfidious  Dardanian  as  Pylaemenes,  the 
Paphlagonian  leader,  and  makes  him  possess  Cytorus,  a  place 
named  after  a  hero  who  can  have  been  but  a  child  in  Baalchanan's 
time.  Still  further  does  the  poet  make  the  Amalekites  do  the 
duty  of  a  stage  army  in  giving  them,  as  Alazonians  fro)n  Alybe, 
Hodius  and  Epistrophus  for  their  commanders.  Valuable  as  the 
poems  of  Homer  are  for  suggestions,  they  are  utterly  untrust- 
worthy as  narratives  of  fact. 

Professor  Rawlinson  thus  translates  the  tradition  which 
Herodotus  records  concerning  Cytissorus.  "  On  his  (Xerxes) 
arrival  at  Alus  in  Achaea,  his  guides,  wishing  to  inform  him  of 
everything,  told  him  the  tale  known  to  the  dwellers  in  those 
parts  concerning  the  temple  of  the  Laphystian  Jupiter — how 
that  Athamas  the  son  of  ^Eolus  took  counsel  with  Ino  and 
plotted  the  death  of  Phrixus ;  and  how  that  afterwards  the 
Achaeans,  warned  by  an  oracle,  laid  a  forfeit  upon  his  postei'ity, 
forbidding  the  eldest  of  the  race  ever  to  enter  into  the  court- 
house (which  they  call  the  people's  house)  and  keeping  watch 
themselves  to  see  the  law  obeyed.  If  one  comes  within  the 
doors,  he  can  never  go  out  again  except  to  be  sacrificed.  Further, 
they  told  him,  how  that  many  persons,  wh'en  on  the  point  of 
being  slain,  are  seized  with  such  fear  that  they  fiee  away  and 
take  refuge  in  some  other  country ;  and  that  these  if  they  come 
back  long  afterwards,  and  are  found  to  be  the  persons  who 
entered  the  court-house,  are  led  forth  covei'ed  with  chaplets.  and 
in  a  grand  })i-ocession,  and  are  sacrificed.  This  forfeit  is  paid  by 
the  descendants  of  Cytissorus  the  son  of  Phrixus,  because,  when 
the  Achaeans  in  ol>edience  to  an  oracle  niaile  Athamas  the  son 
of  /Eolus  tlK.'ir  sin-oflering  anil  were  about  to  slay  him,  Cytissorus 
came  h'oin  Aca  in  Colchis  and  rescued  Athamas,  l»y  which  deed 
he  brouirht  the  anger  of  the  god  upon  his  own  i)osterity.'"-'*  This 
fxti'acjrdinai'y  stoi'y  lidongs  clearly  to  the  Anialekitcs.  who- 
thi'ough  tlirii-  King  iiusliani,  ac<|uin'd  in  adilition  to  their  other 
names  that  of  Os,  Ossetes,  Huzites,  or  Achaeans,  and  their  Alus 
is  a  reminiscence  of    Elon.      The  Lajihvstian  .lupitei"   nnist,  there- 

•■••    Kauliii-.n'-  H.Todctiis. 


170  THE    HITTITES. 

fore,  take  his  name  from  the  Amalekite  Eliphaz,  and  his  temple 
connected  with  a  court-house  or  house  of  the  people  must  be  the 
same  place  as  the  original  Delphi  of  the  Amphictyonic  League 
on  the  Jebel  el  Tarfuyeh  in  Moab.  There  also  was  what  the 
Iroquois  call  The  Long  House,  which  gave  name  to  the  whole 
confederacy,  who  are  Hodenosaunee  or  the  People  of  the  Long 
House.-^  The  connection  of  Athamas,  Ino  Leucothea,  Phrixus, 
and  Cytissorus,  is,  however,  obscui-e.  Athamas  is  Etam,  the  father 
of  Jezreel,  who  is  associated  with  the  rest  simply  by  the  marriage 
of  Mahalah,  the  third  son  of  Moleketh,  or  Ino  Leucothea,  to  a 
member  of  his  family,  probably  a  daughter  of  Jezreel.  Phrixus, 
again,  is  Peresh,  the  son  of  Gilead,  and  thus  the  nephew  of  Mole- 
keth. As  for  Cytissorus  or  Khitasara,  who  is  long  posterior  to 
the  others,  a  wife  of  his  grandfather,  Achbor,  was  in  all  pro- 
bability a  ofrand-daughter  of  Peresh,  through  whom  her  eldest 
son,  Baalchanan,  inherited  the  Cymro-Dardanian  throne.  Pausa- 
nias  mentions  the  Laphystian  Jupiter  in  Amphictyonic  connec- 
tion, and  states  that  when  Athamas  was  about  to  sacrifice 
Phrixus  and  Helle,  the  sons  of  this  god  sent  a  ram  with  a  golden 
fleece  which  carried  them  away.^^  The  story  refers  to  an  aboli- 
tion of  the  human  sacrifices  that  had  been  instituted  in  the  time 
of  Samlah  of  Masrekah,  in  connection  with  the  act  of  impiety 
that  led  to  the  mourning  of  Meholah  ;  and  to  their  reinstitution 
at  some  period  subsequent  to  the  rule  of  Khitasara  over  the 
Hittite  confederacy.  It  would  appear,  therefore,  that,  whatever 
sanguinary  rites  were  observed  by  individual  Hittite  families, 
such  as  the  Zerethites,  the  Rephaim  and  the  Kenezzites,  these 
were  not  sanctioned  nor  practised  by  the  League,  since  the  time 
tliat  JoV)  and  his  coadjutors  established  it  down  to  the  time  of 
the  death  of  Khitasara,  the  last  Hittite  suzerain  mentioned  by 
the  Egyptians.  The  next  head  of  the  League,  whose  name 
history  records,  is  Jabin,  who  held  court  at  Hazor.  His  name 
and  surroundings  in  Hazor  connect  him  with  the  tribe  of  Zochar, 
wliich  in  his  person  first  emerges  from  obscurity. 

The  records  of  warfare  in  Palestine  during  the  reign  of  the 

'-'    Murgaii,    L<-af,'ue  of   the   Iruquois  ;  llouses   and    Hcjuse   Life  of  the   American 
.\.t)<'ri;,''iii'-s,  Cdiitriljutiims  tu  North  American  l^tliiiology,  \i>l.  iv. 
■•'    I'au.s.   ix.  3-1. 


THF  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  171 

enslaver  of  Israel  comprise  those  attributed  to  Thothmes  III., 
Rameses  II.,  Amenopliis  III.,  and  Seti  Menephtah  ;  the  first  tAvo 
being;  names  of  Bei'iah,  and  the  others  denotinn:  Shimon  and 
Zoheth.  These  inv^aders  of  Palestine  were  at  peace  with  the 
Amorites  who  occupied  the  south  country,  for  we  read  of  no 
opposition  ottered  by  them  to  the  progress  of  the  Egyptian 
armies.  Rameses  was  himself  an  Amoi'ite  and  bore  the  name  of 
Ra,  ancestral  and  divine  among  the  Horites.  Under  the  name  of 
Thothmes  III.  he  records  his  victories  over  the  Hittites  in  two 
regions,  Megiddo  and  Kadesh  :  but  the  latter  he  regfarded  as  the 
Hittite  capital.-^  It  must,  therefore,  have  been  the  stronghold  of 
the  suzerain  whose  name  he  does  not  give,  but  who  was  either 
Marasara,  son  of  Seplul,  or  his  eldest  son  Mautenara.  In 
Megiddo  the  descendants  of  Pelet  dwelt  with  the  allied  Jezreelites. 
The  Kenite  list  only  mentions  the  third  generation  from  Pelet  in 
the  lines  of  Shaaph  and  Sheva,  sons  of  Maachah,  their  sons  being 
Madmnnnah  and  Machbenah.'-"  There  is  geographical  evidence 
that  these  Maacliathites  once  dwelt  in  Moab,  for  Madmen  in  that 
country  is  a  reminiscence  of  Madmannah,  as  well  as  Methymna 
in  Lesbos.  Dimnah  and  Dimon  represent  the  same  name,  for  the 
initial  rn<i  is  the  Hittite  honorific  prefix  :  in  the  same  way 
Machl)enah  is  rendered  hy  Cabbon.  The  men  of  Maachath  or 
Megiddo  became  famous  in  India  as  the  Magadhas,  and  in 
Siberia  the  elder  sons  Sheber  and  Tirchanah  named  Sibir  and 
Turuchansk.  Kadesh  has  been  identified  with  Kadesh  Naphtali. 
When  Seti  ^lenephtah  invaded  Palestine,  he  found  this  city  in 
the  possession  of  the  Amorites.  How  they  obtained  it  we  cannot 
tell.  It  may  have  been  by  force  of  arms,  but  it  is  more  probable 
that  when  Beriah  took  the  city  he  placed  it  in  charge  of  an 
Amorite  rrarrison,  thus  exijellini''  ^SLiutenara  the  Hittite  kino; 
from  his  capital.  Seti  was  a  Hittite  and  was  far  from  being 
ashamed  of  his  parentage.  He  saw  that  no  good  could  come  to 
Egypt  by  harassing  the  triljes  of  his  own  l)l()()(l  and  speech,  and 
accordingly  sought  to  mak(;  jieace  with  them.  iJut  there  covdd 
be  no  ])(;ace  while  tin;  hat('d  Amorite  dwelt  in  the  Hittite  sanc- 
tuary.     Seti  commanded  the*  Amorites  to  evacuati;  Kadesli,  whicii 

'••'"•    licnoriiiunt's  .Manual,  i.  ;    Ki-(;iii<ls  ni  tlif  Past. 
■••■     1  Cliicii.  ii.  -ix,   v.). 


172  THE   HITTITES. 

they  refused  to  do.  Then  a  fierce  contest  took  place,  in  which 
Kadesh  was  at  last  carried  by  assault,  the  Amorites  driven  out, 
and  Mautenara  restored  to  the  seat  of  empire.  A  treaty  was 
afterwards  concluded,  in  terms  of  which  Mautenara  promised  not 
to  engage  in  hostilities  against  the  Egyptians.  Rameses  II. 
fought  a  battle  at  Kadesh  which  is  set  forth  in  the  Third  Sallier 
Papyrus  written  by  the  royal  scribe,  Pentaour,  and  in  the  battle 
pieces  of  that  Pharaoh  at  Thebes  and  Ipsamboul.  It  is  described 
at  full  length,  the  object  being  to  glorify  the  valour  of  Rameses, 
and,  therefore,  presents  many  particulars  which  do  not  appear  in 
the  other  documents.  It  took  place  in  Rameses'  fifth  year  which 
was  probably  the  fifth  of  his  sole  reign  after  the  death  of  his 
sister  Mehetabel.-'^  Thothmes  III.  fought  his  battle  of  Kadesh 
in  ilie  twenty-third  year  of  his  reign  including  his  minority,  and 
it  was  his  first  action.  It'  we  identify  Thothmes  III.  with 
Rameses  II.,  this  will  give  Mehetabel  a  regency  of  eighteen  ^^ears. 
Her  sixteenth  year  has  been  found  recorded  at  the  Wady 
Maghara  and  on  the  great  obelisk  at  Karnak.^'^  Mautenara  was 
King  of  the  Hittite  Confederacy  in  this  war,  which  must,  there- 
fore, precede  the  treaty  of  peace  which  Seti  Menephtah  made 
with  him,  and  which  there  is  no  evidence  that  he  failed  to  keep. 
Seti's  pacification  did  not  last  long,  for  Mautenara  died,  and  his 
brother,  Khitasara,  became  the  Hittite  suzerain.  He  resumed 
warfai-e,  which  lasted  fourteen  years  and  came  to  an  end  by  a 
ti'eaty  of  peace,  the  text  of  which  has  been  preserved  in  a  some- 
what imperfect  state,  and  by  an  alliance  of  Rameses  with  a 
daughter  of  the  Hittite  emperor.^** 

The  story  of  Rameses'  battle  and  siege  of  Kadesh  should  be 
studied  as  a  companion  picture  to  that  set  forth  in  the  eleventh 
chaptf  r  of  Joshua,  which  contains  the  account  of  a  war  with  the 
same  Plittite  ConfL'deracy  a  century  later.  If  Kadesh  be  regarded 
as  a  city  on  the  Orontes,  the  Hittites  must  have  reconquered  north- 
«'i-ii  Palestine  in  the  interval,  for  Joshua  found  them  as  far  south  as 
Samaria.     But  there  is  no  evidence  that  these  Hittites  were  ever 


•*~    Itccords  of  tlie  Past  ;  Touikiiis,  The  Campaign  of  Kameses  II.  Tran.  See.  Bib. 
Airli.  vii.  .'^DO. 

'-''    Sir  <;.  Wilkinson  in  liawlinsoii's  Herodotus,  ajip.  hk.  ii.  cli.  S. 
■■"    R. -cords  of  th.-  Past,  iv.  27. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  173 

driven  into  the  north,  before  the  leader  of  Israel's  host  broke 
their  power  at  the  waters  of  Merom.  Even  after  this  crushin(^ 
defeat  they  did  not  withdraw  to  any  great  distance,  for  early  in 
the  times  of  the  Judges  they  reappeared  under  a  second  Jabin  at 
Harosheth,  not  far  from  the  springs  of  the  Jordan.^^  The  Ivadesh 
of  Thothmes  III.,  Seti  Menephtah,  and  Rameses  II.,  is,  therefore, 
Kadesh  afterwards  called  Naphtali,  south  of  Hazor,  to  the  west 
of  Jordan,  and  about  midwa}^  between  Lake  Merom  and  the  Sea 
of  Galilee.  The  Third  Sallier  Papyrus  places  Kadesh  in  the 
vicinity  of  Shabutuna,  and  the  land  of  the  Amairo  or  Atnorites. 
The  former  is  Safed,  south  of  Kadesh  Naphtali,  and  the  land  of 
the  Amorites  through  which  the  Egyptian  army  probaljly 
marched  into  the  north  was  the  country  east  of  Jordan.  Thei'e 
is  no  evidence  for  an  xVmorite  colony  on  the  Orontes.  The  names 
of  Kino-  Mautenara's  allies  arc  somewhat  ditterentlv  read  bv  the 
Egyptologists,  and  most  of  these  place  the  allies  in  Syria  and 
Mesopotamia  by  the  error  common  to  almost  all  readers  of 
ancient  historical  documents,  that  of  identifying  a  shifting  people 
with  the  most  famous  locality  bearing  their  name.  Thus  the 
Zerethites  of  Zarthan,  mentioned  on  Egyptian  monuments,  have 
been  called  Dardanians  from  Troy  and  Sardinians  from  Sardinia 
and  Cretans  from  Crete,  instead  of  being  regarded  as  the  Pales- 
tinian parent-stock  by  which  these  three  regions  were  culonized. 
Mautenara  was  King  of  the  Kheta  or  Hittites,  and  most  of  his 
so-called  allies  were  his  confederate  Hittite  lords.  The  first 
people  mentioned  among  his  followers  are  the  Naharain.  These 
were  the  descendants  of  Meliir  of  the  family  of  the  Achashtavite 
Chelub,  in  the  three  families  of  Beth  Kapha,  Paseach,  and 
Tehiiinah,  the  father  of  Ir  Xahash,  among  whom  Paseach  occupied 
in  Assyrian  days  the  chief  position.  But  in  Puntaour  s  list  of 
the  wariiors,  Patasa  or  Pidasa  represents  Paseach.  It  is  d(jubtful 
that  the  Xairi  had  yet  ]'cacli('il  Mesopotamia,  or  that  the 
i^iscachites,  scj  lately  out  of  Eg\"pt,  had  established  thfiiiselves 
in  'I'hapsacus.  The  valley  of  .)iplitliach-(d  on  the  lim-diTs  of 
Aslici-  find  Zebulon  is  moiv'  likely  to  lia\t'  been  the  abode  ot  the 
P;ise;icliites.  'i'lie  Nairi  or  Nahariiia  may  also  he  looked  for  at 
M('ai'ali,  Meai'otli.  oi',  fixing  vrdue  to  "////',  .Megarah,  near  Sidoii, 

31    ,Ju'l,o-  iv.  2. 


174  THE    HITTITES. 

where  Misrephoth  represented  Hammu-Rabi  or  Beth  Rapha,  as 
Masrekah  set  forth  the  family  of  Rekah.  Terteni,  another 
Hittite  tribe,  was  a  branch  of  the  Zerethites  at  Zarthan.  The 
Maasu  were  the  Meishga  or  Moschi,  the  descendants  of  Mesha, 
the  son  of  Jabez,  and  probably  dwelt  about  Thebez,  north-east  of 
Samaria,  built  by  them  to  commemorate  their  great  city  in  Egypt. 
Mauna  is  a  northern  Maon  and  belonged  to  the  family  of  Ma 
Reshah.  It  may  have  been  beyond  Jordan  in  the  land  of  Ham 
near  Ammon,  where  the  Maonites  were  smitten  in  the  time  of 
Hezekiah  by  the  descendants  of  a  certain  Simeon.^-  There  was 
also  a  Beth  Baal  Meon  in  Moab.  The  Leka,  originally  inhabi- 
tants of  Lachish,  were  at  this  time  in  Kadesh  itself  and  in  the 
Mount  of  the  Amalekites  in  Ephraim.  The  name  Amalek  or 
Gama  Lek  is  like  the  Akkaiiian  form  of  Beth  Rapha,  Gammu- 
Rabi.  Kerkesh  may  have  been  Chelkath  or  Helkath  in  Asher,  a 
place  of  note,  the  ethnic  relations  of  which  are  undetermined. 
Kairkamasha  is  plainly  Carchemish,  but  was  it  Carchemish  far 
up  in  northern  Syria  ?  If  it  was,  there  is  evidence  in  favour  of 
Ka<lesh  being  up  there  also.  But  the  Kairkamasha  are  mentioned 
with  the  Leka,  who  certainly  were  not  in  northern  Syria.  As  in 
Ephraim  there  was  a  mount  of  the  Gama-Lek  so  was  thei'e  a 
mount  Gerizim,  and  its  enclosure  or  city  would  be  an  ancient 
Gerizim-ish.  Katsuatana  is  yet  unidentified.  Mashanat  was 
doubtless  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Ophrah  of  the  Abiezrites,  for 
Meonothai  or  Megonothai  was  the  father  of  the  former  and  the 
son  of  Abiezei".  Anaukasa  may  have  been  Ta  Anach  near 
Megiddo,  in  which  case  Akarith  or  Akalith  would  be  Chesulloih 
to  the  south  of  it.  The  first  belonged  to  the  family  of  Paseach  ; 
but  the  second  was  a  city  of  the  Goim  of  Galilee,  who  appear  to 
liave  been  called  Kati  by  the  Egyptians.  Khilbu  or  Chirabu 
has  been  identified  with  Aleppo  which  was  indeed  a  Khilbu  ; 
but  there  was  a  Helljah  <;r  Chelbah  in  tlie  north  of  the  tribe  of 
Asher,  out  of  which  Israel  did  not  succeed  in  (h'iving  the 
aborigines,  an^l  this  suits  the  case  better.  Finally,  Arethu,  if  in 
it  Atadus  be  recognized,  was  the  most  northern  of  the  Hittite 
royal  cities.     The  Hittite  army  thus   presented    a   confederation 

'•    ]  Cliroii.  iv.   tl  ;  thi-  ]-]ii;,''lisli  vcrsiun,   wliicli  must  translate  every  word,  knows 
th"  .Ma'.iiitcs  a-  "  tlie  lialiitatinns." 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  175 

consisting  of  the  Achuzumites  of  Gerizini  and  Meslia,  the 
Hepherites  of  Arad,  the  Temenites  of  Kadesh  and  Anialek,  the 
Achashtarites  of  Mehir  an<l  of  Maon,  the  Zerethites  of  Zarthan, 
(unless  the  Terteni  be  the  Tirhanites  of  Maachah),  the  Zochnrites 
of  Chelbah,  and  the  Ethnanites  of  Megonothai.  Thus  all  the 
seven  families  were  represented  in  the  League,  which,  like  that 
overcome  by  Joshua,  received  assistance  from  the  Japhetic  Goim 
of  Galilee. 

The  names  of  the  warriors  mentioned  arc  Hittite,  some  ot" 
them  ending  like  Marasara  and  Khitasara  in  the  well-known 
word  zari,  meaning  a  captain  or  leader  ;  such  are  Khilip-sara 
and  Sapt-sara.  The  former  was  probabh^  the  leader  of  the 
Calebites  descended  from  Zochar,  and  the  latter  the  lord  of  Sated 
called  after  Shaphat,  who  seems  to  have  been  a  descendant  of 
Aharhel,  as  Sybotas  is  a  name  belong^ig  to  the  Heraclidae,  and 
Sybota  in  Epirus  is  associated  with  Ekronite  and  Heraclid 
names.^^  Two  other  names,  Thargan  and  Tliargannas,  cannot  be 
positively  identified  with  Tirchanah  the  son  of  Maachah,  because 
the  Egyptians  did  not  accentuate  the  gutturals  eheth  and  (tyin. 
Tilgamus,  Telegonus,  Telchin,  and  Tarquin,  ai'e  names  that  set 
forth  Regem,  so  that  some  later  Regem  or  Rekem  may  have  been 
thus  designated.  Still  Thargannas  might  well  answer  to  Tir- 
chanah, and  be  the  name  of  a  man  of  Megiddo.  Thargathasas  is 
unmistakable,  representing  the  Hamathite  Tirgathi,  and  the 
Jerigotli  whose  union  to  the  Zerethite  Hur  or  Urukh  gave  to 
that  ti'ibc  tlie  ancestors  of  the  Geshuritcs  and  Rutciniu.  The 
name,  therefore,  may  be  either  Hepherite  or  Zerethite.  Thiatar  is 
a  much  disguised  Hadadezer,  in  form  like  tlie  Inxjuois  Atotarho, 
yet  it  is  UK^re  correct  than  Tentyris  or  Tyndareus.  He  ought  to 
have  ])een  the  King  of  Rehob  or  Beth  Rehob,  in  the  trllie  of 
Ashcr.  Rabbasunna  is  a  late  Betli  Rapha,  the  name  being 
governed  in  the  g(.'in'tive  by  the  woi"d  for  house  or  family,  in 
Japan(,'S(.' /.vr/i". i.  So,  in  Ksthonia,  Lappi-guuda  is  a  trihe  of  the 
old  Esthonian  league.  His  place  should  be  in  Meai-ah  and 
Misi'eplifjtii.  Tsuat-sasa  ouglit  to  be  the  head  of  th((  Mashanat 
oi"  ])ei;ple  of  Nb'onotlini,  bjr  lie  is  a  Zolieth,  jX'rhaps  Ben-Zoheth, 
the  Ill-other  of  Seti  Meiiephtah,  who  as  Poly-<lectes   was   inimical 

•'    1  f_'hriiii.  V.  12;    I'aMs:uii:is. 


176  THE    HITTITES. 

to  Perseus  and  was  put  out  of  his  kingdom.  Paisa  or  Pisa  is  a 
Hittite  name,  the  chief  element  in  that  of  Pisiris  or  Pisa-sari 
King  of  Carchemish,  but  it  was  originally  Japhetic,  being  Buz, 
the  son  or  early  descendant  of  Eker,  after  whom  Pisa  in  Elis 
was  called.  It  may,  therefore,  denote  an  Ekronite  or  a  member 
of  the  allied  families  of  Paseach  and  Aharhel,  the  latter  of  whom 
continued  the  line  of  Regem.  Samarsa  suggests  Samlah,  and 
Sliimron  as  his  cit3^  and  Carmel  a  Palestinian  Camirus  where  he 
was  worshipped,  but  this  gives  a  division  of  the  Rephaim,  who 
have  already  been  found  farther  north  in  Misrephoth.  Garbatusa 
is  like  the  Girbat  in  Ulam-Girbat,  which  would  class  it  with 
Zimrite  nomenclature,  but  again  it  answers  to  Sarepta  and  the 
Lycian  Sarpedon,  who  belonged  to  the  family  of  Beth-Lechem 
descended  from  Chareph.  As  Salma  was  the  father  of  Beth- 
Lechem,  he  may  have  ruled  in  Salem  near  Samaria.  Matsrima 
is  more  probably  Matslima  or  Meshullam,  an  Ekronite  ally  of  the 
Hittites.  Agma  occurs  in  a  Pictisli  inscription  as  Sakasa  Agma.^* 
It  also  appears  in  the  Irish  genealogies  of  the  Tuatha  de  Danans, 
continually  in  connection  with  Dealbhaoith,  an  Irish  Telephus, 
as  Qcrma.^^  Thus  Ogma  is  the  name  of  the  father,  brother,  and 
son  of  persons  called  Dealbhaoith.  This  makes  Agma  the  same 
as  the  Kenite  Husham,  wlio  was  probably  the  father  and  the  son 
of  an  Eliphaz.  Finally  Kamaits  may  be  a  Shemidah,  connected 
with  Shechem  the  son  of  Shemidag  or  Ismidagan,  who  renamed 
the  Amorite  city  and  established  therein  the  worship  of  Baal- 
Berith.'^^  These  tentative  identifications  of  the  names  of  Hittite 
places  ami  persons  will,  at  any  rate,  pave  the  way  for  their  com- 
plete elucidation. 

The  copy  of  the  Treaty  of  Peace  between  Rameses  and 
Khitasara,  the  new  Hittite  monarch,  which  is  preserved  on  the 
outer  wall  of  the  temple  at  Karnak,  is  unhappily  deficient  at  the 
very  place  which  contains  matter  of  historical  interest,  that, 
namely,  which  originally  set  forth  the  chief  families  of  the 
Hittite  confederacy  and  their  deities.^"  The  names  that  remain 
are   Taaranta,   Pairaka,    Khisasap,    Sarasu,    Khirabu,  Sarapaina, 

■•'  C.'ltic  Society  of  Montreal,  Trans.  18S7,  ]).  55. 

■•■''  Kr'atin<,'  :  Vallaiicey,  S|iecinieii  of  a  Dictionary  of  tlie  Irish  Language. 

"'■■  1  Cliron.  vii.  Ill  ;  .Tiidge-^  ix.   It;. 

■'••  lieconls  .,f  the  I'a-t.  iv.  31. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  177 

Taitat  or  Zaiath-KWerri,  and  Tawatana.  Of  these  the  first  is 
marked  by  the  modern  name  Dourahin  among  the  southern 
springs  of  the  Kishon,  and  represents  the  Hittite  Tirhanah  named 
after  the  second  son  of  Maachah  of  Pelet,  Megiddo  being 
Maaehali's  memorial,  and  Tabor,  that  of  Sheber  the  eldest  son,  in 
the  same  region.^  Pairaka  is  probably  Beeroth  in  Naphtali,  and 
at  the  same  time  designates  the  E,echabites  descended  from  Beeri. 
The  interchange  of  certain  gutturals  and  dentals  was  not  uncom- 
mon among  Egyptian  dialects,  and  at  any  rate  the  radical  is  not 
Beeroth  but  Beeri.^^  Many  Hittite  names  resemble  Khisasap, 
such  as  Chozeba,  Gazubah,  and  Achshaph,  but  none  of  these 
perfectly  transliterate  the  Egyptian  word.  If  we  suppose 
Achshaph  to  have  been  originally  compounded  of  the  Zuzimite 
name  Shaaph  or  Shagaph,  it  would,  as  Achshagaph,  answer  to 
Khisasap.  The  associations  of  this  name  or  of  its  geographical 
neighbour  Achzib,  the  Ecdippa  of  the  Greeks,  are  set  forth  by 
Diodorus  in  connection  with  Rhodes,  the  island  of  the  Telchins 
and  Heliads,  who  were  Ochimus,  Cercaphus,  Macareus,  Actin, 
Teneages,  Triopas,  and  Candales.^^'  Ochimus  married  Hegetoria 
and  had  a  daughter  Cydippe,  afterwards  called  Cyrbie,  whom 
Cercaphus  took  to  wife,  her  children  being  Lindus,  Jalysus  and 
Camirus.  There  is  an  extravagant  mixing  up  of  historical 
elements  in  this  genealogy,  but  they  centre  geographically  about 
Achzib  and  Carmel.  The  Telchins  are  the  Regemites  ;  Actin  is 
probably  Eshton,  the  son  of  Mechir  or  Macareus  ;  Triopas,  like 
the  Esthonian  Tarapyha  and  Dorpat,  is  Beth  ilaplia ;  and 
Teneafjes  is  Hanoch,  son  of  Paseach,  as  Taanach  near  Meixiddo. 
Ochimus  must  be  Chusham  or  Husham  the  Amalekite,  and  the 
.same  as  the  Egyptian  Agma  ;  Cercaphus  is  Rochab  witiiaprelix  ; 
and  Candales  is  a  somewhat  inverted  Othniel  or  Gothniel. 
Cydippe,  as  a  w(jman,  should  be  Gazuba  the  daughter  of  Hur  and 
Jerigoth,  married  first  t(j  Regem  and  af t(  r  his  deatli  to  Rapha, 
lier  son  bi'ing  Samlali  the  GnM'k  Caiuirus.  (Jazuba's  njiine  is 
thus  Common  to  two  regions,  that  inhabited  by  the  Ilaruinites 
and  Ifcraclidae  desc('iid(,Ml  from  Ri'gem,  and  that  of  the  Ri'phaim 

■'■    Th'- Chalilaic  chaii^'i' iif  .<  ti)  <  liliscun-s  many   Hittite  iiaiiirs  ;   tlirif  \v,-[f  placus 
c.illeii  Atahyiis  oi-  Atahyiuii  in  I'cisia,  Ptliodr's,  and  Sicily. 
■'    Thcl)an  /'  i.r  th  \va.<  the  .M.-nipliitr  rh  nv  h. 
I"    Dim,!.  Sic.   V.  :U,   si-(,. 

(1-') 


178  THE    HITTITES. 

proper.  As  Sazabe  it  denoted  in  Assyrian  days  the  garrison  city 
of  the  Hittites  dependent  upon  Carchemish.  Sarasu  undoubtedly 
is  the  same  name  as  the  Babylonian  Karrak,  and,  therefore, 
denotes  the  Zerachites  of  Amalek,  the  Thracians  of  the  Greeks ; 
but  it  is  without  geographical  representation  in  northern  Pales- 
tine, unless  Gergesa  to  the  east  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee  be  identified 
with  it.  Khirabu  or  Khilabu  is  Chelbah,  and  Sarapaina  is 
Sarepta  or  Zarephath,  which  found  its  way  among  the  Horite 
Phoenicians  through  the  alliance  of  Chareph  of  Beth  Gader  with 
the  Horite  Manahath's  daughter.  In  Taitat  or  Zaiath-Kherri 
there  is  no  difficulty  in  recognizing  Ben-Zocheth  the  brother  of 
Seti  Menephtah.  As  a  locality  it  may  denote  Tahtim-Hodshi 
about  the  waters  of  Merom.  The  Egyptian  hherri  is  the 
Georgian  s/a)'i,  a  son,  Lesghian  diirrha,  Basque  haurra.  Thus 
Zaiath-Kherri  is  the  same  word  as  the  Assyrian  Sandu-arri  and 
Sanda-sarvi,  the  latter  form  replacing  aurra  or  haurra  with  the 
Circassian  arps,  Yeniseian  dulho  and  Aztec  tetelpuch,  which  are 
the  same  in  origin  as  the  Basque  nerahe  and  Loo  Choo  ivorrahi. 
This  Zaiath-Kherri  answers  to  the  Iroquois  Tehotennhiaron  the 
opponent  of  Taronhiawagon,  who  is  improperly  made  the  same 
person  as  Tawiscara.  Seti  Menephtah  in  his  invasion  of  the 
Hittite  country  probably  met  his  brother  Ben-Zoheth  or  Zaiath- 
Kherri,  and  made  use  of  his  influence  among  the  Hittite  lords 
for  obtaining  a  peaceful  settlement  of  difficulties  between  them 
and  Egypt.  At  the  same  time  he  must  have  caused  the  two  Beth 
Horons  to  be  built  in  Ephraim  as  refuges  for  his  people,  when 
the  caprice  of  the  tyrant  Rameses  should  deprive  them  of  favour 
and  drive  them  into  exile.  The  last  name  is  Tawatana,  which  is 
elsewhere  rendered  Thepkana.  It  possibly  denotes  Tappuach  or 
Tappuah,  a  state  of  considerable  magnitude  as  Palestinian  king- 
doms went,  the  king  of  which  was  conquered  l)y  Joshua  a 
hundred  years  after.  Tappuah  was  a  grandson  of  Ma  Reshah.^^ 
The  illegible  names  in  the  inscription,  which  are  at  least  six  in 
number,  would  complete  the  representation  of  the  Hittite  tribes, 
who,  with  the  exception  of  the  Zerethites  on  the  Euphrates  and 
Tigris,  presented  a  united  front  to  the  enemy. 

In  the  reigns  of  Merenptah  and  Rameses  III.,  reigns  whicii 

"   .Joslniii  xii.  17  ;  1  Clirnn.  ii.  48. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  179 

coincided  in  point  of  time,  but  which  were  those  of  two  distinct 
persons,  Horon,  the  eldest  son  of  Seti  Menephtah  and  Sherah,  the 
daughter  of  the  great  Rauieses,  and  Uzzen-Sherah,  or  Acencheres, 
the  son  of  Rameses  and  the  same  princess,  an  invasion  of  Egypt 
by  the  Hittites  took  place.  It  is  generally  called  The  Invasion 
of  Egypt  by  the  Greeks.*-  Some  of  them  were  indeed  Greeks, 
the  Ekronite  founders  of  Cyrene,  but  they  were  accompanied  by 
other  Philistine  tribes,  by  many  Midianites  who  became  Numi- 
dians,  and  Hittites  of  Mehir,  who  became  Maurctanians,  by  Zocha- 
rites,  and  Zerethites,  and  Heraclids,  and  Amorites  from  Eshcol. 
It  is  impossible  that  their  great  invasion  took  place  in  the  time 
of  Rameses  III.,  although  they  harassed  the  northern  coasts  in  his 
time  as  in  the  declining  years  of  his  father,  for  had  it  been  made 
while  the  Israelites  were  building  Pithom  and  Raamses  they 
would  have  obtained  their  liberty  without  a  miracle.  But  after 
the  overthrow  in  the  Red  Sea,  when  Merenptah  became  king- 
instead  of  viceroy,  and  while  Israel,  therefore,  was  in  the  wilder- 
ness, the  so-called  Greeks  poured  into  Egypt,  driving  Merenptah 
into  the  south  and  advancing  in  their  victorious  career  beyond 
Heliopolis  and  Memphis  into  the  heart  of  the  country.  Merenptah 
gathered  his  forces  and  inflicted  a  crushing  defeat  upon  the  inva- 
ders of  Paari,  which  compelled  the  remnant  to  return  to  their  own 
land.*'^  The  invading  army  was  under  the  command  of  Marmaiu, 
son  of  Batta,  king  of  the  Libyans,  or  Lubu.  Herodotus  in  his 
fourth  l)0()k  gives  an  account  of  the  colonization  of  Cyrene  by 
Battus  of  Thera,  which  is  chronologically  inconsistent  with  tlie 
appearance  of  a  Battus  before  the  time  of  Merenptah.  Battus, 
however,  was  a  Japhetic  name,  being  one  of  the  modifications  of 
Buz,  ancestral  in  the  Ekronite  family.  The  name  of  Arcesilaus, 
son  of  the  Jjattus  of  Herodotus,  displays  the  conn(.'cti(jn  of  the 
Heracliilae  f)f  Aharlud  witli  the  Ekronites,  which  has  been  ahx'ady 
suflieicntly  indicated.  The  Lubu  of  the  land  of  Maurui,  over 
whom  Mai-iiiaiu,  son  of  J)atta,  reigned,  wei'e  a  branch  of  the 
Repiiaini,  southern  Lapps,  and  their  land  was.nanK.'d  after  their 
anc</stor,    Mehir,    the    e[)oiiyin    in    Africa    of    the    Moors,    as    In 

'■-    iI>-cor(ls  i.f  tlic  I'a.sl,  iv.  3!). 

'■'    .Mi-|i-iipt.'ili  iiiriy  1)1-  K'-iiliali,  i>v   lioln'jih,   suns  i.f  IJrriali,  rutlirr  tliiui  in\c  (if  the 
H<.rijiis  ;   1  (,'liic)ii.  \  ii.  '2~>. 


180  THE    HITTITES. 

Mesopotamia  of  the  Nairi.  The  auxiliaries  came  from  the  land  of 
Mateni,  the  Midian,  from  whose  son  Epher,  according  to  Josephus, 
Africa  derived  its  name,  and  from  that  of  Tahennu,  so  called  after 
Tehinnah,  the  father  of  Ir  Nahash,  another  grandson  of  Mehir.** 
The  Mashuash  who  accompanied  them  may  have  been  the  men  of 
Nachash  ;  the  Shekilusha  w^ere  Sicilians  from  the  Amorite  Eshcol 
on  their  way  to,  not  from,  Sicily ;  and  the  Sharutana,  sons  of 
Zereth,  had  not  yet  seen  Sardinia.  The  Luku  were  Hittite 
Lycians,  for  whose  parentage  Lecah,  son  of  Er  the  Shuhite,  Ama 
Lek,  son  of  Temeni,  and  Lechem,  son  of  Salma  the  Hepherite, 
may  compete  ;  but  the  Akauasha,  Tursha,  and  Kahaika,  in  such 
a  mixed  multitude  of  Philistines,  Midianites,  Horites,  and  Hittites, 
defy  definite  identification.  These  w^ere  the  peoples  who  carried 
civilization  all  through  northern  Africa  and  across  the  Mediter- 
ranean to  many  coasts  of  southern  Europe.  Sallust  quotes  from 
the  library  of  king  Hiempsal  a  story  of  the  invasion  of  Numidia 
by  Hercules  and  his  army  of  Medes,  Persians,  and  Armenians. ^^ 
Movers  is  not  far  astray  in  asserting  that  the  Hycsos,  leaving 
Egypt  for  the  west,  became  the  Numidians  and  Mauretanians."*^ 
The  Hycsos,  typical  Turanians,  are,  however,  to  be  carefully  dis- 
tinguished from  the  Amorite  tribes,  that,  according  to  tradition, 
fled  from  the  arms  of  Joshua  along  the  same  route. ^'^  Yet  there 
seems  to  have  been  a  remarkable  fusion  of  peoples  and  of 
language  in  northern  Africa,  producing  the  Berber  type  of 
humanity  and  of  speech,  which  has  much  in  common  wdth  the 
Celtic.  In  point  of  worship  and  arts  there  is  much  similarity 
between  the  former  inhabitants  of  the  Canary  Islands,  or  the 
Guanches,  and  .the  Peruvians,  so  that  comparative  ethnologists 
have  been  led  to  regard  the  latter  as  Guanche  colonists,  rather 
than  the  guardians  of  the  eastern  limits  of  that  widespread  Khitan 
race,  whose  western  bound  was  fixed  in  the  Canaries.'*^ 

"    Josephus,  Antiq.  i.  1.5. 

^''   Sallust,  Bel.  Jug,  xviii. 

"'•    Ap.  (jiuigniaut,  ii.  S3t3. 

*''  Procopius,  IJel.  Vandal,  ii.  20;  Leo  Africanus,  Uescrii)tio  Africae  ;  Shabeeny's 
Travels,  by  Jackson,  London,  1820. 

I'*  (ihisse,  History  of  the  Canary  Islands;  Malte  Brun,  Geog.  vol.  iv.  ;  Peg-ot 
Ogier,  The  Fortunate  Isles,  by  Frances  L(jcock  ;  Peruvian  Antiquities,  14,  32. 


181 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

The  H1TTITE9  IN  Palestine  and  the  Neighbouring 
Countries    Before    the    Rise    of    the    Assyrian   Empire 

(Continued). 

Leaving  tlie  colonizers  of  Africa  to  spread  along  its  Mediter- 
ranean shore  and  drive  the  descendants  of  Mizraini  and  Phut 
into  the  interior,  we  turn  to  the  Hittite  Confederacy  at  Kadesh. 
It  seems  to  have  done  more  than  hold  its  own  against  the 
Amorites,  for  the  family  of  Paseach,  aided  by  the  Heraclidae  and 
Ekronites.  had  passed  over  Jordan,  and,  in  the  person  of  Og  or 
Gog,  had  assumed  sovereignty  over  the  Amorites  in  Bashan  and 
Gilead,  while  Sihon  the  Amorite  indemnified  himself  for  this  loss 
V)y  depriving  Moab  of  her  northern  boundaries.  The  Zerethite 
sons  of  Anak  lingered  about  Hebron,  and,  with  some  of  the 
Rephaim  who  appear,  like  them,  to  have  been  favoured  by  the 
Philistines,  maintained  themselves  against  the  Amorite  Con- 
federacy, framed  on  the  model  of  the  Hittite  with  Jerusalem  at 
its  head.  A  collision  took  place  during  the  obscure  period  that 
intervenes  between  the  last  Egyptian  record  of  Palestinian  war- 
fare and  the  entrance  of  Israel  into  Canaan  between  the 
Heraclidae  and  the  desendants  of  Shimon  the  Beerothite,  but 
where  tliis  took  place  it  is  hard  to  say.  It  may  have  been  to  the 
north  of  Bashan,  where  tlie  kingdom  of  Hamath  Zobah  sprang 
int(j  existence,  through  whose  country  the  posterity  of  Regom 
nnist  needs  pass  to  get  U)  Cai'chemish,  the  historical  seat  of  th'^ 
family.  Socjii  after  leaving  Egypt,  Moses  sent  spies  into  Canaan 
who  lu'ought  biick  a  report  of  the  state  of  tiie  land,  of  which  we 
possess  but  a  brief  suimiiary.^  'I'hc  s])it's  had  entered  by  the 
roail  from  the  south  whicli  passed  hy  llehron,  ami  had  tlieuce 
iiiad('  their  way  noi'thwai'd  to  ilelioh,  opposite;  the  spi'ings  of 
•  loi'dan.      In  the  south  they  found  the  Amalekites  in  the  (K'cupa- 

'    Xuiiili.  xiii. 


182  THE   HITTITES. 

tion  of  part  of  their  ancient  domain,  separated  from  the  rest  of 
their  Hittite  brethren,  with  the  exception  of  the  Kenite  families 
of  Arabia  Petraea.  In  Hebron  they  found  more  Hittites  in  the 
three  sons  of  Anak  the  Geshurite.  The  Canaanites,  whom  the 
spies  saw  dwelling  by  the  sea  and  by  the  coast  of  Jordan,  were 
the  Sidonians,  the  Phoenicians  or  Beni  Jaakan,  and  the  Girgasites; 
and  in  the  mountains  were  the  Hittites,  Jebusites,  and  Amorites.^ 
In  the  enumeration  of  the  tribes,  the  reporting  spies  appear  to 
have  begun  at  the  north  with  Sidon  and  the  Phoenicians,  next  to 
whom  came  the  Hittites,  extending  from  Rehob  to  the  mountains 
of  Bethel,  then  the  Jebusites  in  Jerusalem  and  Bezek,  and  finally 
the  Amorites  in  all  the  south  country  to  the  border  of  the 
Amalekites.  No  mention  is  made  of  the  Philistines  and  the 
other  Japhetic  tribes  scattered  through  the  land,  nor  of  the 
occupation  of  Jericho  by  a  branch  of  the  family  of  Jerachmeel, 
the  ancestor  of  the  historical  descendants  of  Japheth.  In  their 
wanderings  in  the  wilderness,  Israel's  only  enemies  were  the 
Amalekites  of  the  desert  under  their  Agag,  and  a  body  of 
Canaanites,  perhaps  journeying  from  the  Persian  Gulf  to  seek  a 
western  home  like  the  Amorites,  whose  king  was  Arad.  When 
tliey  came  to  the  Amorite  border,  no  attempt  was  made  to  com- 
bine the  forces  of  the  trans-Jordanic  tribes  against  them,  which 
may  be  regarded  as  an  indication  that  the  kingdoms  of  that 
region  were  mutually  hostile.  Joshua  conquered  them  in  detail, 
first  reducing  the  Amorite  kingdom  of  Sihon,  which  lay  between 
Moab  and  Bashan,  and,  by  a  stroke  of  military  genius,  hindering 
future  combinations  in  that  quartei*.  Og  or  Gog,  who  was  lord 
of  the  Amorites  of  Gilead  and  Bashan,  and  who  reigned  in  the 
ancestral  seat  of  the  Rephaim,  Ashteroth  Karnaim,  was  him- 
self no  Amorite.  His  name  is  Hittite,  the  Circassian  gug,  the 
heart,  Basf|ue  gogo,  thought,  desire,  feeling,  which  the  Japanese 
has  lengthened  to  kokoro,  mcaninor  both  heart  and  thoun-ht,  of 
wliicli  I'oJrocJii,  a  syn£)nym,  answers  to  the  Choctaw  vliuhesh. 
The  Lydians,  among  whom  the  historical  Gyges  appears,  were 
Hittites  (jf  Laadah  ;  and  Gog,  the  son  of  Shemaiah  and  descen- 
dant f)f  Pascach,   is    the  only  person  of  the   name   mentioned  in 


■■-    l'"i)r  I'x'iii  .hi.tl^Hii  as  I'liDciiiciaiis,  sit  my  article  on  tht- Pliociiicians  in  the  Briti^ 
and  l-'i)rcitcn  J'^vang-clical  Krvicw,  .luly,  1875,  ]).  425,  st-t). 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  183 

the  Kenite  genealogies.     It  is  also  expressly  stated  that  Og  was 
of  the  remnant  of  the  Rephaim.^ 

Gog  of  Bashan  is  a  character  of  much  interest.  The  raljbins 
tell  unnumbered  stories  about  him,  each  more  extravagant  than 
the  last.*  Gog  and  Magog  is  not  a  mere  Bible  expression,  but  is 
as  common  in  the  east  as  Kretlii  unci  PletJti  in  Germany.^  Two 
Latin  legends  relate  to  Gog.  The  first  is  that  of  Caeculus,  son 
of  Vulcan,  who  built  Praeneste  in  Italy,  a  city  connected  with 
Anagnia,  after  a  lifetime  spent  in  robbery  and  pillage.  Having 
no  inhabitants  for  his  city,  he  besought  his  father,  Vulcan,  to 
acknowledge  him  before  the  neighbouring  people.  Suddenly  a 
tlame  shone  all  round  about  him,  and  the  multitude  that  had 
assembled  to  behold  the  adventui'ous  stranger  at  once  consent 
to  become  his  subjects.  The  second  legend  calls  him  Cacus,  also 
a  son  of  Vulcan,  and  a  robber  like  Caeculus.  He  was  a  o-iant  of 
enminous  bulk,  from  wiiose  mouth  fire  and  smoke  were  emitted. 
His  cavei'n  in  the  Aventine  hill  was  hung  round  about  with  the 
hea<ls  and  limbs  of  his  victims,  and  the  whole  land  was  in  terror 
because  of  his  ravages.  When  Hercules  came  thither  with  the 
oxen  of  Geryon,  Evander  hospitably  entertained  him,  but  Cacus 
stole  away  the  hero's  herds.  Thereupon  Hercules  attacked  the 
monster,  and,  spite  of  his  blasts  of  tire,  strangled  him  in  his 
ai-ms.  Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus  adds  that  Hercules  disbanded 
part  of  his  troops,  and  settled  them  in  the  land  over  which  Cacus 
had  tyrannize«l.  The  same  person  appears,  although  out  of  date, 
as  Cocalus,  King  of  Camici,  or,  according  to  Pausanias,of  Inycus, 
in  Sicily.  To  him  Daedalus  lied,  and  when  Minos  came  in  .search 
of  that  ingenious  but  wicked  subject,  Cocalus  scalded  him  to 
death  in  a  hot  bath.  Another  form  of  Goof  is  Caucon.  of  whom 
we  know  little  more  than  that  he  was  the  eponym  of  the 
Caucones  of  Ells  and  Bith^-nia.  Geographically  his  name  is  con- 
nected with  Samicus  and  Anigrus,  and  genealogicall}'  with 
Phlyus,  doubtless  the  same  as  Phlias,  son  of  Cacus  and  grandson 
of  Temenus.  Pausanias  states  that  Caucon,  son  of  Celaenus, 
brought    the    I'ites    of    tlu;   great    goddesses    to    ^lessenia.       The 

D.-ut.  iii.  11. 
'     \'.:um-/-(',n\\h\,  L.'g.'iici.^  (,f  Old  Totaincnt  Characters. 
■    Tii-Talliiud  ;  Tli.-  KMi-aii  ;    Finiusi,  Mirkhoi,,!. 


184  THE   HITTITES. 

Gygaea  palus  of  Lydia  is  connected  with  Magnesia ;  and  Nicolas 
of  Damascus  says  that  the  Magnesians,  having  disfigured  Magnes, 
a  beautiful  youth  of  their  city  beloved  by  Gyges,  that  monarch 
took  their  city.  Gyges,  again,  was  a  usurper  who  married  the 
wife  of  Candaules,  the  son  of  Myrsus,  and  the  last  of  the 
Heraclidae.  His  story  is  variously  told.  According  to  Hero- 
dotus, Candaules,  proud  of  his  wife's  beauty,  secretly  introduced 
his  officer,  Gyges,  into  her  bedchamber,  which  the  queen  dis- 
covered and  offered  Gyges  his  choice  of  death  or  the  assassination 
of  his  master.  Gyges  chose  the  latter  and  became  king.  But 
Plato  says  that  Gyges  was  a  herdsman,  and  that,  while  feeding 
the  flocks  of  the  King  of  Lydia,  a  great  earthquake  took  place 
which  made  a  rent  in  the  ground.  Into  this  chasm  he  descended 
and  found  a  brazen  horse  with  an  aperture  in  its  side.  Looking 
in,  he  saw  a  royal  corpse  with  a  ring  on  its  finger.  Returning  to 
his  brother  herdsmen,  he  found  that  by  turning  the  ring  he  could 
make  himself  invisible.  With  this  potent  ally  he  took  possession 
of  the  queen,  murdered  the  king,  and  ascended  the  Lydian 
throne.  Nicolas  of  Damascus  represents  Gyges  as  the  descen- 
dant of  one  Dascylus,  whom  the  Lydian  Adyattes  had  assassinated. 
A  prophecy  had  gone  before  that  vengeance  should  come  in  the 
fifth  generation,  in  which  were  Sadyattes  the  king  and  his 
officer,  Gyges.  The  latter  was  sent  by  the  king  to  bring  home 
his  bride,  the  dauo-hter  of  Arnossus,  Kino;  of  Mysia.  On  the 
way  he  insulted  the  3'oung  queen  and  was  condemned  to  die,  but, 
collecting  a  band  of  followers,  he  suddenly  fell  upon  Sadyattes 
in  the  bridal  chamber  and  put  him  to  death.  Li  this  last,  Sady- 
attes looks  like  Sandacus,  who,  according  to  Apollodorus,  married 
Pliarnace,  daufditer  of  Me^essarus,  and  built  Celenderis  in 
Cilicia,  which  Bochart  supposes  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  land  of 
Gilead.  Arnossus  and  Pharnace  are  forms  of  Ir  Nahash,  the  son 
of  Tehinnah  the  Nairi,  while  Sadyattes,  as  a  Zoheth,  would 
explain  the  Messenian  and  Magnesian  coimection  as  relating  to 
Meonf)thai,  whose  people  the  Egyptian  monuments  call  Mashanat. 
Candaules  also  is  probably  the  rendering  of  the  original  name 
Gotliniel  wliicli  heads  the  line  of  Kenezzites  to  which  Meonothai 
and  Zoheth  belcjnged.  But  they  were  in  no  sense  Lydians,  while 
Mvrsus  and  Ma-^mes  niiii'ht  well  stand  f(jr  the  two  genuine  Lydian 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  185 

names,  Mareshah  and  Meou.  The  Maonites  also  were  certainly 
to  the  east  of  Jordan  in  the  time  of  Gog,  having  removed  from 
Beth-Baal-Maon  in  Moab  into  the  country  east  of  Bashan.  Gog 
was  plainly  a  usurper.  It  is  said  that  he  "  dwelt  at  Ashtaroth 
and  at  Edrei,  and  reigned  in  mount  Hermon  and  in  Salcah,  and 
in  all  Bashan  unto  the  border  of  the  Geshurites  and  the  Maacha- 
thites,  and  half  Gilead,  the  border  of  Sihon,  King  of  Heshbon."*^ 
Edrei  or  Edregi,  supposed  to  be  the  Hadrach  of  Zechariah's  pro- 
phecy, was  a  transported  name,  there  being  a  place  so  called  near 
Capernaum,  which  is  mentioned  in  the  book  of  Joshua  with 
Kedesh  and  Hazor.''  Hermon  was  certainly  named  after  Harum 
the  father  of  Aharhel ;  and  Salcah  may  be  a  form  of  Zerach  fur- 
nishing the  Egyptian  Sarasu.  The  name  Ir  Nahash,  which 
appears  equally  in  Arnossus,  Pharnace,  and  Praeneste,  as  well  as 
in  the  Mysian  Lyrnessus  united  with  Pedasus,  has  no  place  in  the 
Hebi-ew  record  of  Palestinian  geography.  When  Nahash 
appears  in  the  Bible  as  a  proper  name  it  is  always  connected  with 
Amnion.  In  Greek  story  Edrei  connects  with  the  nine-headed 
Hydra  of  Lorna,  which  was  slain  by  Hercules  at  the  spring  Amy- 
mone.  Lerna  is  an  abbreviation  of  Lyrnessus  denoting  Ir 
Nahash,  and  Amymone  is  the  Greek  version  of  Jemima,  the  name 
of  Job's  eldest  daughter.  Pausanias  tells  how  the  Hydra  was 
nourished  under  a  plane  tree  near  the  fountain  of  Am3nnone,  and 
how  Philammon  instituted  the  Lernaean  mysteries  in  connection 
with  it.  The  numbei"  nine  was  sacred  to  the  family  of  Hamath, 
l)ut  also  to  that  of  Tehinnah,  for  the  nine  Muses  of  Parnassus 
belong  to  the  same  story  as  the  nine-headed  Hydra  of  Lerna.  As 
Lerna  is  to  Lyrnessus,  so  is  mount  Parnes  to  Parnassus,  for  on 
that  mountain  were  the  statues  of  Jupiter  Parnethius  and  Jupiter 
Semaleus,  uniting  the  name  of  Ir  Nahash  with  that  of  Samlah.^ 
According  to  Strabo,  the  abodes  of  the  Hydra  and  the  Stympha- 
lides  W(,Tt;  in  close  proximity.  Paseach  also  connects  with  the 
story  in  Aniynioiie,  his  granddaughter  .leniinia.  Nahash  is 
famous  in  Sanscrit  stoi-y  us  tlui  great  serpent  Nahusha,  whose 
identity  with  Ir  Nahash  is  established  by  his  descent  from  Ayus 

''    ■rii>li.  ,\ii.  '], 

'     7.<rh.    ix.    ]   ;    ,I,,.-I,.    xix.  .S7. 
'     I'au-.iiii.-is. 


186  THE   HITTITES. 

and  Pururavas.  He  was  a  great  king  and  devotee  of  the  gods, 
who,  by  making  the  sacrifice  of  a  hundred  horses,  dethroned  Indra 
himself.  Then  he  claimed  the  celestial  throne  and  Sachi  the 
spouse  of  the  god.  None  dared  openly  resist  him ;  therefore 
Sachi  consented  to  a  union  with  the  presumptuous  monarch  on 
condition  that  he  would  come  to  her  in  a  car  drawn  by  Brahmans. 
The  intoxicated  Nahusha  harnessed  the  Brahmans  to  his  car  and 
hastened  to  meet  the  goddess,  but  as  the  sages  were  not  quick 
enough  in  their  movements,  he  gave  Agastya,  the  nearest  of  them, 
a  kick  on  the  head,  crying  at  the  same  time  "  sarpa,  sarpa,"  (go, 
go  !)  ;  on  which  the  Brahman  answered  "  sarpa,  sarpa,"  (snake, 
snake  !)  and  hurled  the  king  of  Pratishthana  to  the  earth,  where 
he  crawled  a  huge  serpent  for  ten  thousand  years.  It  was  he 
who  hugged  the  Bharatan  Bhima  in  his  folds,  and  who,  letting 
him  go  at  the  request  of  Yudisthira,  was  by  that  hero  set  free 
from  the  curse  of  Agastya  and  allowed  to  ascend  to  heaven.^ 
Xahash  is  the  Hebrew  word  for  a  serpent  and  for  brass,  and  is 
used  by  Job  to  denote  the  draco  volans  or  flying  serpent.^°  The 
brazen  horse  in  the  story  of  Gyges  connects  with  this  word. 
Druhyu,  a  son  of  Nahusha  is  a  Typhonian  monster  answering  to 
the  Hydra  and  Edregi.  The  Persian  story  of  Ir  Nahash  calls  him 
Piranwis-ah,  and  makes  him  the  commander  of  the  armies  of  Afra- 
siab,  king  of  Touran.  As  Zohak  and  Afrasiab  belong  to  the  same 
family,  the  latter  is  Ophrah  the  Kenezzite,connected, however,  with 
the  Kt'phaiu)  through  his  grandfather  Abiezer,  the  son  of  Samlah. 
It  is  impossiljle,  therefore,  that  Ir  Nahash  can  have  been  Ophrah's 
general,  but  he  may  have  acted  in  that  capacity  for  his  ancestor 
Othniel.  Mirkhond  makes  Siyawesh  or  Zipli  of  the  line  of  Jabez 
marry  Ferangiz  the  daughter  of  Piranwis-ah.  In  the  Greek 
history  of  the  Argivc  line,  a  Lynceus,  otherwise  unhistorical,  is 
introduced  as  the  son  of  ^Egyptus  and  the  only  one  spared  among 
his  fifty  sons  by  the  daughters  of  Danaus.  The  Persian  account 
ex|)lains  this  double  relation  of  Lynceus  as  Ir  Nahash  to  the 
families  of  Jabez  and  the  Kenezzites  of  Dinhabah.  Sir  George 
("ox,  however,  by  a  ha))py  stroke  of  genius  unites  Lynceus  and 
the  Hvdra.     After  statinii-  that  the  Danaides  threw  the  heads  of 


Mulialjlianita. 
Jul,  xxvi.  1.3. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  187 

their  slain  husbands  into  the  marsh  orounds  of  Lernai,  he  goes  on 
to  say  :  "  But  one  of  the  Danaides  refused  or  failed  to  slay  her 
husband.  The  name  of  this  son  of  Aigyptus  is  L\'nkeus,  a  myth 
to  which  Pausanias  furnishes  a  clue  by  givinc:  its  other  form 
Lyrkeios.  But  Lyrkeios  was  the  name  given  to  the  river  Inachos 
in  the  earlier  portion  of  its  course,  and  thus  this  story  would 
simply  mean  that  although  the  other  streams  were  (|uite  dried 
up  the  waters  of  the  Lyrkeios  did  not  wholly  fail."^^  Without 
discussing  Sir  George's  explanation,  his  note  to  this  passage  may 
be  added  as  it  stands.  "  The  head  of  Lj-nkeus  (Lyrkeios),  the 
one  stream  which  is  not  dried  up,  answers  to  the  neck  of  the 
Lernaian  Hydra.  So  long  as  streams  were  supplied  from  the 
main  source,  Herakles  had  still  to  struggle  with  the  Hydi-a.  His 
victory  was  not  achieved  until  he  had  severed  this  neck  which 
Hypermnestra  refused  to  touch.  Tlie  heads  of  the  slain  sons  of 
Aigyptos  are  the  heads  which  Herakles  liewed  oti"  from  the 
Hydra's  neck  :  and  thus  this  labour  of  Herakles  resolves  itself 
into  the  struggle  of  the  sun  with  the  streams  of  tlie  earth,  the 
conquest  of  which  is  of  coui'se  the  settino-  in  of  thoi-ou<>h 
drought."  Immediately  after  the  passage  in  Pausanias  to  which 
Sir  George  Cox  refers,  the  geographer  mentions  Epidaurus,  a 
])lace  answering  to  the  Palestinian  Abiezer  and  the  Indian  region 
of  Abisarus,  of  which  he  says,  Deiphontes  and  Hyrnethus  the 
Hei-aclids  took  possession.  But  Temenus  the  head  of  the  Hera- 
clidae  had  been  king  over  that  region,  and  had  given  his  daugh- 
ter Hyrnetho  in  marriage  to  his  kinsman  Dei})hontes,  who  was 
Ijetter  loveil  liy  Teyienus  and  the  Argives  than  were  his  own 
sons  Cisus.  Cerynes,  and  Plialces.  Tlie  brothers  determined  to 
take  Hyrnetho  away  from  J)L'iph()ntes,  and,  as  sh(3  i-cfnsed  to  go 
with  them,  they  took  her  by  force  and  drove  awa\'  with  hci-  in  a 
cai".  ])eiphontes  and  his  Epidaurians  pursued  and  killed  Cn-ynes 
with  a  dai-t,  l)ut,  fearing  lest  he  might  wound  Hyrnetho  to  whom 
Phalees  clung,  he  endeavoui'cd  to  drag  liim  away.  Phalccs,  how- 
ever, so  \"iol('ntly  prcsscii  his  sister  that  she  died  in  his  ni'iiis  ; 
wlici-eupon  h(,'  disengaged  jiiiuself  fiMiii  the-  grasp  of  Deiphontes 
and  Hed  in  terror,  leasing  the  uidiap])y  l^j)idauri.ui  to  build  the 
H\"i'nethium    in    hoiiou!'   of   his    dead    wife.'-      Another   stor\'    of 

''    .Ary.'iii  Myt!i..I..-y.  li.  LTH 
I-     I'aU'-.  ii.  •_'>. 


188  THE   HITTITES. 

Nahash  is  that  of  the  Megaric  Nisus,  made  the  father-in-law  of 
Megareus,  who  is  evidently  the  same  person  as  Macareus,  king  of 
Lesbos,  called  by  Diodorus  a  son  of  Crinacus.  Like  Samson,  the 
strength  or  fortune  of  Nisus  was  in  his  hair,  and,  so  long  as  the 
purple  lock  remained  uncut,  his  life  and  happiness  lasted.  But 
when  Minos  besieged  Megara,  Scylla,  the  daughter  of  the  king, 
fell  in  love  with  the  Cretan,  and,  cutting  off  the  lock  from  her 
father's  head  while  he  slept,  gave  it  to  the  invader  who  thus 
obtained  the  city.  Minos,  instead  of  being  gratified,  was  disgusted 
with  Scylla's  treachery,  and,  tying  her  by  the  feet  to  the  stern  of 
his  ship,  dragged  her  through  the  sea  till  she  was  drowned.  Two 
Irish  stories  exhibit  relations  to  that  of  Hyrnetho.  In  the  time 
of  Connor,  king  of  Ulster,  a  prophet  foretold  injury  to  the  king- 
dom from  the  child  of  Feidhlim,  his  secretary.  Connor,  however, 
would  not  allow  this  child  to  be  put  to  death,  but  shut  her  up  in 
an  impregnable  tower  surrounded  b}'  a  strong  garrison,  appoint- 
ing a  wise  woman  named  Leabharcham  to  be  her  gaoler.  The 
princess  Deirdre  grew  to  be  a  woman  of  singular  beauty.  Look- 
ino-  out  of  her  window  one  wintry  day  she  saw  the  blood  of  a 
calf  just  killed  lying  on  the  snow,  and  a  raven  feeding  upon  it, 
and  prayed  that  she  might  have  a  husband  "  who  had  a  skin  as 
wliite  as  the  driven  snow,  hair  as  shining  black  as  the  feathers  of 
a  raven,  and  a  blooming  red  in  his  cheeks  as  deep  as  the  calf's 
blood."  Her  governess  told  her  that  Naois,  the  son  of  Visneach, 
corresponded  to  such  a  picture,  and  then,  at  the  princess's  request, 
entered  into  correspondence  with  Naois.  With  the  aid  of  his 
brothers  Ainle  and  Ardan  and  a  hundred  and  fifty  followers,  the 
son  of  Visneach  stormed  the  castle  and  carried  Deirdre  ott'  to 
Scotland.  The  king  of  Scotland  sought  to  deprive  Naois  of  his 
bride,  so  that  he  was  compelled  to  sue  Connor  for  permission  to 
return  to  Ulster.  Connor  apparently  consented,  but  as  soon  as 
the  three  s(ms  of  Visneach  landed,  his  general  Eogan,  chief  com- 
mander of  the  Fearmoighe,  treacherously  slew  them  and  carried 
Deii"dre  to  the  king.  For  some  time  she  remained  in  confinement 
bewailing  her  beloved  Naois,  but  Connor  brought  her  out  and 
best(jwe<l  hei'  upon  the  murderer  of  her  husband.  Between  Con- 
nor and  Eogan  she  was  borne  in  a  car  towards  the  castle  of  the 
latter,  and  on  the  wav  the  cruel  kinir  amused   himself  makinrr 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  189 

coarse  jests  upon  the  prisoner,  which  so  incensed  her  that  she 
threw  herself  violently  to  the  ground  and  beat  out  her  brains. 
The  other  stor}'  is  that  of  Macha,  wife  of  Cruin,  the  son  of 
Adnauihuin.  Connor  compelled  her,  although  with  child  at  the 
time,  to  run  a  race  with  his  horses.  She  came  first  to  the  goal, 
but  immediately  gave  birth  to  a  son  and  daughter  and  died 
leaving  a  curse  upon  the  men  of  Ulster.  "  And  heaven  heard  her, 
for  the  men  of  that  province  wei'e  constantly  afflicted  with  the 
pains  of  childbearing  for  many  years,  from  the  time  of  Connor, 
who  then  reigned  in  Ulster,  to  the  succession  of  Mai,  the  son  of 
Rochruide."^^  The  circumstances  of  Hyrnetho's  death  were  simi- 
lar to  those  of  Macha :  and  the  enemies  of  Siyawesh  attempted 
to  destroy  the  unborn  son  of  Ferangiz. 

The  story  of  Macha  is  valuable  as  shedding  light  upon  a 
strange  custom  peculiar  to  that  Chelubite  branch  of  the  Achash- 
tarite  race  to  which  Paseach  and  Ir  Nahash  belonged.  In  Beam 
it  is  called  the  Couvade,  and  consists  in  the  rising  of  the  mother 
from  her  bed  immediately  after  the  birth  of  her  child,  and  the 
father  taking  her  place,  there  to  receive  the  compliments  of  the 
neighbours.  Various  writers  cited  by  M.  Francisque- Michel  find 
the  same  usage  in  Biscay  and  Navarre.  M.  Chaho  has  attempted 
to  explain  it  b}"  the  legend  of  Aitor  (Achashtari),  the  father  of 
the  Bas([ues.  While  in  exile  upon  a  mountain  a  son  was  born  to 
him,  and  the  mother,  fearing  for  the  life  of  the  infant  if  she  re- 
mained with  him  doing  nothing,  placed  him  under  the  father's 
care  and  went  away  to  provide  for  the  wants  of  the  family. 
Since  then  the  Basques  have  preserved  this  ceremony  in  memory 
of  the  privations  of  their  first  parents. ^^  Strabo  knew  of  tliis 
custom,  and  says  concerning  the  Iberian  women  of  Spain  :  "  They 
cultivate  the  ground,  and  after  childbirth  put  their  husbands  in 
bed  in  their  place  and  wait  upon  thcm."^''  Diodorus  Siculus 
found  it  in  Corsica,  where  a  strange  and  very  difficult  language 
was  spoken  :  "  They  (the  Corsicans)  observe  a  ceremony  of  a 
most  fantastic  character  at  the  birth  of  their  children.  They  pay 
no  attf'ution  of  any  kind  to  their  wives  while  they  are  in  labour; 

'■'•    K<-atiii^'. 

"    ]-"rancisfiu("-Miclicl,  Lc  Pays  ];as()iu',  '202. 

''■   .Stiabu,  iii.  4,  17. 


190  •  THE    HITTITES. 

but  the  husband  goes  to  bed  and  lies  there  a  certain  number  of 
days  as  if  he  were  the  patient."^^  Apollonius  Rhodius  notes  the 
custom  as  pertaining  to  the  Tibareni,  neighbours  of  the  Chalybes 
on  the  south-eastern  shore  of  the  Black  Sea.  The  passage  is 
thus  translated  by  Mr.  Preston  : 

"  Advancing  in  their  course  the  advent'rous  band 
Were  borne  along  the  Tibarenian  land. 
Among  that  race  strange  usages  thej'  find, 
Inverting  all  the  customs  of  mankind  : 
When  to  the  light  their  infant  offspring  rise, 
The  husbands  utter  groans  and  i)iercing  cries  ; 
With  many  a  bandage  bind  the  drooping  head. 
And,  helpless,  sink  upon  the  sickly  bed  : 
The  wives  for  them  the  choicest  food  prepare, 
And  baths  adapted  for  the  teeming  fair."l" 

In  the  travels  of  Marco  Polo  this  couvade  is  attributed  to  the  Zar 
Dandan  or  Golden  Teeth,  who  are  the  Miau-tze  of  West  Yunnan 
in  China,  and  to  the  present  day  "  the  father  of  a  new-born  child, 
as  soon  as  its  mother  has  become  strong  enouLfh  to  leave  her 
couch,  gets  into  bed  himself  and  there  receives  the  cono-ratulations 
of  his  acquaintances."^^  Sir  John  Lubbock  cites  the  custom  as 
common  to  the  Caribs  of  Guiana,  the  Abipones  of  the  Gran  Chaco 
and  the  Dyaks  of  Borneo,  to  whom  Dr.  Tylor  adds  the  Koravans 
of  India.^'^  It  is  tliis  practice  as  reported  by  Marco  Polo,  wliich 
occasioned  Butler's  couplet 

"  Chineses  go  to  bed 
And  lie  in  in  their  ladies'  stead." 

Herodotus  relates  that  a  judgment  of  the  same  nature  as  that 
which  fell  upon  the  men  of  Ulster  visited  the  Scythian  invaders 
of  Eg3'pt  in  the  time  of  Psanniietichus,  on  account  of  their  plun- 
dering the  temple  of  Yeiuis  Urania  at  Ascalon.-*^ 

The  ditierent  traditions  thus  set  forth  indicate,  first  a  connec- 
tion of  the  tribe  of  Ir  Nahash  with  Edrei,  which  Og  possessed  in 
addition  to  Ashteroth  Karnaim,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Rephaim. 

!'■■      DicMl.    Sic.    v.    11.     ' 

'"  I'lt.-ston,  Arguiiauties  of  Aiiolloniu.s  Rhodius,  London,  iSll,  vol.  i.  p.  153. 

1^  Yul.',  ,Mareo  Poln,  ii.  52. 

'^  Lubliuck,  l'r<:lii.st.iricTinjr-s,  10;  Tylor,  rriniitive  Culture,  i.  7<'). 

-■'  H.-indot.  i.  105. 


THE  HITTITES  IX  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  191 

An  inscription  of  Shalmanezer  places  Adduri  in  tlie  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  Nairi  kingdom  of  Dayani,  which  represents  Tehin- 
nah  the  father  of  Ir  Nahash.-^  They  also  indicate  a  distinct 
relation  subsisting  between  the  Kenezzites  of  Elephantine  and  the 
family  of  Ir  Nahash,  first  in  Egypt,  and  afterwards  in  Palestine, 
where  these  Kenezzites  were  found  in  the  country  of  Abiezer,  the 
chief  town  of  which  was  Ophrah  or  Beth  Leophrah.  This  is  fur- 
ther vouched  for  in  geographical  nomenclature  by  Lyrnessa  as  a 
name  of  Tenedos  or  Leucophrys,  the  island  of  Cycnus  and  Tennes. 
If,  however,  the  Hycsos  city  Arnath  be  the  same  as  Terenuthis, 
which  is  to  the  west  of  the  Delta,  a  later  Egyptian  home  of  the 
family  must  be  looked  for  in  the  south,  probably  about  Berenice, 
a  name  common  to  Ethiopia  and  Cyrene.  An  association  of  the 
two  Xairi  lines  of  Paseach  is  also  displayed,  which  ajipears  in  the 
Troad,  where  Pedasus  and  Lyrnessus  were  twin  cities,  and  in 
Syria  where  the  same  river  bore  the  two  names  Orontes  and 
Thapsacus.  Pausanias  says  that  a  Roman  emperor,  whom  he  does 
not  name,  turned  the  Orontes  into  a  new  channel  for  the  benefit 
of  his  fieet,  and  in  the  dry  bed  of  the  old  channel  found  an  urn 
of  earth  more  than  eleven  cubits  high,  in  which  was  the  body  of 
a  man  of  equal  height.  An  oracle  declared  that  the  body  was 
that  of  an  Indian  named  Orontes.--  The  representative  of  the 
line  of  Paseach  is  Gog,  the  Lydian  Gyges,  who  appears  at  first  in 
a  humble  station  ;  and  the  reigning  king,  whether  he  be  Cau- 
daules  or  Sadyattes,  an  Othniel  or  a  Zoheth,  belongs  to  the  Ken- 
ezzite  fauiily.  The  seat  of  this  family  was  probably  Abiezer  in 
central  Palestine  near  the  Jordan  and  the  water  of  Tappuah, 
l)L-longing  to  Mareshah.  Its  king  had  strengtliened  his  throne  by 
taking  in  marriage  a  daughter  of  tlie  king  of  Ir  Nahash,  who  for 
ccjuvenience  may  be  called  Pharnacc  or  Pcreiiice,  but  the  <(Ucstion 
arises  wlu^'ther  he  took  her  with  or  against  her  will.  (libbon  has 
preserv(Ml  a  remarkal)le  parallel  to  Herodotu.s'  story  of  ({yues  in 
that  of  Posamund.  Slu.'  was  the  daughter  of  ( "nuiiiiuud,  king  of 
th(,'  Gepidac,  and  was  sought  in  marriage  by  Albijin,  king  of  the 
Lombards.  Jjy  stratag(,'m  and  force  he  gained  possession  of  the 
fail'  pi"ine<'ss,  but  the  Gepidae  and  the  lionians  overcauie  him,  and 

-1     li.'C'.i'ls  (.f  tl.i'  I'a^t,  iii.  !M. 
■■■■■■    I'uii^.  \iii.  2;i. 


192  THE    HITTITES. 

he  was  compelled  to  relinquish  his  prey.  Alboin  then  called  in 
the  aid  of  the  Chagan  of  the  Avars,  against  whose  multitudes  the 
Gepidae  could  not  stand.  Cunimund  with  the  bravest  of  his 
warriors  fell  hghting,  and  Alboin  had  a  drinking  cup  made  of  his 
skull.  He  carried  off  Rosamund  once  more,  who  appeared  to  be 
well  satisfied  as  the  queen  of  Lombardy,  soon  afterwards  gained 
by  her  warlike  husband's  valour  and  military  skill.  In  a  palace 
near  A^erona  he  feasted  with  his  warriors,  and  when  the  banquet 
was  far  advanced  had  Cunimund's  skull  filled  with  wine  and  sent 
it  to  the  queen  to  drink.  Rosamund  dissembled  and  touched  the 
sacred  relic  with  her  lips,  vowing  inward  revenge.  Helmichis, 
the  king's  armour  bearer,  was  her  agent.  When  she  had  deprived 
Albuin  of  all  weapons,  and  lulled  him  to  sleep,  he  entered  wnth  a 
band  of  followers  and  killed  the  tyrant,  whose  fall  his  queen 
smiled  at  beholding.  The  Lombards  drove  her  forth,  and  with 
Helmichis,  her  daughter,  and  the  faithful  Gepidae,  she  sought 
refuo-e  with  Lono-inus,  the  Exarch  of  Ravenna.  The  Exarch 
sought  her  in  marriage,  and  she  prepared  to  make  away  with 
Helmichis  in  order  to  bring  about  this  union.  But  while  he  drank 
the  cup  she  tendered  him,  he  did  not  drain  it ;  there  was  enough 
left  to  serve  Rosamund  as  she  had  served  him,  and  with  his  dagger 
at  her  breast  he  compelled  the  guilty  queen  to  partake  of  the 
poisoned  draught  which  ended  both  their  lives.-^ 

Cunimund,  Alboin,  Longinus,  and  probably  Rosamund  and 
Helmichis,  are  historical  characters  belonging  to  the  second  half 
of  the  sixth  century,  just  as  many  personages  in  the  Niebelungen 
Lied  pertain  to  the  middle  of  the  fifth ;  yet  the  traditions  con- 
cerning them  are  twice-told  tales.  The  Gepidae  were  of  the  same 
lineage  as  tlie  Franks,  and  these  were  Germanized  Hittites,  as 
were  the  j^orse  Varangians  and  British  Bernicians.  Xennius 
deduces  the  Bernicians,  from  whom  the  Deirans  were  separated 
in  the  time  of  Soemil,  perhaps  Samlah,  having  been  pi'eviously 
one  people,  from  Beornec,  son  of  Beldeg,  or  Baldur,  son  of  Woden  ; 
and  states  that  from  Beornec  in  the  eighth  generation  came  a 
(luecn  Bearnf)ch.^"^  Between  these,  however,  he  brings  in  Ingwi 
and    Eoppa  of  the  line  of  Paseach,  and  Theodric  a  Hadadezer. 


■■■•   Siiiith's  Stu'icnt's  Ciblxiii,  ell.  xxiv. 
■•^'    N<-nniu.-<,  eh.  'il. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  193 

These  were  the  same  as  the  Franks  of  Europe,  descendants  of 
Ir  Nahash,  Berenice,  Parnassus.  The  Gepidae,  however,  although 
closely  related,  were  not  the  same  people,  but  a  Germanized  rem- 
nant of  the  Cappadocians,  or  Jabezites,  called  in  southern  Italy 
Messapian  lapyges.  It  is  clear  now  why  the  Sanscrit  documents 
make  Gritsamada,  who  was  the  brother  of  Nahusha,  the  son  of 
Vitahavya  or  Mezahab,  and,  at  the  same  time,  call  Vitahavya's 
descendants  the  Srinjayas.  By  a  union,  represented  in  Persian 
story  as  the  marriage  of  SiN'awesh  and  Ferangiz,  the  line  of  Ir 
Nahash,  Srinjaya,  or  Ferangi,  was  leagued  with  that  of  Jabez,  so 
that  Cappadocia  owned  a  Tyana  and  a  Parnassus.  But  the 
Gepidae,  if  they  told  the  story  of  Rosamund,  derived  it  not  from 
their  own,  but  from  Prankish  traditions.  The  Lombards  again, 
of  whom  Alboin  her  husband  was  king,  were  the  halbardiers 
descended  from  Leophrah,  the  Olymbrius  of  the  Cilicians,  the 
Zeus  Labrandens  of  Caria  bearing  an  axe,  the  Labradh  of  Irish 
story  with  his  green-headed  partisans  ;  and  to  their  line  belonged 
Godoniel  and  Zoheth,  or  Candales  and  Sad^^attes.  They  also  were 
Germanized  Hittites.  It  is  not  alleged  that  any  of  these  peoples, 
Gepidae,  Franks,  Lombards,  were  of  pure  Hittite  blood.  The  rule 
of  the  Hittite  confederacy,  as  shown  in  the  institutions  of  the 
Iroquois  league,  was  to  strengthen  the  Long  House  by  admitting 
any  tribes  that  were  willing  to  enter  the  League  and  conform  to 
its  usages;  and  the  introduction  in  this  way  of  large  bodies  of 
people,  from  time  to  time,  must  account  for  the  enormous  extension 
throughout  tlie  habitable  world  of  Hittite  names,  customs,  and 
tra<litions.  The  story  of  Rosamund  is  thus  an  old  tale  of  enmity 
between  the  men  of  Ir  Nahash  and  the  Kenezzites,  carr3ang  us 
back  through  the  traditions  of  tlie  Lydian  Gyges  and  the  mere 
iiienti(jn  of  (_)g  of  Bashan,  as  the  lord  of  an  Edrei  that  did  not 
riglitl}'  belong  to  him,  to  that  obscure  poi-tion  of  Hittite  history 
that  lies  l)et\veen  the  reigu  of  the  tliird  Rameses  and  the  entrance 
(jf  Israel  into  Canaan. 

This  stoiy  leaves  us  in  doubt  as  to  the  truc^ciuiraeter  of  the 
priiici'ss  or  (|Ueen  thi'ough  whom  (Jg  claimed  Edrei.  and  as  to  his 
tiT'atiiienl  (jf  Ucv.  Of  the  traditions  I'eferred  to.  the  Greek  one 
of  liynietho,  tin-  Persian  of  Ferangis,  and  the  L'ish.  ichite  to  an 
Ivgyptiaii  alliaiiet;  liet\ve('n  the  faniilies  of  .labez  and  Ir  Nahash 
(l.H) 


194  THE   HITTITES. 

which  was  distasteful  to  the  Kenezzites  of  Elephantine,  All  these 
accounts  coincide  in  representing  the  Kenezzites  as  killing  the 
husband  and  acting  cruelly  towards  the  wife ;  and  in  some 
way,  not  yet  very  clear,  the  practice  of  the  couvade  originated  in 
her  history.  As  the  Coptic  language  turned  Paseach  into  Pthah, 
so  it  converted  Nahash  into  Neith.  This  Neith,  tutelary  goddess 
of  Sais,  corresponds  to  the  Greek  Athene  and  Roman  Minerva. 
The  oldest  accounts  of  the  birth  of  Minerva  make  her  motherless, 
a  child  of  Jupiter.  The  monarch  of  the  gods,  learning  that  his 
spouse  Metis  was  about  to  bring  forth  a  daughter  excellent  in 
wisdom,  and  a  son  who  should  rule  the  universe,  swallowed  her, 
like  the  Lydian  Gambles,  to  prevent  this  catastrophe.  But  the 
pains  of  maternity  came  upon  the  deity,  who  only  found  relief 
when  Vulcan  cleft  his  skull,  and  Minerva  full-armed  sprang  from 
it.  The  child-bearing  Jupiter  was  a  common  subject  of  the  artists 
of  that  Hittite  people,  the  Etruscans.  The  favourite  tree  of 
Minerva  was  the  olive.  It  is  not  a  mere  coincidence  that  Minerva 
was  worshipped  at  Epidaurus,  where  was  the  Hyrnethium  sur- 
rounded on  all  sides  by  wild  olive  trees,  which  Deiphontes  conse- 
crated to  the  memory  of  his  murdered  Hyrnetho  and  forbade  any 
one  to  touch.  No  less  a  personage  than  Jupiter  Avas  the  first  to 
keep  the  couvade,  but  that  the  great  Zeus  was  the  Ziph,  Siyawesh, 
or  Deiphontes,  whose  child-bearing  wife  came  to  a  tragic  end 
through  the  cruelty  of  the  Kenezzites,  is  more  than  one  would  be 
disposed  to  assert.  This  Egyptian  legend  being  separated  from 
the  mass  of  tradition,  there  remains  that  of  the  second  Pharnace. 
Under  that  name  she  was  the  wife  of  a  Sandochus,  and,  as  a 
daughter  of  the  king  of  Arnossus,  she  was  the  bride  of  Sadyattes, 
both  of  these  representing  a  Zoheth,  or  Sandes,  in  the  Kenezzite  line 
of  Leophrah.  Here  we  have  the  original  of  the  Lombard  stoi y. 
In  Auranitis,  to  the  east  of  Bashan  and  to  the  north  of  Amnion, 
dwelt  a  descendant  of  Tr  Nahash,  the  son  of  Teliinnah,  who  had 
e.Ktended  his  conquests  into  Bashan,  founding  in  that  country  tlie 
city  of  Edrei.  "He  was  conquered,  however,  b\'  the  Kenezzite 
Zoheth,  who  took  his  daughter  in  mari'iage  and  became,  if  indeed 
tliat  had  not  ah-eady  been  his  position,  the  head  of  the  Hittito 
confederacy.  Og,  or  Gog,  a  descendant  of  Jol)  and  Paseach,  \\as 
in   the  service  of  Zuhetli,  and   was,  like  liis  race,  a  man  of  <avat 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  195 

stature,  of  personal  courage,  and  manly  beauty.  He  was  related 
to  the  family  of  the  conquered  and  slain  king  of  Auranitis,  and, 
therefore,  to  the  queen  by  a  common  descent  from  their  ancestor 
Eshton.  It  is  true  that  Zoheth  might  claim  the  kingdom  of  the 
Rephaim  through  Abiezer,  a  Rapha ;  but  when  Abiezer  married 
Hathath,  the  Kenezzite  princess,  he  virtually  renounced  his  birth- 
right and  became  an  adopted  member  of  the  Kenezzite  family. 
The  Lydian  traditions,  while  acquitting  Zoheth  of  the  brutality 
attributed  to  his  representative  in  the  story  of  Rosamund,  yet 
make  him  guilty  of  dishonourable  conduct  towards  his  queen.  If 
this  were  not  sufficient  to  alienate  her  from  him,  the  remembrance 
of  indignities  inflicted  upon  an  earlier  Pharnace  in  Egypt  by  the 
race  to  which  he  belonged  would  fill  up  the  cup  of  indignation, 
and  lead  her  to  invoke  the  interference  of  her  kinsman  Gog.  It 
was  he  who  called  in  the  Amorites,  by  some  jugglery,  like  Caecu- 
lus,  gaining  the  ascendancy  over  these  invaders  ;  and  with  their 
aid  he  overthrew  the  dominion  of  the  Kenezzites  in  Bashan,  slew 
Zoheth,  and  appropriated  his  queen.  Then,  having  married 
Pharnace,  he  thereby  became  king  of  Praeneste,  or,  as  Latin  tra- 
dition inverts  the  story,  the  Hernici  ruled  in  Anagnia ;  for  the 
Hernici  were  the  men  of  Ir  Nahash,  and  the  Anagnians  were 
Gog's  people,  the  descendants  of  Hanoch.  Of  Pharnace's  fate  we 
know  nothing,  but  Gog,  after  a  career  of  conquest  and  rapine,  was, 
like  Cacus,  slain  by  an  Israelite  Hercules,  Joshua,  the  son  of  Nun, 
whose  chief  friend  was  not  indeed  Evander,  but  Caleb,  the  son  of 
Jephunneli,  a  member  of  that  Kenezzite  family  whose  head  Gog 
had  treacherously  murdered.  How  the  story  of  the  death  of 
(/acus  found  its  way  to  Italy  is  a  (juestion  hard  to  answer,  but  it 
must  have  travelled  from  tlie  East  with  a  race,  Kenite  or  Kenez- 
zite, friendly  to  the  Israelites  and,  at  any  rate,  inimical  to  the 
Etruscans,  of  whom  the  Paseachites,  or  Japuscer,  constituted  a 
division.  Probably  the  Oscans,  Ausones,  or  Aurunci,  carried  the 
tale.  With  tlie  victory  of  Zoheth  the  empire  of  Nahusha  fell  ; 
with  that  of  Gog,  tin;  so-called  Lydian  Heraclidae,  who  wci'e  not 
really  such,  were  superseded  ;  and,  coincident  with  his  ovei'thi'ow, 
was  the  I'ise  t(j  supremacy  over  tlu;  Ilittite  tribes  of  the  race  of 
Zocliai-  ill  tli(;  |»ers()ii  of  king  dabin  ol'  llazor. 

.I'jsbna    did    not    attack    the   Amiiioiiites   noi'  the   men   of    Ir 


196  THE   HITTITES. 

Nahash,  who  were  doubtless  confederate  with  them ;  but  he 
defeated  the  Moabites  and  their  Midianite  alHes,  slayino-  the  five 
princes  of  Midian,  Evi,  Rekem,  Zur,  Hur  and  Reba,  together  with 
the  false  prophet  Balaam,  the  son  of  Beor,  from  the  land  of  the 
Ammonites.  On  the  west  side  of  Jordan  his  first  conquest  was 
Jericho,  a  Japhetic,  or  as  the  Sanscrit  writers  would  say,  a  Brah- 
man city.  In  Greek  story  it  is  probably  represented  by  the  first 
Orchomenus  inhabited  by  the  Phlegyans  and  Eteocles,  the  Jer- 
achmeelite  Bela  or  Belag  and  Jediael  or  Jedigael,  who  were  des- 
troyed by  incessant  storms  and  fearful  earthquakes,  save  a  few 
that  fled  to  Phocis.  After  the  fall  of  Jericho  and  the  connected 
Ai,  one  of  the  chief  members  of  the  Amorite  or  Hornet  Confed- 
eration, Gibeon,  fell  away  to  Israel,  with  its  dependent  cities, 
thus  weakening  greatly  the  forces  of  the  Amorites.  Five  kings, 
of  whom  Adoni  Zedek  was  the  leader,  mustered  their  forces,  but 
by  a  famous  night  march  Joshua  came  unexpectedly  upon  them 
and  put  them  to  total  rout.  The  story  of  Cacus  makes  the  Israel- 
ite leader  a  Latin  Hercules,  and  that  of  the  Campi  Lapidei  con- 
firms the  identification,  showing  that  the  people  from  whom  the 
Romans  gained  their  information  were  favourable  to  Israel, 
^^schylus  first  told  the  story  of  the  Stony  Fields  which  the 
geographers  place  between  Marseilles  and  the  Rhone.  There, 
Albion  and  Bergion,  or  Alebion  and  Dercynus,  if  we  follow 
ApoUodorus,  met  Hercules  in  his  career  of  western  con(}uest. 
The  hero's  weapons  failed  him  and  he  invoked  the  aid  of  Jupiter, 
who  rained  stones  from  heaven  and  destroyed  the  Ligurian 
giants.  Diodorus  tells  of  the  conquests  of  this  Hercules  in  Sicily, 
and  mentions  among  the  famous  captains  overcome  by  him. 
Gaugates,  Cygaeus,  Leucaspis,  Pedicrates,  Buphonus,  and  Cry  tidas, 
(jf  whom  Gaugates  and  Cygaeus  seem  to  represent  Gog,  and 
Buphonus,  Jal)in  of  Canaan.  The  kings  of  ]\[akkedah  and 
Libnali,  and  Horani,  king  of  Gezer,  whom  Joshua  discomfited  in 
tlie  south,  wei'c,  in  all  probability,  Amorites,  as  were  the  five 
coufuderate  kings.  In  that  same  south  country  Joshua  afterward 
cut  fjfi'  tlie  Anakiiu,  evidently  a  generic  term,  for  it  applies  to  tlie 
Zfrctliite  remnant  named  after  Anak,  the  son  of  Arba  and 
descendant  of  .Jcslier,  and  als(;  t(j  the  Philistines,  a  Japlietic  ])eopl»'. 
When    Sheshai,   .\hiinau    an<l    Talmai   weivj  slain,  tlieii"  faiuilii'S 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  197 

appear  to  have  taken  refuse  in  the  kingdom  of  Geshur,  alongside 
of  that  of  Maachah,  and  to  the  north  of  Bashan.  This  seems  not  to 
have  been  accomplished  until  after  Joshua's  death,  at  the  time 
when  Adoni  Bezek,  a  tyrannical  and  cruel  Amorite  king,  was 
taken  with  his  city  of  Bezek  and  executed  for  his  crimes.  The 
Philistines,  like  the  Ammonites,  were  spared  because  of  the 
ancient  friendship  that  subsisted  between  them  and  the  Israelites 
in  their  Egyptian  home. 

At  last  the  Hittites  declared  war.  The  head  of  their  Confed- 
eracy was  Jabin  king  of  Hazor ;  "  for  Hazor  beforetime  was  the 
head  of  all  these  kingdoms."-^  Hazor  was  situated  to  the  north  of 
Kadesh  Naphtali,  and  like  the  Latin  castriun  which  as  chatsor 
it  resembles,  means  a  castle.  This  is  in  HebreAV,  however,  not  in 
Hittite.  Its  representative  in  Pontus  was  Gaziura,  the  ancient 
residence  of  the  Pontic  kings  ;  in  Yenetia,  Hadria  ;  and  in  Japan, 
Katsura,  the  abode  of  Sui  Sei  the  second  emperor  of  that  coun- 
try. In  Japanese  the  word  is  supposed  to  mean  the  BolicJiUS 
hirsutuf^,  a  plant  of  the  bean  family,  which  is  a  somewhat 
improbable  name  for  a  city.  Its  king  was  Jabin,  a  modified 
Jephunneh,  belonging  to  the  same  family  as  Jephunneh,  son  of 
Abraham's  contemporary  Ephron,  that  namely  of  Zochar.  This 
family  has  no  royal  record  since  the  time  when  Ephron  ruled  in 
Hebron.  From  that  time  the  Zocharites  became  physicians,  but 
whether  in  Egypt  or  in  Palestine  or  both  is  hard  to  say.  The 
Odyssey,  indeed,  makes  the  Egyptian  physicians  more  skilful 
than  othei's  because  the}^  were  of  the  rnce  of  Paeon,  but  no 
distinct  traces  of  the  family  have  been  found  in  the  land  of  the 
Pliaraohs.-'^  Their  great  African  home  was  Cyrene,  to  which 
they  must  have  migrated  through  northern  Egypt  and  Libya. 
As  the  Takkai'o  they  were  a  warlike  mai'itinie  people  associated 
with  the  Shardana  or  Zerethites  in  raids  upon  the  Egyptian 
coast.'-^"  In  Cyrene,  Hippon  was  one  of  their  eai'liest  settlements, 
and  it  was  a  ro^^al  name,  for,  according  to  Solinus,  the  Phoenician 
Elissa  oi-  Dido  pui'clias('(l  from  Japon,  king  of  Libya,  the  ground 
on  wiiich  sli(.'  erected   ('arthagc.-'"     After   Hi])pon,  settlements  of 

•-■•  .ro>hua  xi.  10. 

■■'■<'■  ()<iys.sr\-,  iv.  2;V2. 

■•"  IjfiioriiKUit's  M;iiiu:il,  i.  2<i.")  ;    Ki-iirick's  ICtr.vpt,  ii.  2'^. 

'-'*  Solirm-i,  xxvii.  10;  .Ih|iiiii  and  1 1  ipimii  arr  fornix  nf  tlir  same  iianii'. 


198  THE   HITTITES. 

Zocharites  were  founded  in  Apollonia,  which  commemorated 
Ephron,  in  Teuchira,  and  in  Augila  far  inland,  the  centre  of  the 
Nasamones  and  Garamantes,  descended  from  Nacham  and  Garrai. 
The  Zocharites  thus  constituted  an  important  element  in  the 
Hittite  population  of  northern  Africa.  They  have  also  been 
traced  to  southern  Assyria,  in  which  country  they  appear  to  have 
shared  royalty  with  their  brethren  the  Zerethites.  But  early  in 
Egyptian  days,  a  body  of  the  descendants  of  Zochar  established 
itself  along  with  the  related  Hamathites  in  the  north  of  Palestine, 
between  Capernaum,  named  after  Zophar  the  Naamathite,  and  the 
springs  of  the  Jordan  at  Paneas.  The  bond  that  linked  the 
physicians  and  the  scribes  was  the  union  of  Jether,  the  son  of  the 
Hamathite  Ezra,  to  Jehudijah,  the  daughter  of  Caleb  the  Zochar- 
ite,  a  princess  whose  name  was  translated  into  Hittite  as  Mabug  or 
the  Excellent  Oracle.  In  the  days  of  Hittite  supremacy  in  the 
south,  the  families  had  dwelt  in  what  afterwards  came  to  be 
Judea,  where  Socho,  Gedor,  and  Zanoah  were  indications  of 
Hamathite  occupation,  while  Keilah  and  Naamah  marked  the 
presence  of  the  Zocharites.  As  early,  however,  as  the  reign  of 
the  first  enslaver  of  Israel,  they  had  been  driven  into  the  north, 
for  the  author  of  the  Travels  of  an  Egyptian,  in  his  reign,  makes 
mention  of  places  bearing  their  characteristic  names  in  that 
quarter.  "  Didst  thou  not  then  go  to  the  country  of  Kheta  ? 
Hast  thou  not  seen  the  land  of  Aup  ?  Knowest  thou  not 
Khatuina,  Ikatai,  likewise ;  how  is  it  ?  The  Tsor  of  Sesortris, 
the  city  of  Khaleb  in  its  vicinity  ;  how  goes  it  with  its  ford  ? 
Hast  thou  not  made  an  expedition  to  Qodesh  and  Tubukkhi  ? 
Hast  thou  not  gone  to  the  Shasus  with  the  auxiliary  body  ? 
*****  Come,  set  off  to  return  to  Pakaikna.  Where  is 
the  road  of  Aksaph  in  the  environs  of  the  city  ?  Come  then  to 
the  mountain  of  Oiisor  :  its  top,  how  is  it  ?  Where  is  the  moun- 
tain of  Ikama  ?  Wlio  can  master  it  ?  What  way  has  the  Mohar 
gone  to  Hazor  ?  How  about  its  ford  ?  Let  me  go  to  Hamath,  to 
Takar,  to  Takar-Aar,  the  all-a.sseml)ling  place  of  the  Mohars  ; 
come  then  on  the  road  that  leads  there  !  Make  me  to  see  Jah. 
How  has  one  got  to  Matamim  ?  Do  not  repel  us  by  thy  teach- 
ings ;  make  us  to  know  tliem."^*-'     Hazor,  then,  was  in  existence 

29   Records  of  thi;  Past,  ii.  109,  seq. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  199 

in  the  time  of  Rameses  II..  and  Hamath  and  Zochar  were 
intimately  connected,  for  Takar  corresponds  to  Takkaro,  the 
name  of  the  Zocharites  or  Teucri.  Khaleb,  Qodesh,  Tubakkhi, 
Aksaph  and  Matamim,  denote  Helbah,  Kedesh,  Tappuach, 
Achshaph  and  Madon.  The  land  of  Aup  must  be  that  of  Job, 
whence  came  his  descendant  Gog,  and  may  thus  be  the  Bible  Tab 
or  Ish  Tob  in  the  east  of  Bashan.  In  this  northern  region 
Jephunneh  was  commemorated  in  Jabneel,  but  Paneas,  sacred  to 
him  as  the  cjod  Pan,  was  his  chief  record.  Pan  was  the  lord  of 
Hyle  in  Greece,  which  was  a  transported  Huleh  from  the  springs 
of  Jordan  named  after  Elah,  Jephunneh's  grandson  and  the 
father  of  Uknaz.  "  How  beautiful  was  the  evening  scene  of 
rocks,  trees,  blue  mountains  and  the  extended  plain  with  the 
thread  of  the  Hha.^bani  winding:  through  it  on  the  western  side ! 
Tliere  were  also  herds  of  cattle  coming  in,  and  a  .shepherd  boy 
playing  his  rural  pipes.  What  a  scene  for  Poussin  1  I  offered  to 
buy  the  Pandean  pipe  (of  several  reeds  joined  laterally)  from  the 
boy,  wishing  to  have  it  for  my  own,  obtained  at  the  mythological 
home  of  Pan  himself — 

"Pan  primus  calamos  cera  conjungere  plures 
Instituit," 
Vtut  the  lad  asked  an  exhorbitant  price  for  it  and  strode  away. 
Then  I  rushed  up  to  make  use  of  the  fading  twilight  for  catch- 
ing at  least  a  glimpse  of  the  Greek  inscriptions  and  Pan's  grotto 
from  which  the  river  issues,  not  in  infantile  weakness,  but  boldly 
striking  an  echo  against  the  sides  of  the  natural  cavity.  "  Groat 
Pan  is  dead  !  "  as  tlie  superstitious  peasants  of  Thessaly  said,  whon 
tiifv  imagined  they  heard  the  echo  formed  into  words,  sixteen 
hun<ire(l  years  ago  ;  and  while  musing  on  the  rise  and  fall  of  the 
( "lassie  idolatry,  a  bat  Hew  past  me  out  of  the  grotto,  but  I  saw 
no  moles  for  the  old  idols  to  be  thrown  to.  Pan  was  the  mytho- 
logical fleity  presiding  over  caverns,  woods  and  streams  from 
whom  this  place  received  its  denomination  of  Panion  or  Paneas 
in  (;re<-k,or  Panium  in  Latin:  and  the  word  Paneas  becomes 
lianias  in  Arabic,  as  it  is  at  this  day."-"'  This  was  tlu^  ancient 
Tlie^saly  and  the  f)i-igiiial  liome  of  Pan,  who  was  also  Paeon, 
Apollon's  son,  and  the   father  of   .Ksculapius,  whom   Ghelbah  or 

"    I'inri,  Ijyw.iys  in  I'alcstiuf,  .'<(>5. 


200  THE  HITTITES. 

Khaleb  held  in  honour.  Apollon's  line  had  been  long  in  servitude 
to  Admetus,  feeding  that  monarch's  flocks  in  their  own  Thessaly, 
but  now,  in  the  person  of  Jabin,  king  of  Hazor,  the  sons  of 
Zochar  lifted  up  their  heads,  and  made  their  capital  no  mere 
assembling  place  for  Mohars  or  seiibes,  but  for  the  lords  of  all  the 
tribes  of  Heth. 

Unhappily  the  book  of  Joshua  furnishes  the  name  of  but  one 
other  Hittite  monarch  at  this  time,  that  of  Jobab,  king  of  Madon. 
This  name  is  identical  with  that  of  the  Temenite  son  of  Zerah, 
who  reigned  in  Edom  after  Bela,  and  whose  descendants  had  been 
Hittite  emperors  or  army  leaders  from  the  time  of  Achbor  to  that 
of  Khitasara ;  but  no  such  name  as  Madon  occurs  in  connection 
with  the  Temenites.  No  one  knows  anything  of  Madon,  and  it 
is  elsewhere  unmentioned,  save  in  the  following  chapter  of  Joshua 
where  its  name  occurs  between  those  of  Lasharon  and  Hazor.^^ 
The  Egyptian  Mohar,  however,  places  a  Matamim  somewhere  near 
Takar  and  Hamath,  which  Hamath  is  not  to  be  looked  for  in 
Syria,  but  to  be  identified  with  Hamath  Dor  in  Naphtali.  This 
Egyptian  form  recalls  Mattanah,  or  Mattanim,  which  was  a  stage 
in  Israel's  wanderings  to  the  north  of  the  Arnon,  and  thus  in  the 
midst  of  the  region  for  which  the  Hittite  tribes  contended.^- 
Pausanias  says  that  Mothone  in  Messenia  was  anciently  called 
Pedasus,  but  that  its  name  was  changed  to  Mothone  in  honour  of 
the  daughter  of  Qilneus,  son  of  Parthaon.^^  This  is  the  same 
CEneus  as  the  one  that  represents  Hanoch  the  Paseachite,  and  after 
him  the  G^nussae  islands  were  named.  He  goes  on  to  say  that 
the  Lacedemonians  o-ave  .Mothone  to  the  Nauplienses,  belonofincr 
to  the  most  ancient  Egyptians  who  left  Egypt  with  Danaus  in 
the  third  generation,  and  who  received  their  name  from  Nauplius, 
the  son  of  Amymone.  The  Bias  river  with  Aepea  and  Pylos  in 
the  same  region  of  south-western  Messenia  bear  out  this  Paseachite 
connection  of  Mothone.  Now  Hercules  married  the  daughter  of 
G^]nens,  or  Hanoch,  by  whom  he  had  a  son  Hyllus,  or  Joel.  The 
Greek  genealogists  place  Cleodaeus  and  Aristomachus,  two  gen- 
erations, Vjotween  Hyllus  and  Temenus,  who  are  the  Joel    and 


31   JoHh.  xii.  19. 
33   Numb.  xxi.  18. 
■"   VdXK.  iv.  .S.'). 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  201 

Shema  of  the  Kenite  list.  But  the  son  of  Temenus  is  Cisus  or 
Casus,  and  his  son  is  Phlias,  answering  to  the  Kenite  Azaz  or 
Gazaz,  son  of  Shema,  and  Bela  or  Belag,  son  of  Gazaz.  To  Cisus 
another  son  is  given,  namely  Medon  the  father  of  Lacidas  and 
grandfather  of  Meltas,  who  were  virtually  deprived  of  regal 
authorit}'.^*  Homer  mentions  a  Medon  who  with  Podarces  fought 
at  the  head  of  the  Phthii,  and  calls  him  a  natural  son  of  Oileus, 
the  father  of  Ajax,  these  two  being  Joel  and  his  grandson  Azaz. 
The  poet  adds  that  Medon  had  killed  the  brother  of  Eriopis  his 
step-mother,  on  which  account  he  had  fled  to  Phylace.^^  The  only 
other  Medon  of  any  importance  who  occurs  in  legendary  Grecian 
history  is  the  son  of  Codrus,  who,  after  his  father  had  sacrificed 
himself  for  the  welfare  of  Athens,  going  out  as  a  woodman  to 
meet  his  death  at  the  hands  of  the  hostile  Dorians,  became  the 
first  perpetual  Archon  and  the  head  of  the  Medontidae.  His  period 
is  one  marked  by  great  migrations,  which  are  represented  by  the 
departure  from  Attica  of  his  brother  Neleus,  who  expatriated 
himself,  beinw  indignant  that  a  lame  man  should  be  chosen  before 
him.  Codrus  traced  his  descent  from  Neleus,  the  father  of  Nestor 
but  it  was  properly  on  the  mother's  side,  for  Bias  had  married 
Pero,  the  daughter  of  Neleus.  The  separation  of  the  latter  Neleus 
from  Medon  may  thus  indicate  a  severance  of  the  Heraclid,  from 
tiie  Nairi  family,  but  the  connection  is  obscure.  The  rule  of  the 
Medonti<lae  ceased  with  Hippomenes,  who  had  shut  up  his  oflend- 
ino-  dauo-hter  with  a  wild  horse  which  killed  her,  and  draofo^ed  her 
accomplice  to  death  behind  his  chariot.  For  these  acts  of  cruelty 
his  descendants  were  deprived  of  the  archonship.^''  Methana  in 
Ai'golis  was  sacred  to  Hermes  and  Hercules ;  the  Troezene  with 
which  it  is  connected  is  thus  a  record  of  Begem,  and  the  allied 
Herinione,  as  a  foundation  of  Hermion,  son  of  Europs,  sets  forth 
Harum  as  the  step-son  of  Kapha.  As  the  Oilean  Medon  was  a 
Locrian,  so  in  ancient  British  history  his  counterpart  Maddan  is 
th(i  son  of  Locrin  and  Gwendolaena.'^''  The  exile  of  Medon  inen- 
tione<l  by  Homer  in  connection  with  Ajax,  who  is  Azaz,  introduces 
the  ancestry  of  the  philosoplier  Pythagoi-as.     The  son  of  Azaz 

■'•  I'aiiH.  ii.  1!);  Schuhart,  (^ncntioncH  (Icnealogicac  llistoricae. 

•■■■■  nia<l,  ii.  727. 

•'■  See  .Viitlioritif's  in  Kawliiisoii's  lI(,To(lotus,  ajip.  bk.  v.     J'>ssay  ii.  l.S,  note  i). 

'■■  (icoffrcy's  I'ritiKli  History,  ii.  (i. 


202  THE   HITTITES. 

or  Gazaz  was  Bela  or  Belag,  and  he  is  Phlias,  the  son  of  Casus, 
son  of  Temenus,  and  probably  the  same  person  as  Phalx  called 
Temenus'  son  and  the  father  of  Rhegnidas.  In  the  time  of 
Rhegnidas,  says  Pausanias,  the  faction  of  Hippasus,  being  unwill- 
ing to  submit  to  him,  fled  to  Samos,  where  Hippasus  became  the 
father  of  Euphron,  from  whom,  through  Mnesarchus  came  Pytha- 
goras.^ But  Diogenes  Laertius  derives  Pythagoras,  through 
Mnesarchus  and  Marmacus,  from  the  same  Hippasus,  and  makes 
the  latter  the  son  of  Euthyphron  instead  of  the  father  of  Euphron, 
giving  Cleonymus,  an  exile  from  Phlias,  as  Euthyphron's  father. ^^ 
Cleonymus,  or  Clysonemus,  again  is  represented  as  the  son  of 
Amphidamas  and  grandson  of  Lycurgus,  being  thus  made  a  brother 
of  Milanion.'*'^  In  British  story  Maddan  is  the  father  of  Malim, 
who  was  murdered  by  his  brother  Mempricius  after  Maddan's 
death.  The  character  of  Mempricius  is  painted  in  the  blackest 
colours  as  a  tyrant  and  debaucher.  He  was  eaten  up  by  wolves, 
and  left  the  throne  to  his  son  Ebraucus.  The  mystery  is  hard  to 
penetrate,  for  we  are  deserted  by  the  Kenite  lists,  but  this  is  clear 
that  the  names  of  Madon  and  Jobab  stand  in  some  historical 
relation  to  the  mourning  of  Meholah,  for  Milanion  of  Amphidamas 
has  been  found  in  connection  with  the  daughter  of  Jezreel,  who 
is  Corineus  (like  Zeraheen),  the  father  of  the  British  Gwendolen. 
Gwendolen  herself  bears  the  name  of  Samlah,  Mahalah's  father, 
who  is  Gwenddoleu  of  the  cannibal  birds.  Mempricius,  or  Meu- 
prit,  and  the  Medontid  Hippomenes  represent  a  family  upon  which 
a  curse  rested  on  account  of  a  barbarous  punishment  which  one 
of  its  members  inflicted  on  Mahalah  and  the  accomplice  of  his 
crime.  Every  indication  marks  that  family  as  belonging  to  the 
Heraclidae,  but  not  in  the  main  line  represented  by  Bela,  the 
Phlias  of  the  Greeks. 


■■'•«   Paus.  ii.  13. 

"'■'   Diog.  Laert.  viii.  1. 

<"   This  Milanion  reflects  Mahalah. 


203 


CHAPTER    XVII. 

The  Hittites  in  Palestine  and  the  Neighbouring 
Countries    Before    the    Rise    oe    the    Assyrian    Empire 

(Concluded). 

Although  the  Buzites  of  Eker  were  not  Hittites,  but  a 
Japhetic  people,  they  stood  in  such  intimate  relationship  to  the 
Heraclidae  and  the  Paseachites  that  some  knowledge  of  their 
history  is  absolutely  necessar}-  for  purposes  of  synchronism. 
Next  to  Buz,  the  most  prominent  member  of  their  race  was 
Abihail  or  Abichail,  and  his  name  is  variously  rendered,  accord- 
ing as  value  is  given  to  the  aspirate  or  not,  by  Iphicles,  Phigalus, 
Q^balus,  Naubolus,  Nauplius,  the  two  last  being  nunnated  like 
Nifiung  and  Nergal.^  Among  the  Phaeacians  of  Corey ra  who 
represent  the  Buzites  in  the  Odyssey,  Abihail  appears  as 
Naubolus,  Michael  as  Anchialus,  Gilead  as  Clytoueus.  Nauplius, 
who  was  an  Argonaut,  is  called  the  son  of  Clytoneus,  but  also  of 
Poseidon  and  Amymone,  who  is  Jemima  the  daughter  of  Job. 
(Eneus  again,  who  is  Hanoch,  the  son  of  Jolj,  is  made  a  king  of 
Calydon,  named  after  the  same  Gilead.  And  Iphicles  is  repres- 
ented as  the  twin  brother  of  Hercules,  who  married  the  daughter 
of  Hanoch  or  Q^neus.  Between  Gilead  and  Abihail,  however,  the 
Kenite  list  inserts  Jaroach  and  Cliuri.  The  Laconian  genealo- 
gies make  confusion  worse  confounded,  for  Michael  as  Amyclas 
is  the  father  of  Hyacinthus,  or  Jachan,  and  Argalus;  Cynortas 
follows  Argalus,  and  (Elbalus  the  son  of  Cynortas  marries  Gorgo- 
phone  tiio  daughter  of  Perseus.  Other  accounts  represent 
<Ebahis  as  the  son  of  Argulius,  or  of  Telon  and  the  nymph 
Sehethis.  Now  Sebethis  belongs,  as  a  name,  to  this  family,  being 
the  Kenite  Shaphat.  and  being  geographically  conncctt'd  as  Safed 
in  Palestine,  an<l  Sybota  in  Epii'us.  The  Sebethus  river  in 
Campania  also  is  in  the  midst  <jf  Buzite  names,  and   is  specially 

'    1  Chn.ii.  V.  i:m5. 


204  THE   HITTITES. 

associated  with  Neapolis,  which  indeed,  means  the  new  city,  as 
Nablous  is  supposed  to  have  done  in  Palestine ;  but,  as  the  latter 
is  an  adaptation  of  the  ancient  Ebal,  so  is  the  former  of  an 
ancient  Abihail.  If  it  be  true  that  Abihail  is  the  (Ebalus  who 
married  a  daughter  of  Perseus,  he  may  at  the  same  time  be  the 
Iphicles  who  was  born  on  the  same  day  as  Hercules,  for  Hercules 
in  this  case  will  be  Shimon,  son  of  Hadar,  the  Sem  Hercules  of 
the  Egyptians.  In  this  case,  Tahath,  or  the  first  Rameses  would 
seem  to  have  gained  over  for  a  time,  at  least,  the  once  faithful 
Praetorians  of  the  dynasty  of  Jabez  to  his  cause,  which  explains 
the  sudden  collapse  of  its  fortunes  and  the  exile  of  Caphtorim. 
But  all  were  not  thus  reduced,  for  Meshullam,  the  second  son  of 
Abihail  is  the  Masraim  who  fought  at  Kadesh  against  Rameses. 
He  is  called  the  brother  of  Khitasara,  which  he  can  only  have 
been  by  marriage  or  by  courtesy.  Still  another  name  for 
Abihail  is  Cypselus  connecting  with  Corinth  and  Arcadia. 
Pausanias  describes  the  ancient  coffer  with  undecipherable  char- 
acters in  boustrophedon  order  in  which  Cypselus  was  preserved 
from  the  wrath  of  the  Bacchiadae ;  but  he  also  tells  how 
Cypselus  married  his  daughter  to  the  Heraclid  Cresphonfces,  and 
how,  when  the  oligarchs  killed  Cresphontes  and  all  his  children 
but  one,  because  he  was  more  friendly  with  the  poor  than  with 
the  rich,  Cypselus  took  care  of  his  grandson  yEpytus  and  so 
advanced  him  that  the  Heraclidae  came  to  be  called  the 
/Epytidae.'^  From  ^pytus  descended  Sybotas,  a  Shaphat, 
through  Glaucus,  Isthmius  and  Dotadas.  But  Glaucus,  wdio 
sacrificed  to  Machaon,  the  son  of  iEsculapius,  and  Isthmius  his 
son  who  raised  a  temple  to  Gorgasus  and  Nicomachus,  look 
suspiciously  like  the  Zocharite  Keilali  the  Garmite  and  Eshtemoa 
the  Maachathite,  sons  of  Nacham,  introduced,  through  some 
alliance,  into  the  genealogy.  The  Kenite  account  is  that  Joel  the 
first  and  Shapham  the  next  and  Jaanai  and  Shaphat  dwelt  in 
the  land  of  Baslian  unto  Salcah.^  If  the  Hebrew  word  ha 
ro.sA,  tlie  first,  were  brought  into  connection  with  Shapham,  it 
would    furnish    Cresphontes.     Sphettus,  the    name  of    an  Attic 


-    Pau.s.  V.  17  ;  viii.  .o. 

■'   1  Chron.   V.   12.     The  names  may  denote  sub-tribes  (>f  wliom  these  were  the 
ponvms. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  205 

deme,  also  denotes  a  son  of  Troezen.  Sopeithes  is  the  Indian 
form  of  the  name  as  preserved  by  the  classical  geographers,  who 
place  the  people,  so  called  after  their  king,  near  the  Cathaei.* 
The  line  of  Shaphat  apparently  belonged  to  the  Heraclidae,  and 
Cresphontes  may  find  its  explanation  in  the  place  called  by  the 
Assyrian  Samas-Rimmon  Kar-Sibutai,  which  is  suspiciously  like 
the  modern  Khorsabad/''  Were  the  initial  Kar  prefixed  to 
Shapham,  as  it  here  is  to  Shaphat,  the  desired  Cresphontes  would 
result,  and  Shaphat  w^ould  be  placed  in  the  second  or  third 
generation  after  the  Hittite  Khitasara,  and  liis  aid  Masraim  or 
Meshullam,  thus  bringing  him  down  to  the  time  of  Joshua's 
conquest.  If,  however,  an  ^pytus  intervene,  Shaphat  will  be 
much  later,  and  ^pytus,  like  Hippotas  and  Hippomenes,  may 
represent  Jobab  of  Madon. 

Shapham  and  his  sons  Jaanai  or  Jagnai  and  Shaphat  open  up 
a  wide  field  of  historical  tradition.  In  Indian  story  Shapham  is 
Asvina,  and  the  two  Asvins  his  sons  are  Jishnu  and  Subhaga. 
Whether  they  received  their  names  from  already  existing  divini- 
ties who  gave  names  to  the  Assyrian  months,  or  wei'e  the  namers 
of  the  months,  can  hardly  be  determined  at  this  stage  of  enquiry, 
but  it  is  certain  that  Shapham  answx-is  to  the  month  Sivanu  or 
the  twins,  and  Shaphat  to  Sabadhu.  The  equestrian  Asvins  wei'e 
in  the  Greek  mythology  Despoina  and  Arion,  and  Pausanias 
makes  Despoina  the  same  as  Per-sephone,  daughter  of  Demeter 
and  Poseidon  Hippotes.  The  Phigalunses  or  people  of  Abichail 
represented  Demeter  or  Ceres  with  the  head  of  a  horse.  In  the 
Zend  Avesta,  Cresphontes  or  Shaj)ham  is  Keresaspa,  the  brother 
of  L'rvakhshya  and  son  of  Sam,  a  descendant  ef  Trita.  It  is 
related  of  him  that,  carrying  the  clul)  Gaesus,  he  went  to  ti^ht 
the  poisonous  serpent  Siiivara,  that  with  green  venom  killed 
h(jrs(.'S  and  men.  As  the  serpent  lay  stretched  out  on  the  l);mk 
of  a  rivei'.  Keresaspa  mistook  it  for  the  solid  eai'th  and  lit  a  iii'e 
on  its  back  wli(.'rt,'\vith  to  cook  his  dinner.  Thru  it  plungeil  into 
the  sti'i'ani,  disconeertiiig  the  hero  I'or  tlie  time,  hut  he  afterwards 
.blew  it  and  the  goldiMi-he(_'led  demon  Zairi-pashna.''       In  Sanscrit 

'  souIm,,  XV.  I,  ;io. 

■    l;.<-oni.s  ,,f  tl,.-  I'a.t,  i.   17. 

•'    /..  inl  Av.-la,   V:i.-,iiH  i\.  Spi.-rl  and  I'.L-rrk,  hot.-,.. 


206  THE    HITTITES. 

story  the  advocate  of  the  Asvins  is  Chyavana,  a  son  of  Bhrigu 
who  sprang  from  the  fire  with  Kavi  and  Angiras.  It  was  when 
Indra  refused  to  drink  Soma  with  the  Asvins  that  Chyavana  sent 
the  monster  Mada  to  swallow  up  the  gods.  The  history  of 
the  Shaphathites  is  very  obscure,  but  their  connections  come  out 
more  clearh^  in  ^lexico  than  elsewhere,  inasmuch  as  it  contained 
a  colony  of  that  people,  from  whom  the  traditions  of  the  Zapotecs 
were  learned  by  the  Spaniards.  The  Zapotecs  and  Mixtecatl  or  Mix- 
tecs  were  twin  tribes,  deriving  their  origin  from  two  great  trees 
which  sprang  into  existence  suddenly  by  the  side  of  a  river  at 
the  mouth  of  the  pass  of  Apoala.  They  inhabited  Yanquitlan 
and  the  shores  of  the  lake  of  Rualo.  Their  Buddha-like  teacher, 
white  and  bearded,  wearing  a  pointed  capuchin  over  his  head 
and  carrying  a  cross  in  his  hand,  was  named  Wixipecocha. 
He  was,  like  Buddha,  represented  in  a  sitting  position  listening 
to  the  confession  of  a  kneeling  woman.  His  doctrine  was  one  of 
self-abnegation,  of  withdrawal  from  all  the  pleasures  of  sense, 
and  of  the  practice  of  penitence  and  mortification.  In  Wixipe- 
cocha plainly  appears  Paseacli,  the  original  Pthah  or  Buddha,  in 
the  Hubisegan  or  Khupuscian  form  of  his  name  ;  and  the  lake 
Rualo  took  its  name,  doubtless,  from  Rahula,  called  the  son  of 
Buddha,  but  who  is  the  Kenite  Aharhel.  The  priesthood  of 
Yopaa  seems  to  have  been  connected  with  his  creed,  as  well  as 
that  exercised  by  a  succession  of  Wiyataos,  who  were  kings  and 
priests  in  the  cavern  cit\'  of  Yopaa.  The  Mixtecs  also  wor- 
shipped Petela,  perhaps  at  Mictla,  where  thei-e  was  a  mass  of 
ecclesiastical  Vjuilding  called  "  the  supreme  fortress  of  Pezelao," 
who  was  the  same  as  the  Mictlan-teuctli  or  god  of  the  dead 
among  the  ]\[exicans  pi'oper."  Pausanias  is  right  in  connecting 
Cresphontes  and  Cypselus,  for  Shaphat,  the  ancestor  of  the  Zapo- 
tecs, is  shown  by  their  brief  history  to  have  descended  from 
Abihail,  as  Apoalo  and  Pezelao,  while  Mixtecatl  or  Mictla  repre- 
sents Michael,  his  eldest  son,  and  Petela,  his  i-elative  Abdiel. 
The  name  of  Yopaa  may  be  that  of  Job  connecting  with  Ahnrhcl 
in  Rualo,  through  Hanoch  in  Yancui-tlan,  or  it  may  denote  Jobab 
of  Madon  as  of  this  line.  ^Yllat  renders  the  latter  prol)able  is 
that  Zaachilla  is  the  chief  royal  name  among  the  Zapotecs,  and 

■    15.  <lc  Ijiiurl.iour;,',  Xatiuiis  Civilis.-'.-^,  Tome  iii.  cli.  1. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  207 

it  is  the  same  as  Keilah  or  Ka^ilah,  the  Zocharite  ancestor  of 
Jabin,  king  of  Hazor. 

The  Zapotecs  and  Mixtecs  were  the  offspring  of  the  two  trees 
of  Apoalo.  There  is  no  tradition  associating  Apulia  in  southern 
Italy  with  apples,  although  Athenaeus  mentions  a  kind  of  apple 
called  phaidian.  But  in  the  poems  of  the  Welsh  Merddin  is  one 
called  the  Avallenau,  or  the  apple  trees,  wherein  he  mysteriously 
describes  the  trees  which  Gwenddoleu  exhibited  to  him  under  the 
care  of  the  divine  maid  Olwen.^  These  trees  with  their  white 
blossoms  were  in  danger  from  the  men  in  black,  who  represent 
the  priests  of  Saul  of  Rehoboth.  They  were  also  sacred  to 
Gwenddolen,  the  lady  of  the  white  bow,  whom  Geoffrey  makes 
the  mother  of  Maddan.  It  may  be,  therefore,  that  Maddan  and 
Merddin  are  one  and  the  same  personage,  representing  a  branch 
of  the  Heraclidae  that  had  given  up  the  peacel'ul  and  monotheistic 
traditions  of  Paseach  and  Job  in  favour  of  the  idolatrous  and 
barbarous  rites  of  Samlah,  or  Gwendolen.  Is  not  the  vale  of 
Avallenau  that  of  Avilion,  famous  in  the  story  of  Arthur  ?  In 
Xorse  m\'thology  the  apples  are  in  the  possession  of  Iduna  the 
wife  of  Bragi,  but  she  is  stolen  away  by  the  giant  Thjassi  through 
the  treachery  of  the  tempter  Loki.  By  the  absence  of  the  apples 
the  dwellers  in  Asgard  languish  and  are  threatened  with  extinction, 
when  Loki  reluctantly  brings  Iduna  back  and  the  o'io-antic  bird 
Thjassi  is  put  to  death.'^  Bragi  the  singer  is  the  same  as  the 
Sanscrit  Bhrigu,  father  of  Chyavana.  in  America  the  Natchez 
or  Naktche  were  called  tlie  Epelois,  or  Apple  people  ;  but  the 
Apalachians  of  Floi'ida  were  the  true  owners  of  this  name.  Tiie 
Hitchitis  atid  Mikasukis  are  classed  with  them  by  Mr.  Gatschet.^" 
One  of  their  tcnvns  was  Pattali,  answering  to  the  ^lixtec  Petela 
and  the  Kenite  Abdiel.  In  Arrian's  Peri])lus  of  the  Black  Sea  lie 
mentions  tlie  Apsili  and  Abasci  of  Caucasus  as  near  neighbours, 
and  not  far  off  the  Machelones  and  Heniochi  under  their  king 
Ancliialus.  The  various  stories  in  whicli  tlie  ap])le  figures,  includ- 
ing that  of  the  ilesperides,  seem  to  resolve  tlunnselves  into  con- 
tests for  the  friendship  of  tiie  Ekronites  to  whom  Abihail  beIon<>'ed, 


'    I);ivi.'s'  Druids. 
'•'    Tl,.-  I'roM.  Ivlda. 
•"    .\Ii''ruti')ii  \ii''in(\. 


208  THE   HITTITES. 

these  being  captains  of  brave  warriors,  whose  services  were  capable 
of  deciding  the  destinies  of  opposing  forces  on  the  battle  field. 
They  had  been  the  guardians  of  the  throne  of  Jabez,  and,  after 
the  expulsion  of  the  Caphtorim  to  Palestine,  they  adhered  to 
the  fortunes  of  the  Paseachites  and  the  Heraclidae.  They  may 
be  traced  throughout  the  whole  area  of  Hittite  migration,  as,  for 
instance,  in  northern  India,  where  they  were  the  Passalae  and  the 
namers  of  Peucela  in  the  Punjab.  This  union  of  a  Japhetic  race 
with  the  fortunes  of  a  Hittite  people  is  a  fact  of  great  importance 
in  ethnological  research.  Their  connection  with  the  family  of 
Aharhel,  son  of  Harum  and  grandson  of  Regem  or  Sargon,  explains 
the  appearance  of  the  name  Sagara  as  that  of  kings  of  Carchemish, 
and  of  Sagal,  or  Sangala,  as  the  capital  of  the  Cathaei  in  the 
Punjab,  for  this  name  is  a  version  of  that  of  Eker  or  Geker,  the 
head  of  the  race  of  Buz  and  Abihail.  Besides  being  the  same  as 
Sukra  and  Sokkari,  names  associated  with  Buddha  and  Pthah,  it 
also  means  an  apple,  being  the  Basque  sagar  with  that  signification. 
As  two  incidents  in  Joshua's  victorious  career  have  found 
illustration  in  the  story  of  the  Latin  Hercules,  it  is  natural  to 
expect  that  the  same  story  should  make  mention  of  Jabin,  king 
of  Hazor.  It  does,  but  with  historical  inaccuracy,  for  Evander, 
who  is  Jabin,  is  represented  as  the  friend  of  Hercules  and  the 
enemy  of  Cacus.  That  Jabin  and  Gog  were  enemies  is  ver}^  likely, 
and  the  former  may  have  rejoiced  when  the  giant  of  Bashan  fell ; 
but,  when  Joshua  crossed  the  Jordan  and  prepared  to  conquer  all 
Canaan,  he  could  not  Ijut  rise  in  defence  of  his  home  and  people. 
If  Virgil  is  to  be  believed,  Evander  had  fought  under  the  walls  of 
Praeneste  and  had  slain  its  king  Herilus,  but  now  the  time  of  his 
exile  from  Arcadia,  the  home  of  Pan,  had  come,  or  rather  the  time 
of  the  exile  of  his  race,  for  Jabin,  king  of  Hazor,  was  smitten  with 
the  sword  and  his  city  burned  with  fire.  Evander  is  vouched  for 
as  Jabin  by  the  name  of  his  mother  Carmenta,  which  denotes  the 
senior  Zocharite  line  of  Garmi,  of  whom  Keilah,  or  Kagilah,  was 
the  father.  Several  generations  must  have  interposed  between 
Uarmi  and  Jabin,  for  Zophar  the  Naamathite,  a  Zephyrus  from 
wliom  th(;  Epizephyrian  Locrians  were  named  wlio  founded 
llipponum  and  Medina  in  Bruttium,  was  a  fi'iend  of  Job.  The 
■>istL'r  of  Nahani  also  was  the  wife  of  Jether,  the  son  of  Ezi'a,  oi' 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  209 

of  his  brother  Mered.  In  the  annals  of  Central  America,  Kagilah 
is  called  Cuculean,  and  in  Celtic  tradition  he  is  named  Cuchullin, 
Congcullion,  and  Cuthullin.  But  in  Mexican  history  he  is  the 
first  Acolhua,  the  head  of  the  Acolhua  Tepanecs,  who  early  entered 
Mexico  and  took  possession  of  Huexotla,  a  Mexican  Hazor,  which 
became  their  capital.^^  Ossian  unites  the  name  of  Cuchullin  with 
the  story  of  Deirdre  and  Naois,  which,  however,  he  tells  in  a  way 
quite  different  from  that  of  the  Irish  historian.  His  Deirdre  is 
Darthula,  the  daughter  of  CoUa,  who  is  beloved  by  Cairbar,  the 
murderer  of  Cormac  king  of  Ireland,  but  also  by  Nathos,  the  Irish 
Naois.  This  Nathos  is  the  son  of  Usnoth,  lord  of  Etha,  and  Slis- 
hama,  the  daughter  of  Semo  and  sister  of  Cuthullin.  When 
Cuthullin,  who  was  regent  for  Cormac,  fell  in  putting  down  an 
insurrection,  Nathos  took  his  place  as  commander  of  the  Irish 
army.  He  carried  off"  Darthula,  but  a  storm  drove  him  with  his 
bride  and  his  two  brothers,  Althos  and  Ardan,  on  to  that  part  of 
the  Ulster  coast  which  was  held  by  Cairbar.  The  three  brothers 
were  killed  in  battle  and  Darthula  died  on  the  body  of  Nathos. 
Cuthullin  again,  whose  castle  is  Tura,  must  be  the  same  person  as 
Cathulla  king  of  Inistore,  whose  palace  was  Carric-Thura,  in 
which  he  was  besieged  by  Frothal,  king  of  Sora,  until  Fingal 
delivered  him.  Cathulla,  however,  is  called  the  son  of  Sarno  and 
the  brother  of  Comala ;  and  in  his  time  Fingal  defeated  Caracul, 
who  is  certainly  not  Caracalla.^^  In  Irish  history,  Fionn,  son  of 
Cumhal,  and  grandson  of  Trein  More,  the  same  person  as  Ossian's 
Finj;al,  is  made  the  son-in-law  of  Kino;  Cormac.  His  first  wife 
Graine  was  taken  away  from  him  by  Diarmuid  O'Duibhne,  but 
when  this  took  place  Cormac  gave  him  his  second  daughter  Ailbhe 
in  her  stead.  In  Ossian,  Comala,  daughter  of  Sarno,  was  beloved 
by  Fingal,  but  Roscranna,  Cormac's  daughter,  is  made  his  wife. 
It  is  abundantly  evident  that  Fingal  and  all  his  race  were  opposed 
to  the  civilized  powers  represented  by  Erragon,  Lathmon,  Swaran 
of  Lochlin,  and  Berrathon,  who  .set  forth  the  families  of  Regem 
and  Beeroth.  Yet  his  friendship  with  tiie  Rephuim  and  descent 
from  Sanilah  as  Cumhal  is  not  borne  out  by  Irish  tradition,  in 
whicli  Eochaidh,  son  of  Conuiaol,  or  Ishod,  son  of  Sumlali,  is  the 


"    15.  'If;  l>()urt><)ur)<. 
'-'    .Mac|it]fr.-iiiii,   ().>si;ui. 
(14) 


210  THE   HITTITES. 

murderer  of  Cearmna  and  Sobhairce,  or  Garmi  and  Zophar. 
Scottish  history  is  in  its  legendary  region  largely  Zerethite  and 
Zocharite,  containing  in  its  genealogies  such  names  as  Dardanusj 
Evenus,  Gormachus,  and  Domachus,  or  Zereth,  Jabin,  Garmi,  and 
Eshtemoag.  The  last  king  of  the  first  period  of  Scottish  history, 
who  is  said  to  have  fallen  in  battle  against  the  Romans,  was  an 
Evenus,  the  fourth  of  that  name  and  son  of  Fin  Gormachus,  after 
whose  death  the  Scots  took  refuge  in  Scandinavia,  or  Lochlin.^^ 
Lochlin  is  itself  very  like  Lugalginna,  the  Accadian  name  of 
Sargon  of  Agade.^*  The  second  period  begins  like  the  first  with 
a  Fergus,  but  his  son  was  the  fifth  Evenus,  and  he  was  under  the 
tutelage  of  his  maternal  grandfather  Graeme.  Uven  and  Girorfi 
appear  each  only  once  in  the  Pictish  Chronicles,  but  there  are 
several  names  compounded  with  Fen.  Similar  to  the  last  is  the 
Eddaic  Fenrir,  the  wolf  or  Calebite,  and  to  his  line,  as  enemies  of 
the  ^sir,  belong  the  dog  Garm  or  Gamier,  Surtur  of  Muspellheim, 
and  Loki.  These,  representing  the  Jephunnites,  Garmites,  Zere- 
thites,  and  Amalekites,  are  yet,  according  to  Scandinavian  pro- 
phecy, to  break  forth  upon  the  dwellers  in  Valhalla  and  involve 
the  universe  in  conflagration.^^  Thus  the  demons  of  Norse 
mythology  are  the  heroes  of  Ossianic  verse. 

The  history  of  Japan  ought  to  contain  the  record  of  this 
family,  and  it  probably  does,  but  the  introduction  of  Chinese 
characters  into  Japan  has  given  to  proper  names  in  particular  a 
vagueness  that  almost  defies  comparison  with  those  of  other 
histories.  Everywhere, moreover,  the  Zocharites  held  a  dependent 
position.  Within  the  northern  Hittite  area,  there  does  not  seem 
to  have  existed  an  independent  Zocharite  kingdom.  In  Trojan 
story,  the  ruling  family  is  Dardanian,  not  Teucrian.  In  Assyria 
the  Tiglaths  are  a  mere  section  of  the  Ashers.  In  Libya  and 
Cyrene  they  were  dominated  by  the  Rephaim,  and  governed  by 
the  Buzites.  So  in  Japan  they  are  almost  merged  in  the  Hama- 
thites,  or  people  of  Yamato.  The  first  king  of  Japan  was  Zinmou, 
also  called  Sano,  and  he  was  the  youngest  son  of  Fiko-no-kisa, 
whose  mother  was  the  sea  goddess  Toyo  Tama,  whom  Fiko-fofo 

'■''    Buchanan,  Rerum  Scoticarum  Historia. 
1*   It  is  more  likely  a  form  of  Locrin. 
•■'   Prose  Edda. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  211 

or  Urashima  of  Midzunoe  lost  by  his  curiosity.  The  bereaved 
monarch  has  been  well  identified  with  Kudur  Mabug,  or  Jether 
the  son  of  Ezra;  and  his  son  Fiko-no-kisa,  if  the  eldest  of  his 
three  sons,  should  be  Jered  or  Ardu-Sin  of  Elam.  But  there  is 
reason  to  think  that  the  Japanese  line  is  that  of  the  Hamathite3 
proper,  and  that  the  youngest  son  of  Jether,  namely,  Jekuthiel, 
is  this  Fiko-no-kisa,  and  ihat  his  son  Zanoah  is  Zinmou  or 
Sano.^^  The  original  Zanoah  was  in  Judah  near  Keilah  and 
other  Zocharite  places,  but  when  moved  into  the  north  the  name 
seems  to  have  been  changed  to  Zaanaim,  a  different  word,  for  the 
Kenites  dwelt  there,  and  in  its  vicinity  was  Hamath-Dor.  It  was 
thus  near  Hazor  and  Kadesh.  The  name  Japan  is  nunnated  in 
Japanese,  being  Niphon,  but  the  Chinese  knew  the  country  which 
the  Japanese  call  Yamato  as  Jipen.  The  honorific  title  of 
Zinmou  was  Yaonato-no  Iiva  are  fiko-no  mikoto,  but  in  Chinese 
Jy  pen  phan  yu  yan  tsun.  Gofon  appears  to  have  been  the 
name  of  the  Seoguns,  or  generalissimos  of  the  Japanese  monarchs, 
.so  that  the  line  of  Jephunneli  played  the  same  role  in  Japan  as 
in  Ireland,  where  Fionn,  son  of  Cumhal,  was  the  commander  of 
the  famous  militia.  The  two  accounts,  separated  by  so  great  a 
distance,  go  back  to  Hamath  in  Syria,  and  the  earlier  Hamath- 
Dor  in  Naphtali.  When,  therefore,  we  find  a  Jabin  on  the  throne 
of  Hazor,  the  Katsoura  where  the  second  Japanese  emperor 
established  himself,  it  must  be  concluded,  either  that  the  name  of 
the  legitimate  sovereign  of  the  northern  Hittites  is  suppressed,  as 
being  that  of  a  faineant,  or  that  Jabin  was  an  usurper  of  royal 
authority.  In  Peru  the  Zocharites  are  well  represented,  for  the 
Yupancjuis  come  in  earlier  into  the  list  of  sovereigns  and  are 
more  numerous  than  the  Amautas  or  Hamaths.  Several  Huascars 
are  scattered  among  them,  so  that  Oscar  is  represented,  but  Ossian, 
his  father,  is  not  to  be  found.  Yet  Osin  is  a  Japanese  name, 
denoting  an  emperor  of  note,  the  sixteenth  since  the  cominence- 
ment  of  sovereignty.  He  was  the  son  of  Tsou-ai,  who  fell  fighting 
against  the  Oso  of  Tsukuzi,  and  of  his  warlike  wife,  Singou 
Kwogou,  who  carried  out  successfully  the  campaign  he  had 
begun,  bringing  many  lands  under  her  sway.  Osin  was  a 
posthumous  child,  and  a  king  from  his  birth.     He  was  born  with 

'■   Titsin^fli  ;  coini).  i.  Cliroii.  iv.  18. 


212  ^  THE    HITTITES. 

a  wen  on  his  arm  of  the  shape  of  a  buckler,  which  gave  him  the 
name  of  Fonda.  He  dwelt  at  Karuno  Sima,  brought  many 
colonists  into  the  country,  built  great  stables  (which  may  have 
been  the  Augean  ones  that  Hercules  cleansed),  instituted  the 
judicial  ordeal  of  boiling  water,  encouraged  the  great  philosopher 
Wonin  from  Fiaksai,  and  after  his  death  was  honored  as  a  god, 
when  eight  white  standards  fell  from  the  skies  upon  his  temple.^'^ 
His  sons  signalized  their  joint  reign  by  an  amiable  contest  of 
renunciation  of  empire  in  favour  of  each  other,  which  was  ended 
by  Ratsugo  putting  an  end  to  his  life  for  his  brother's  sake. 
Then  Nintok  or  Osazagi,  aided  by  the  counsels  of  Wonin,  became 
the  father  of  his  people,  one  of  the  most  excellent  monarchs  that 
ever  sat  on  the  throne  of  Japan.  Some  new  light  may  be  shed  by 
the  story  of  Osin  on  the  history  of  Husham  of  the  land  of  Temeni,^ 
and  the  mysterious  Sigurd  or  Siegfried  who  is  connected  with 
him,  but  no  Fingall,  save  by  matriarchy,  can  be  made  his 
father. 

With  Jabin  of  Hazor,  the  Zocharite  generalissimo  of  the 
Hittites,  Jobab  of  Madon,  an  exiled  Heraclid,  was  confederate. 
The  king  of  Shimron  Meron,  whose  name  connects  with  the 
waters  of  Merom,  with  Miriam  the  Hamathite  princess,  and  with 
Saul  of  Rehoboth,  as  a  Myrmidon,  joined  their  forces.  Not  only 
Hittites,  but  all  the  tribes  of  Canaan  were  called  to  make  a  stand 
against  the  intrusion  of  Israel,  including  the  Japhetic  Dorians 
from  Dor,  the  Goim  or  Achaeans  of  Gilgal,  and  the  Ekronites  or 
Buzites  from  Lasharon.  Some  Kenites,  who  had  retained  the 
ancestral  name  of  Hepher,  rendered  assistance.  The  Tappuans 
or  Tappuchans  of  the  family  of  MaReshah  mustered  to  the  fray, 
with  the  Amalekites  of  Kedesh,  the  Maachathites  of  Megiddo,  the 
Paseachites  of  Taanach,  and  the  men  of  Jokneam  of  Carmel,. 
perhaps  of  the  race  of  Samlah.  Other  levies  came  from  Aphek, 
Achshaph,  and  Tirzah,  places  whose  ethnical  relations  are  undeter- 
mined, and  from  an  equally  obscure  Chinnerotb  to  the  south  of  the 
sea  of  Galilee.  Many  a  time  the  Hittites  had  assembled  to 
protect  their  homes  against  Egyptians,  Amorites,  and  hostile 
tribes  of  their  own  race,  and  had  successfully  rolled  back  the 
tide  of  war.     But  they  had  never  yet  encountered  an  army  strong 

'^   Titsingh,  Annalew. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  213 

in  the  faith  of  an  over-ruling  Providence  and  imbued  with  deep 
and  earnest  religious  enthusiasm,  such  as  that  which  faced  them 
by  the  w^aters  of  Merom.  The  trained  bands  of  Jabin  could  not 
withstand  the  shock  of  the  footmen,  before  whom  chariot  and 
horseman,  as  well  as  heavy  armed  Greek  and  light  Maachathite 
slinger,  were  driven  like  chaff  before  the  whirlwind.  The  lord 
of  Hazor  was  overthrown,  his  confederate  kings  slain  all  around 
him ;  and,  while  the  remains  of  as  gallant  a  host  as  yet  had 
mustered  on  the  fields  of  Palestine  fled  into  the  north  country, 
which  was  henceforth  to  be  their  home,  Israel,  fleet  of  foot, 
pursued  and  cut  them  down  before  and  even  beyond  the  walls  of 
Sidon.  Henceforth,  as  a  people,  the  Hittites  have  no  Palestinian 
record.  The  Amorites  had  doubtless  filled  up  the  measure  of 
their  iniquity  long  before,  but  now  that  of  the  Hittites  was  full. 
They  had  owned  noble  characters,  kings  of  men  and  reformers  of 
religion,  worthy  of  any  nation  under  heaven.  Such  were  Paseach 
and  his  better  son  Job,  but  Og  of  Bashan  shews  how  the  mighty 
had  fallen.  Such  also,  Saul  of  Rehoboth  and  Hadar,  but  Shimon 
or  Agamemnon  must  sacrifice  human  victims,  and  Shemidag  or 
Ismidagan  reinstitute  idolatry.  And  as  great  as  any,  or  greater, 
was  Jabez,  more  honourable  than  his  brethren,  whose  generation 
had  not  passed  before  the  altars  of  unclean  gods  received  the 
gifts  of  his  posterity.  Canaan  was  a  polluted  land,  every  civilized 
corner  of  which  had  echoed  with  the  screams  of  the  slain,  when 
on  its  thousand  altars  human  lives  were  offered  with  revolting 
cruelty  to  the  spirits  of  devils  that  had  once  been  among  the  vilest 
of  men.  Those  who  accuse  Israel  of  murder  do  not  know  of  what 
they  are  talking,  are  ignorant  of  the  records  of  those  awful  years 
that  precedefl  Joshua's  glorious  march  from  Beersheba  to  Dan  ; 
and  would  themselves  be  among  the  first  to  counsel  the  extermina- 
tion of  the  royal  Thugs  who  filled  all  the  air  with  horrid  apprehen- 
sion, and  blasphemed  the  God  of  love  whom  they  represented  and 
worshipped  as  a  murderer.  It  is  no  wonder  if  history  fails  to 
record  the  men  of  the  age  of  tlic  con(|uest;  there  were  none  worth 
lecording,  save  as  a  Cacus,  a  Ijeing  of  plunder  and  bloodshed. 

Tlie  Hittites  l)egan  -i  new  life  in  Syria,  where  Hamath  became 
their  great  i-eligious  centre,  but  nearer  the  l)orders  of  Palestine 
tlie  Zocharites  built  a  s(iCond  Hazor  to  replace  that  whicli  Josiiua 


214  THE    HITTITES. 

had  burned.  The  Beerothites,  who  had  dwelt  in  part  from 
Shechem  to  Rehob,  and  a  branch  of  whom,  in  the  elder  line  of 
Shemidah,  had  reigned  in  Babylonia,  withdrew  from  both  these 
regions,  the  first  division  to  found  the  kingdom  of  Hamath 
Zobah,  east  of  Damascus,  with  its  interminable  line  of  Benhadads 
or  Hadadezers,  and  the  second  to  set  up  empire  for  a  while  in 
Mesopotamia  about  that  old  Rehoboth  by  the  river  from  which 
Saul  had  emerged  to  become  king  of  Gebalene  and  the  third 
Osortasen  of  Egyptian  Abydos.  Of  the  Kenezzites  nothing  is 
recorded  during  the  wars  of  Israel.  It  would  seem  as  if  the 
protecting  arm  of  their  kinsman  Caleb  the  son  of  Jephunneh 
had  been  about  tliem,  for  besides  their  settlements  in  and  about 
Ophrah  of  the  Abiezrites,  the  line  of  Seraiah  held  Kir  Haraseth 
in  Moab  and  the  more  famous  Harosheth  in  northern  Palestine, 
in  the  midst  of  the  Goim.  Caleb  did  not  war  against  his  kinsmen, 
but  drove  out  the  Anakim,  killing  Anak's  three  sons,  one  of  whom 
as  vEneas,  son  of  Anchises,  and  descendant  of  Dardanus,  Virgil 
represents  as  fleeing  for  refuge  to  the  court  of  Evander.  If 
Ahiman  be  this  JEneas,  he  may  indeed  have  fled  to  Hazor,  but  it 
Would  only  be  to  witness  Jabin's  overthrow,  and  to  make  his  way 
back  rapidly  to  the  strongholds  about  Hebron.  There  is  no 
evident  reason  for  the  enmity  of  Caleb  the  Kenezite  and  the 
Zerethites  of  Arba  and  Anak.  They  were  descendants  of  the 
same  great  mother  Helah,  and  do  not  seem  to  have  come  into 
conflict  since  the  ancient  days,  when  Ethnan  set  up  his  Titanic 
rule  in  Babylonia,  and  was  driven  into  Gebalene  by  the  father  of 
Shachar.  They  may  also  have  met  in  Egypt,  when  Ziph,  building 
his  pyramid,  found  Beor  an  intruder  and  chased  him  forth  again. 
Caleb  conquered  the  last  of  the  Zerethites  and  dwelt  in  Hebron, 
one  of  the  only  two  men  that  had  come  out  of  the  house  of 
bondage,  and  he  no  Israelite,  but  a  Hittite  proselyte  of  the  ancient 
faith  of  Jabez.  The  Hittites  left  in  the  land,  with  whom  Israel, 
falling  away  from  the  faith  and  virtue  of  Joshua's  conquering 
host,  contracted  alliances  equally  as  with  the  Canaanites,  were  pro- 
bably the  Kenezzites  of  Harosheth,  the  Achashtarites  of  Taanach 
and  the  Zuzinis  of  Megiddo.  The  Kenites  also  who  dwelt  apart 
at  Zaanaini  may  have  lost  their  pure  creed,  and  have  come  to  be 
numbered  among  the  Hittite  idolaters.     Joshua  was  dead,  and 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  215 

Caleb,  and  Eleazar  the  son  of  Aaron,  in  whose  stead  his  son 
Phinehas  held  the  high  priest's  office.  The  old  anarchy  had 
returned  to  Canaan,  every  man  doing  that  which  was  right  in 
his  own  eyes.  A  watchful  eye  observed  this  from  the  stronghold 
at  Rehoboth  by  the  Euphrates.  Chushan  Rishathaim,  the  Rustam 
Dastan  of  the  Persians,  whom  they  make  the  son  of  Zaul,  instead 
of  his  descendant  after  many  generations,  perceived  his  oppor- 
tunity, and  swooping  down  like  the  Simurgh  of  his  ancestor's 
story  upon  the  distracted  and  God-forsaken  land,  became  Israel's 
first  oppressor,  since  his  ancestress  Mehetabel  saved  the  infant 
Moses.  In  Sanscrit  story  he  is  Rishtishena,  or  Arshtishena,  a 
descendant  of  Jahnu  or  Achian,  and  the  father  of  Devapi  and 
Santanu  who  contended  for  the  crown.  The  Raja  Tarangini  calls 
him  Srechthasena,  the  son  of  Megavahana,  and  the  father  of 
Hiranya  and  Toramana,  who  contended  in  like  manner.  He  was 
lord  of  the  whole  earth,  and  was  disposed  to  mercy.  But  his 
father  Megavahana's  story  exhibits  a  strange  mixture  of 
traditions  ;  for  he  is  said  to  have  twice  offered  his  life  on  behalf 
of  victims  condemned  to  die,  and  to  have  spared  the  lives  of  all 
creatures,  but  for  him  also  the  sea  opened  up  a  passage,  rearing 
into  walls  on  either  side,  while  he  and  his  army  passed  through  to 
Lanka  or  Ceylon,  and  back  again.  The  stories  of  Moses  and 
Joshua  at  the  Red  Sea  and  the  Jordan  are  mingled  with  tradi- 
tions of  Saul  of  Rehoboth,  and  the  name  of  Jabin  of  Hazor.  In 
Greek  story,  Aristodemus  the  Heraclid  is,  like  Rishtishena 
and  Srechtliasena,  the  father  of  two  sons,  Eurysthenes  and 
Procles,  who  in  a  similar  way  contended  for  the  kingdom. 
Rustam's  sons  were  Nimruz  and  Farimars.  After  eight  years 
of  oppression,  during  which  many  Hittite  troops  must  have  been 
Vjrought  into  tlie  land  of  Israel,  Otlmiel,  the  nephew  of  Caleb  the 
Kenezzito,  with  the  aid  (jf  his  kinsmen  in  Ophrah  and  liaroshcth, 
overpowered  the  Beerothites,  and,  ruling  in  the  fear  of  God,  gave 
the  land  rest  for  forty  years.  Afterwards,  Moab  con(iuered 
Israel  at  th<.'  same  time  that  tlie  Philistines  warred  against  them 
ill  the  west.  From  Eglon,  king  (jf  Moab,  the  Japhetic  Ehud,  son 
of  (Jera,  a  descendant  of  Jamiii  tfie  sou  of  Ram  ami  brother  of 
Ek<r,  according  to  CJreek  ])hraseology,  a  Minyan  of  Orchomenus, 
delivered  the  eiKslave<l  Hebrews;  and  another  foreigner  Slianigar, 


216  THE   HITTITES. 

the  son  of  Anath,  made  a  slaughter  of  the  Philistines.  His  name 
is  not  Semitic,  but  his  nationality  is  undetermined,  unless, 
wonderful  to  relate,  the  Elamite  god,  Sumugur  Sara,  or  the 
leader  Sumugur,  declare  it.  Assurbanipal  names  this  divinity 
immediately  after  Ragiba,  or  Rechab,  the  ancestor  of  the  Beero- 
thites,  but  as  Lagomer  or  Laomer  was  also  an  Elamite  god, 
Sumugur  may  have  been  of  the  family  of  Beth  Lechem.^^  His 
story  must  survive  in  many  lands.  After  Shamgar's  time,  Israel, 
alternately  enslaved  and  delivered  by  Hittite  and  Japhetic 
warriors,  once  more  apostatized,  and  became  a  prey  to  the 
enemy. 

A  century  and  more  had  passed  since  Joshua  met  the  first 
Jabin  at  the  waters  of  Merom.  His  posterity  was  still  on  the 
throne  of  Hittite  dominion,  for  a  second  Jabin  reigned  in  the 
new  Hazor,  which  Ritter  identifies  with  El  Hazuri,  to  the  east  of 
lake  Merom.^^  It  lay,  therefore,  outside  of  Israel's  domain.  This 
Jabin  was  no  mere  army  leader,  but  the  head  of  the  Hittite 
confederacy,  under  whom  Sisera  served  as  commander  in  chief  of 
the  allied  armies.  The  Charashim  descended  from  the  Kenezzite 
Seraiah,  who  had  been  left  unmolested  by  the  Israelites,  made 
their  submission  to  Jabin;  and  their  king  Sisera,  when,  with  his 
aid  the  lord  of  Hazor  had  brought  the  Hebrews  into  subjection, 
became  the  general  of  the  army  of  occupation  at  Harosheth  in 
Naphtali,  which  also  sustained  some  relation  to  the  Goim  or 
Achaeans.  Jabin's  force  was  an  enormous  one  ;  he  could  bring 
into  the  field  nine  hundred  iron  chariots,  valuable  allies  in  warfare 
on  the  plains  about  Hazor,  but  less  formidable  to  an  enemy  posted 
on  uneven  ground  broken  by  the  spurs  of  Carmel  and  the 
tributaries  of  the  river  Kislion.^*^  No  mention  is  made  of  the 
tribes  composing  the  army  of  Sisera  ;  with  the  exception  of  his 
own  Charashim  or  Cilicians,  they  lay  outside  of  the  boundaries 
of  Canaan.  The  Kenites  of  Zaanaim  were  at  peace  with  Jabin 
through  their  kinsmen  of  Hamath,  from  whom  they  had  separated 
themselves,  but, as  regards  Israel, they  remained  neutral.  But  the 
Zocharites  of  Jabin  must  have  been  there  in  force,  by  whatever 

'"   Records  of  the  Past,  i.  85. 
'■'   Comp.  Geog.  of  Pal. 
'-'"   Judges  iv.  3. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  217 

name  they  were  called,  Teucri,  Paeones,  Chalybes,  Nasamones, 
Garamantes,  Enchelians.  And  in  Harosheth  also  there  must  have 
been  a  strong  Kenite  contingent  from  Hamath  and  Aradus  and 
Marathus.  From  Zobah  the  warlike  Beerothites  sent  a  host ;  and 
from  Geshur  many  Zerethite  soldiers  came,  eager  to  avenge  the 
Anakim  that  fell  at  Hebron.  And  Maachah  near  at  hand,  looking 
longingly  to  the  old  home  at  Megiddo  where  its  chivalry  had 
encountered  the  Egyptian  Pharaohs,  was  not  slow  in  heeding  the 
call  to  take  back  the  heritage  of  its  fathers.  A  woman  judged 
Israel  while  Jabin  reigned,  Deborah,  the  wife  of  Lapidoth, whose 
name  is  only  rescued  from  oblivion  by  that  of  his  prophetic  spouse. 
For  twenty  years  the  Hittite  sovereign  "  mightily  oppressed  the 
children  of  Israel,"  and  then,  when  they  cried  to  God,  His  spirit 
came  upon  Deborah,  and  she  called  Barak  the  son  of  Alnnoam, 
a  man  of  Naphtali,  to  take  the  men  of  his  tribe  and  of  Zebulon, 
and  go  forth  against  the  enslaver  of  His  people.  Ten  thousand 
men  of  the  two  tribes  composed  the  patriot  army  that  ascended 
Mount  Tabor  and  proclaimed  the  independence  of  Israel.  Sisera 
cannot  have  contemplated  serious  opposition  from  the  revolters, 
whom  he  thought  to  overawe  by  a  great  display  of  military 
.strength.  He  was  drawm,  therefore,  to  Kishon  and  beyond  the 
great  plain  of  Jezreel,  where  he  might  have  manceuvred  his  nine 
liundred  chariots,  into  the  valley  ground  between  Taanach  and 
ilegiddo.  The  onset  of  Barak's  ten  thousand,  wh'.>n  the  chariots 
were  entangled,  showed  the  great  captain's  fatal  error,  but  too  late 
to  save  the  Hittite  host.  All  the  might  of  Fgj-pt  on  that  field 
had  Itarely  won  a  victory  from  the  Hittites  of  ancient  days,  but, 
on  this  occasion,  ten  thousand  valiant  men  of  Israel  involved 
Siscra's  great  army  in  total  overthrow.  Like  many  others  in  his 
tiviin,  tlie  lord  of  Harosheth  left  his  useless  chariot  and  fied  on 
fofjt,  only  to  die  an  inglorious  death  by  the  hand  of  a  woman  of 
his  own  race.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a  war  that  resulted  in 
L-^rael  biv'aking  the  Hittite  yoke,  and  ])ringing  the  supremacy  of 
Jaliin  to  an  end. 

A  n(;\v  en(;iny  a})p(.'are(l.  lladad  the  son  oi"  ix'dad  was  the 
first  to  ni(;et  Midian  in  the  field  of  Moab  and  j)ut  a  curl)  on  their 
car(;er  of  savage  conf|nest.  'i'lien  they  retired  to  Babylonia 
an<l   strengthened    themselves    by    Zerethite    and    other    Hittite 


218  THE   HITTITES. 

alliances,  until,  in  the  person  of  Bedan,  the  Greek  Laomedon,  they 
placed  themselves  on  the  Zerethite  throne  on  the  shore  of  the 
Dead  Sea.  The  next  generation  saw  Baalchanan,  uniting  in  him- 
self the  three  families  of  the  Midianite  Zimran,  and  the  Hittite 
Zereth  and  Amalek,  the  proud  monarch  of  Gebalene.  Hadar  and 
his  confederates  met  him  and  his  Midianite  host  on  Moab's  plains  ; 
and  a  second  time  the  might  of  Midian  was  broken.  The  Zere- 
thites  fled  to  other  regions,  some  back  to  Babylonia  and  Assyria, 
others  northward  to  Geshur,  and  a  gallant  remnant  to  Kirjath 
Arba  in  Canaan.  The  Midianites  had  no  national  ties  ;  the  blood 
of  their  father  Abraham  did  not  bind  them  to  the  enslaved  sons 
of  Isaac  in  Goshen,  nor  to  the  wandering  progeny  of  Ishmael  in 
Arabia.  The  Japhetic  brethren  of  their  mother  Keturah  had  dis- 
owned them ;  and  the  bonds  that  linked  their  fortunes  to  those 
of  the  Hittites  were  but  temporary.  The  Hittite  monarchs  of  the 
east,  while  reigning  over  the  Zimrites,  had  recognized  their  super- 
iority, calling  themselves  kings  of  Sumir  first  and  of  Accad  after- 
wards. When  the  Moabite  and  Amorite  entered  upon  the  posses- 
sion of  northern  Gebalene,  the  Cabul  of  the  Persian  historians,  the 
Midianite  did  not  depart,  but  lent  his  sword  to  the  conquerors, 
and  worshipped  with  them  at  the  shrine  of  Baal  Peor.  There 
Moses  found  the  Celtic  siren  Cozbi  and  her  fair  companions 
enticing  his  warriors  away  from  their  great  work  of  conquest  and 
life  of  godliness  by  the  charms  of  forbidden  love.  Once  more 
on  Moab's  field  Midian  rose  to  do  battle,  but  all  in  vain,  for  Israel 
was  strong  and  valorous,  not  yet  unnerved  by  the  barbarian 
luxury  and  licentiousness  of  the  people  of  the  land.  Terrible  was 
Midian's  punishment ;  every  male  child,  every  married  woman 
was  put  to  the  sword,  besides  the  warriors  that  fell  in  the  fight. 
NoWj  however,  circumstances  are  changed.  The  Israelites  are  tlie 
idolaters  and  the  weak.  Midian  has  moved  northward  into 
Karkor,  east  of  Gilead,  and  has  become  stronger  if  not  moi-e 
righteous.  The  Amalekites,  that  ubiquitous  people,  are  with  the 
Midianite,  and  with  them  also  are  the  sons  of  the  east,  the  Cad- 
monites  descended  from  the  Horite  Etam  or  Getam,  a  Greek 
(,'adinus  and  Indian  Gautama,  and  Mexican  Guatimo-Tzin,  or 
Guatimo  the  Prince,  as  well.  The  latter  had  lived  in  the  plain 
of  Jezreel,  named  after  Etam's  son,  from  whom  came  the  Sparti 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  219 

or  sown,  a  translation  of  Jezreel,  the  sown  of  God.  So  Midian 
and  Ainalek  are  bringing  Etam  back  to  his  ancient  home,  and 
they  lie  like  grasshoppers  for  multitude  over  all  the  plain  of  Jez- 
reeL  The  divinely  appointed  deliverer  is  a  man  of  Israel's  true 
faith,  but  not  of  Israel's  blood.  He  is  of  Ophrah  of  Abiezer,  a 
man  of  Hittite  race,  who,  through  Ophrah,  traces  his  descent  from 
the  Rephaim  and  the  Kenezzites,  from  Babylonian  and  Egyptian 
kings.  He  casts  down  the  altar  of  Baal  in  Ophrah,  and  summons 
the  people  to  follow  him  ;  but  only  three  hundred  are  permitted 
to  go  on  the  perilous  enterprise.  In  the  beginning  of  the  middle 
watch,  when  the  invader's  camp  is  still,  the  three  hundred  blow 
their  trumpets,  dash  their  pitchers  to  pieces,  and  with  torch  in  one 
hand  and,  in  the  other,  the  sword  of  the  Lord  and  of  Gideon,  they 
fall  upon  the  hastily-awakened  multitude,  killing  as  they  pursue. 
All  Israel  is  roused  to  action  as  the  allies  seek  safety  in  flight,  and, 
keeping  the  fords  and  bridges  of  Jordan,  they  cut  the  fugitives 
down.  A  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  warriors  fall,  and  Zebah 
and  Zalmunna  pay  for  the  ravage  with  their  lives.  So  Gideon 
ruled  Israel  in  peace,  and  after  his  death  his  son  Abimelech  exer- 
cised sway  in  Shechem,  where  the  Beerothite  god  Baal  Berith 
was  worshipped,  and  where  a  mixed  Hittite  and  Amorite  popu- 
lation seems  to  have  dwelt.  He  was  killed  while  besiegingf  Thebez 
by  a  woman,  who  threw  a  piece  of  a  millstone  on  his  head.  So 
the  Greeks  relate  that  Pyrrhus  king  of  Epirus,  forcing  his  way 
into  Argos,  was  killed  by  a  heavy  tile  that  a  woman  threw  down 
upon  him.  Hieronymus  Cardan  denies  this  fact  in  the  case  of 
Pyrrhus,  so  that  the  old  Palestinian  tradition  may  have  been 
incorporated  with  the  history  of  the  Epirote  king.  Shechem  was 
afterwards  called  Neapolis  from  mount  Ebal,  and  this  name  was 
transported  to  the  Hittite  country  of  Campania  to  denote  the 
ancient  city  of  Naples.  In  the  Italian  Nea])olis  a  bull  with  a 
human  face  was  worshipped  under  the  name  of  Hebon.  Tliis  is 
the  Japanese  god  Ghiwon,  which  Klaproth  calls  a  bull-headi'd 
deity.  But  in  Sir  Edward  Belcher's  Voyage  of  the  Samaraiig 
there  is  an  illustration  of  this  god  as  worshipped  by  the  peo{)U'  of 
th(;  Meia-co-shiniahs,  dependencies  of  the  Loo  Choo  kingdom, 
which  has  the  b(jdy  of  an  ox  joined  to  a  human  head.  Sir  Edwai-d 
su|)poses  this  to  repi'esent  the  Egyptian   Apis  and  the  golden  calf 


220  THE   HITTITES. 

of  Israel.2^  The  Iroquois  Hawonio,  and  Dacotah  Hopeneche  seem 
to  be  names  of  the  same  god,  who  is  a  deified  Jephunneh,  Faunus, 
or  Pan,  the  god  of  rural  regions  and  of  cloven  hoofs,  half  man, 
half  animal,  but  to  whom  the  Assyrians,  Greeks,  and  Romans 
gave  but  two  feet  instead  of  the  Japanese  four.  But  besides  this 
memorial  of  the  rule  of  the  Jabins,  the  Neapolitans  had  a  strange 
ceremony  called  the  Lampadephoria,  instituted  by  one  Diotimus. 
The  history  of  this  institution  is  obscure,  but  it  consisted  in  run- 
ning races  with  lamps  or  torches  shaded  from  the  wind,  and  as 
the  races  were  always  run  in  the  quarter  of  the  Potters,  whose 
wares  were  broken  on  the  occasion,  the  Lampadephoria  may  be 
regarded  as  a  reminiscence  of  Gideon's  famous  victory.  The  ^od 
of  the  Rephaim,  namely  Jumala,  was  worshipped  in  Neapolis  as 
Eumelus  ;  and  it  is  not  luilikely  that  the  connected  Sibyl  of  Cumae 
called  Herophile  stood  in  some  definite  relation  to  Gideon  as 
Jerubbaal.^^ 

Among  the  judges  of  Israel  after  Gideon  and  his  son  Abimelech 
there  appears  Ibzan  of  Bethlehem,  whose  name  is  not  Hebrew  ; 
he  may  have  been  a  descendant  of  Lechem,  son  of  Salma  the 
Hepherite.^^  But  Abdon,  or  Bedan,  the  son  of  Hillel,  and  a  Pira- 
thonite,  whose  home  and  burial  place  were  in  the  mount  of  the 
Amalekites,  presents  a  curious  genealogy.  It  goes  back  to  the 
time  of  Bedan,  the  son  of  Ulam,  the  Zimrite,  who  became,  as 
Laomedon,  the  king  of  the  Zerethites  through  a  marriage  of  his 
father  into  the  family  of  Ardon  the  Zerethite,  son  of  Ur  and  Jeri- 
goth.  The  Persian  historians  invert  the  true  order,  making  Abtin 
the  father  of  Feridun,  and  Iraj  or  Ur,  his  son.  This  Ardon  or 
Feridun  is  the  Duryodhana  of  the  Mahabharata.  Bedan's  line 
again,  either  throuofh  his  daughter  or  that  of  his  uncle  Rakem, 
was  connected  with  the  Amalekites,  so  that  Baalchanan  became 
the  heir  of  Bedan  and  his  successor  on  the  Zerethite  throne,  being 
recognized,  at  the  same  time,  as  an  Amalekite  or  Temenite. 
Bedan's  descendants  were  known  to  the  Assyrians  as  the  Patin- 
ians  and  are  generally  classed  with  the  Hittites.  As  the  Bithy- 
nians  of  Asia  Minor  they  were  separated  from  the  neighbouring 

21  Belcher,  Voyage  of  H.M.S.  Samarang,  vol.  i.  p.  96. 

22  Judges  viii.  29,  3o. 

2^   Salma  (1  Chron.  ii.  .51)  was  the  head  of  the  family  or  tribe  of  Beth  Lechem. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  221 

Paphlagonians  by  the  river  Parthenius.  Among  the  Saninites,  who 
were  really,  as  their  tribes  show,  Damnites  or  Temenites,  some 
Bedauites  or  Pitanatae  dwelt,  who  are  said  to  have  come  from 
Laconia.  The  Celtic  area  from  Pannonia  west  and  northward  is 
full  of  records  of  the  Bedanites.  This  hybrid  family  must  have 
maintained  itself  from  the  time  of  the  conquest  of  Canaan  in  the 
mount  of  the  Amalekites  until  it  came  to  be  regarded  as  part  of 
Israel,  and  gave  Abdon  or  Bedan  to  be  a  judge  in  the  land.  The 
other  judges  of  Israel  appear  to  have  been  Israelites  proper;  but 
the  marvellous  thing  is  that  Saul,  the  first  king  over  that  people, 
is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  Jemini,  and  that  his  descent  from 
Benjamin  cannot  be  traced.  This,  however,  does  not  concern 
Hittite  history,  save  in  this,  that  the  name  of  Saul  was  the 
original  propert}''  of  the  Beerothites,  among  whom  it  became  an 
honoured  one  as  that  of  the  king  of  Gebalene  who  kept  court  at 
Rehoboth  on  the  Euphrates  and  at  Abydos  in  the  land  of  Egypt. 
The  Philistines  were  now  the  enemies  of  Israel ;  and  the  Hittites, 
ceasing  to  make  any  attempt  to  regain  Palestine,  were  spreading 
abroad  and  consolidating  their  empire  in  Syria  and  Mesopotamia. 
The  Amalekites  and  a  remnant  of  the  Kenites  were  still  in  the 
south  country  towards  Egypt  and  Sinai.  Saul  defeated  their 
king  Agag  ;  and  David  afterwards  completed  the  destruction  of 
his  people.^*  But  the  Kenites  were  allowed  to  move  northwards 
into  Judah,  alongside  of  the  Japhetic  Jerachmeelites.  When 
David  was  an  exile  in  Gath,  he  professed  to  King  Achish  that  he 
had  smitten  these  two  families  friendly  to  the  Hebrews.  He  also 
stated  that  he  had  invaded  the  border  of  the  Cherethites,  evidenc- 
ing that  some  of  the  maritime  Zerethites  kept  the  coast  below 
Philistia,  which  they  had  held  with  varying  success  from  early 
Egyptian  days.^^  From  these  Cherethites  came  part  of  David's 
body-guard  ;  the  other  division  consisting  of  Japhetic  Pelethites 
of  Ionian  descent,  whose  ancestor  was  Peleth  the  great  grandson 
of  Onain,  the  namer  of  On  in  Egypt  and  Ono  in  Palestine.'-''  Many 
Hittites  were  among  David's  chief  captains,  in  addition  to  Uriah 
whom  the  king  so  grievously  wronged.  Such  \vere  Nahari  the 
lieerothite,  an  ancient  Briton,  Eliphelet  the  Maachathite,  Heleb 


-'*    1  .S:iiii.  XV.  7  ;  1  Siitn.  xxx.  17. 
-'''    1  Siuii.  XV.  t)  ;  1  S.iin.  xxx.  14. 


222  THE   HITTITES. 

and  Maharai  the  Netophathites,  Benaiah  the  Pirathonite,  Igal  of 
Zobah,  Helez  the  Paltite,  Uzzia  the  Ashterathite,  Hepher  the 
Mecherathite,  Joshaphat  the  Mithnite,  Shama  and  Jehiel  the 
Aroerites,  and  the  chief  of  all  his  host,  Jashobeam  the  Hachmonite, 
or  Taehmonite,  a  descendant  of  the  Zerethite  Achiman  slain  in 
the  country  about  Hebron  by  Caleb  the  Kenezzite."'^  Other  cap- 
tains may  have  belonged  to  the  same  warlike  and  faithful  race, 
but  their  nationality  is  doubtful. 

In  David's  time  there  were  at  least  seven  Hittite  kingdoms  of 
note  to  the  north  and  east  of  Palestine.  With  one  of  these  he  was  at 
peace,  having  married  Maachah,  daughter  of  Talmai,  king  of 
Geshur.^^  From  Geshur  also,  in  all  probability,  came  the  Tach- 
monite,  who  was  the  chief  of  David's  host.  When  Saul's  faction- 
was  defeated,  the  Philistines  and  Moabites  brought  to  quietness, 
and  the  Jebusites  driven  out  of  Jerusalem,  the  warlike  king  of 
Israel  turned  his  steps  northward.  There  he  found  Hadadezer 
the  son  of  Rehob  on  the  throne  of  Hamath  Zobah,  possessed  of 
two  great  ti^easure  cities,  Tibhath  and  Berothai.  The  Syrians  of 
Damascus  came  to  help  the  men  of  Zobah  against  the  Hebrew 
invader,  but  David's  warriors  prevailed. ^^  The  treasures  of  gold 
and  brass  were  taken  away,  garrisons  were  placed  in  Damascus 
and  in  Zobah,  and  the  Syrians  became  the  servants  of  the  crown 
of  Israel.  Toi  the  king  of  Hamath,  between  whom  and  Hadad- 
ezer the  old  enmities  had  been  rekindled,  gave  in  his  submission 
to  the  conqueror,  and  sent  him  costly  presents  by  the  hand  of  his 
son  Joram.^'^  After  this  the  Ammonites  barbarously  treated 
David's  envoys  who  had  come  with  a  message  of  mingled 
congratulation  and  condolence,  and,  having  offended  the  greatest 
monarch  of  the  earth  in  his  day,  they  prepared  for  war.  Hanun, 
son  of  Nahash,  their  new  king,  gathered  the  forces  of  the  north 
together  with  promise  of  reward.  From  Htoiath  Zobah  and 
Beth  Rehob,  from  Tob  and  from  Maachah  the  hirelings  came  to 
Rabbah  of  Ammon,  but  Joab  overcame  the  Hittites,  and  the 
Ammonites  fled  before  Abishai,  David's  general.^^     These  Hittite 

2'"'  1  Chron.  ii.  33. 

-"  2  Sam.  xxiii  ;  1  Chron.  xi. 

^«  2  Sam.  iii.  3. 

'''■>  2  Sam.  viii.  ;  1  Chron.  xviii. 

■"'"  2  Sam.  viii.  ;  1  Chron.  xviii. 

■"'  2  Sam.  X.  :  1  Chron.  xix. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  223 

kingdoms  are  called  Aram  or  Syrian,  a  term  that  must  refer  to 
their  original  population  and  not  to  their  rulers,  who  were  all 
Hittites.  When  Hadadezer  saw  that  the  confederates  were 
defeated,  he  called  to  his  aid  the  so-called  Syrians  or  Aramaeans 
beyond  the  river,  who  were  the  Hittite  Nairi  of  Mesopotamia. 
These  crossed  over  to  the  help  of  their  compatriots  and  mustered 
at  Helam,  or  Elam,  in  Zobah,  under  Shophach  the  captain  of  the 
host  of  Hadadezer.^-  Then  when  David,  gathering  all  Israel 
together,  went  forth  to  meet  this  formidable  array,  there  was 
fought  one  of  the  decisive  battles  of  history.  Israel  was 
victorious,  with  seven  hundred  captured  war  chariots,  and  forty 
thousand  horsemen  of  the  enemy  among  the  slain,  for  no  account 
was  taken  of  the  footmen.  So  the  Hittites  became  the  servants 
of  David  and  of  his  son  Solomon  after  him.  Only  the  little  king- 
dom of  Geshur  afforded  a  retreat  to  the  rebel  Absalom.  As  to 
the  constituents  of  these  Hittite  kingdoms,  the  substratum  was 
Aramaic  and  unhistorical  in  all  of  them.  The  Hepherites  had 
the  kingdom  of  Hamath  proper  in  the  main  line,  and  the  three 
kingdoms  of  Zobah,  Beth  Rehob,  and  Damascus  in  that  of  the 
second  Rechabite  or  Beerothite  division,  four  out  of  seven.  The 
junior  or  Peltite  line  of  the  Achuzamites  or  Zuzim  reigned  in 
Maachah  ;  the  junior  or  Asareel  line  of  the  Zerethites,  in  Geshur ; 
and  the  Paseachite  branch  of  the  Chelubite  Achashtarites,  in  Tob. 
The  latter,  however,  must  have  been  but  a  remnant,  most  of  their 
brethren  occupying  Mesopotamia.  Changes  had  taken  place, 
therefore,  since  the  days  of  Chushan  Rishathaini,  for  his  Beero- 
thites  had  been  expelled  from  Mesopotamia  by  the  Nairi  or 
Mehirites,  and  the  Zocharites  of  Hazor,  under  their  Jabins,  had 
left  the  sea  of  Merom  for  a  more  northern  home.  With  them  the 
Cilicians  of  Haroslieth  had  departed.  Some  unehronicled  migra- 
tion had  removed  the  Kenezzites  of  Ophrah  and  Abiezer,  and  the 
Temenitcs  wliose  h(jme  had  V)een  Kadesh.  In  the  west  also, 
between  Pho'nicia  and  Philistia,  there  must  have  been  a  manning 
of  vessels  to  creep  along  the  Syrian  shore  and  colonize  with 
Dorians,  Achaeans,  Pelasgians,  and  lonians,  the  ishmds  of  the 
Levant  and  the  coasts  of  Asia  Minor;  and  in  these  vessels  went 
bards,  who  wliiled  away  the  time  with  songs  of  the  olden  days, 

•'■^    2  S;iiri.  X.  ;  1  Chron.   xix. 


224  THE   HITTITES. 

the  scenes  of  which  were  Palestine  and  Egypt,  Babylonia  and 
Gebalene,  full  of  the  Hittite  heroes  who  were  the  great  men  of 
the  world's  youth,  but  songs  soon  to  be  so  distorted  as  to  lose  in 
other  lands  all  their  historical  significance. 

The  Bible  is  not  yet  done  with  the  Hittite,  even  as  far  as 
David's  reign  is  concerned.  When  Absalom  came  back  from  the 
court  of  Talmai,  son  of  Ammihud,  King  of  Geshur,  and  drove  his 
aged  father  from  the  throne,  the  faithful  ones  that  accompanied 
the  monarch's  fallen  fortunes  were  not  Israelites. ^^  Foremost 
among  the  loyal  and  true  were  the  Cherethites,  brave  sons  of 
Zereth,  mercenaries  it  is  true,  but  mercenaries  with  hearts  that 
loved  the  warrior  king  and  that  would  not  be  tempted  with 
Absalom's  gold,  and  Japheth,  the  elder  brother,  came  not  a  whit 
behind  Ham's  noblest  offspring,  for  the  Ionian  Pelethites  kept 
step  with  the  Cherethite  march,  and  the  Gittites  of  Philistia, 
men  of  Gath,  blue-eyed,  fair-haired  Goths  as  they  were  beneath 
a  Syrian  sun,  passed  on  under  the  leadership  of  Ittai.  an  ancient 
Ida,  befoie  the  king,  and  refused  to  do  otherwise  for  all  that 
king's  entreaties.  In  the  later  years  of  Solomon's  reign,  Damas- 
cus became  an  independent  Hittite  kingdom  under  Rezon,  sou  of 
Eliadah,  who  had  been  an  officer  of  Hadadezer  of  Zobah,  and 
did  injury  to  Israel's  interests  in  the  north.'"'*  This  kingdom 
became  strong  under  Hezion,  Tabrimmon,  and  a  succession  of 
Benhadads.  The  other  northern  kingdoms  revolted  soon  after, 
for  Solomon  had  unwittingly  provided  them  with  the  means  for 
defying  his  power.  As  a  merchant-man,  he  may  have  shewn 
wisdom  in  importing  from  Egypt  chariots  and  horses  for  the 
Kings  of  Syria,  and  for  all  the  kings  of  the  Hittites,^^  but,  as  an 
emperor  over  many  kingdoms,  he  would  have  acted  more  wisely 
in  discouraging  their  armaments,  and  turning  their  attention  to 
peaceful  pursuits.  In  the  time  of  Ahab  and  Jehoram  of  Israel, 
Benhadad  of  Syria  Damascus  did  great  damage  to  the  kingdom, 
and  besieged  Samaria  at  leno^th,  brinmncr  dire  famine  into  the 
royal  city.  But  the  Syrians  heard  a  noise  of  chariots  and  horses 
and  a  great  host,  and  fear  fell  on  them  that  Israel  had  hired  the 

•'•''   2  Scam.  X  v. 
3<    1  Kin^s  xi.  2.S. 
'•^   1  Kings  X.  29. 


THE  HITTITES  IN  PALESTINE  AND  NEIGHBOURING  COUNTRIES.  225 

kings  of  the  Hittites  and  the  kings  of  the  Egyptians,  to  war 
against  them ;  so  they  lied,  and  Samaria  was  saved.^^  But 
Hazael,  as  pure  a  Hittite  as  any,  murdered  his  master  Benhadad, 
and  became  the  head  of  a  new  dynasty,  and  fought  with  Israel  in 
Gilead.  He  was  the  conqueror  of  his  age,  taking  all  the  country 
beyond  Jordan,  and  Gath  of  the  Philistines,  and  only  abstaining 
from  the  siege  of  Jerusalem  on  the  payment  of  large  tribute 
money  from  King  Jehoash/^'^  But  Jehoahaz  of  Israel  and  all 
liis  people  were  the  servants  of  Hazael  and  his  son  Benhadad, 
who  worthily  as  warriors  sustained  the  reputation  of  the  family 
of  Beeroth.  A  saviour,  however,  arose  for  the  Israelites  in  the 
proud  and  gallant  yet  idolatrous  Joash,  who  beat  Benhadad  three 
times,  though  with  few  men  and  poor  equipment,  and  took  back 
all  the  cities  of  the  kingdom  of  Samaria/'^  Still  greater  was  his 
son,  the  second  Jeroboam,  who  recovered  the  Hittite  kinefdoms 
of  Damascus  and  Hamath,  which  had  been  lost  to  Israel  since 
the  <lays  of  Solomon  ;  but  these  lands  did  not  long  remain  in  the 
possession  of  his  race.^'*  Menahem,  the  usurper,  came  in  contact 
with  the  Hittites,  crossing  the  wilderness  to  Thapsacus,  the 
capital  of  the  Nairi  in  Mesopotamia.  He  took  the  city  when  it 
refused  to  open  its  gates  to  him,  and  behaved  with  barbarous 
ferocity  towards  its  inhabitants.'**'  Then  the  new  Assyrian 
empire  arose  under  the  Babylonian  Phul,  and  Israel  could  hope 
for  no  more  Hittite  con((uests.  The  last  Hittite  monarch  whom 
tht.'  Biblr  mentions  is  Rezin  of  Damascus  who  allied  himself 
with  Pekah  of  Israel  in  an.  attempt  to  dethrone  Ahaz  of  Judali.''^ 
The  Jewish  king  sought  the  aid  of  Tiglath  Pileser  of  Assyria 
who  took  Rezin  atid  put  him  to  death,  thus  ending  Hittite  rule 
in  southern  Syi'ia.  Sargon  l)r()Ught  Hittites  from  Hamath  and 
Ava  into  Samaria  to  i-cyjlaee  tlu^  Israelites  whom  he  had  carried 
into  the  east.'-  After  the  desti"ucti(jn  of  Jerusalem  also  1)y 
Nebuchadnezzar,  certain   men    iiukU;   an    insurrection    and    slew 

■■''   2  Kiii^s  \  ii.   1). 
'   2  Kiii^s  x.  H2.  ;  xii.  17. 
■"    2  Kiiij^s  xiii.  25. 
■■''   2  KiiigH  xiv.  2."). 

'"    2  King-.s  XV.  It;.      (Ji-.^ciiius  refuses  to  rcco^^'in/.i'  any  ntlirr  Ti|ihn:i,h  than   Thaiisa- 
cus  on  the  I'luph rates,  Lex.  in  loc. 
*'    2  Kin),'s  xvi.  ."). 
•'    2  Kiri^,'-*  ^vii.  21. 
(i'-l 


226  THE    HITTITES. 

Gedaliah,  the  Governor  of  Judea  for  the  king  of  Babylon,  among 
whom  were  two  men  of  Hittite  descent,  namely  Seraiah,  son  of 
Tanhumeth,  a  Netophathite,  and  Jaazaniah,  a  Maachathite.^^ 
Finally,  when  the  Jews  returned  from  Babylon,  many  Hittite 
proselytes  counted  among  the  Nethinim,  whom  Solomon  had 
placed  under  tribute,  were  with  them,  such  as  the  children  of 
Padon,  Shamlai,  Lebanah,  Rezin,  Nekoda,  Paseah,  Mehuni,  Sisera, 
and  Darkon>*  "  They  are  not  all  Israel  that  are  of  Israel,"  is 
true  in  the  physical,  as  well  as  in  the  spiritual  world  ;  and  by  far 
the  largest  portion  of  alien  blood  that  flows  in  Jewish  veins  is 
that  of  the  Hittite,  which  continued  to  mingle  with  the  Semitic 
stream  since  Judah  and  his  brethren  married  daughters  of  Heth, 
and  in  Egypt  and  Canaan  came  into  manifold  relations  with  that 
once  dominant  race.^^ 

«   2  Kings  XXV.  23-25. 

^*   Ezra  ii.  ;  Nehemiah  vii. 

*^  Romans  ix.  6. 


227 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

The  Hittites  in  contact  with  the  Assyrian  Empire. 

Evidence  has  been  already  adduced  to  show  that  the  earliest 
mcnarchs  of  Assyria  who  have  left  records  were  Hittites  of  the 
line  of  Zereth  and  of  the  family  of  Ziph,  the  eldest  son  of 
Jehaleleel.  The  Assyrian  name  is  found  in  the  Kenite  Asher, 
who  heads  the  list  which  contains  Heber,  the  Shafra  that  follows 
Chufu  in  Egypt,  and  the  Ibil-Sin  that  succeeds  Sabu  in 
Babylonia.^  But  the  name  which  presents  a  sure  connection  is 
that  of  the  Assyrian  Assur  Yupalladh,  the  Kenite  Japhlet,  son  of 
Heber  and  great-grandson  of  Asher.  The  Synchronous  History  of 
As.syria  and  Babylonia  makes  him  the  contemporary  of  Cara- 
Murdas  the  Babylonian,  who  was  the  son  of  his  daughter 
Mupallidhat-Serua  and  of  the  Rehob  that  named  Rehoboth  on 
the  Euphrates.  This  Rehob  was  the  son  of  Cara-Indas,  or 
Hadadezer.  The  Synchronous  History  places  before  Yupalladh 
the  names  Buzur  Assur  and  Assur-Bil-Nisisu  in  ascending  series ; 
but  the  Kenite  genealogy  places,  in  the  same  order,  Heber, 
Berigah,  and  Asher.  At  present  the  discrepancy  cannot  be 
reconciled.  Professor  Rawlinson  places,  after  Assur  Yupalladh, 
one  Bel-Sumili-Kapi,  who  probably  represents  Shomcr,  the 
brother  of  Japhlet,  the  father  of  Ahi,  Rohgah,  Jehubbah,  and 
Aram.'-^  Contemporary  with  this  monarch,  or  immediately  after 
him,  should  be  placed  Bil-Pas(ju,  wliom  an  inscription  in  the 
British  Museum  calls  "the  origin  of  royalty."^  He  is  Pasach  the 
eldest  son  of  Japhlet,  and  the  brother  of  Bimhal  and  Ashvath 
from  the  last  of  whom  Aswad  took  its  name.  The  record 
following  is  a  mere  list  of  names,  Bollush,  l^udicl,  and  Iva-lush, 

'  For  tht'HC'  names  sef  Sinitli's  Karl}'  History  of  Babylonia,  Records  of  the  I'ant, 
volf.  iii.  anfl  v.  ;  .Sayce'.s  Synchronous  Hist<iry  of  Assyria  and  liahyloiiia,  Recordn  of 
thft  Past,  vol.  iii.  ;  and  Pinclies'  List  of  I'ahyloiiiaii  Kind's,  Proc.  Sdc.  Bih.  y\rch.  Dec. 
7,  1H80,  i>.  21,  and  .Tan'y  11,  IWl,  p.  87. 

'■'    1  Chroii.  vii.  .H4. 

■'    I><Tioiniant's  Manual,  i.  .'J07. 


228  THE   HITTITES. 

representing  a  dynast}',  if  the  names  be  correctly  rendered,  which 
superseded  that  of  Asher.  Shalmanezer  or  Shallim-inanu-u'zur 
follows,  and  he  is  evidently  a  Hittite  of  the  line  of  Chedorlaomer, 
who  was  the  father  of  Salma,  the  head  of  the  house  of  Lechem 
or  Beth  Lechem,  but  whose  descent  on  the  mother's  side  from 
the  Horite  Manahath  introduced  Manu  into  the  Assyrian  nomen- 
clature. With  his  successor,  who  is  variously  called  Tuklat- 
Samdan,  Tiglathi-Nin,  and  Tukulti-Ninip,  history  recommences, 
for  he  is  said  to  have  been  the  conqueror  of  Babylonia  and 
Chaldea ;  and  Sennacherib  states  that  he  reigned  GOO  years 
before  him,  or  about  1,800  B.C.,  at  the  time  when  the  second 
Jabin  was  oppressing  the  Israelites.  The  name  of  this  Assyrian 
monarch  suggests  the  entrance  of  the  Zocharites  into  the  ruling 
family  of  Nineveh,  for,  as  Tigris  is  to  Diklath,  so  is  Zochar  or 
Tsochar  to  Tiglath,  and  both  words  recall  the  Deucalion,  Thessaly, 
Taxila,  Dascylitis  forms  of  Zochar.  His  successor  was  Bil-Kudur- 
Uzur,  whose  name  is  Hepherite,  and  might  belong  to  the  line  of 
Salma,  son  of  Kudur-Nanhundi  or  Chedorlaomer,  or  to  that  of 
Ezra,  whose  son  Jether  was  Kudur-Mabug.  In  his  reign  the 
Babylonians  rebelled  under  Binbaliddin,  who,  after  driving  out 
the  Assj'rian  army,  invaded  Assyria,  put  BiJ-Kudur-Uzur  to 
death  and  carried  away  trophies  of  his  conquest.  Professor  Sayce 
calls  Binbaliddin,  Rimmon-Pal-Iddina,  which  would  connect  him 
with  the  family  of  Harum  the  father  of  Acharchel,  for  Harum  is 
the  Riinmon  of  the  Assyrians,  the  Rim-Agu,  as  well  as  the 
Naram-Sin,  of  the  early  history  of  Babylonia.  Rimmon  is  the 
Semitic  word  for  a  pomegranate,  as  Side  is  the  Greek  :  and  this 
explains  the  marriage  of  Orion  and  Side,  and  of  the  Indian  Rama 
and  Sita.  Arman-Agarsal  or  Harum-Acharchel  figures  in  a 
previous  part  of  the  Synchronous  History,  and  Agarsal  is 
mentioned  in  a  subsequent  paragraph  as  a  city  of  Babylonia. 
The  king  who  followed  Kudur-Uzur  is  called  Adarpalashir, 
Adar-Pileser,  Nin-Pala-Zira,  and  Ninip-Pal-Zara.  He  fought  a 
(j^rd'cit  battle  under  Ellasar  and  repelled  the  Babylonians.  The 
name  that  elsewhere  is  associated  with  both  elements  of  that  of 
Ninip-Pileser  is  Tiglath  ;  tlius  we  find  Tiglath-Ninip,  and  Tiglath- 
Pileser.  It  is  not  likely  that  any  mistake  has  been  made  in 
bringing  the  Zocharites  into  the  Assyrian  royal  family.     The}^ 


THE   HITTITES   IN    CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     229 

divided  Assyria  with  the  Zerethites,  filling  the  south  with  their 
names,  as  Zereth  filled  the  north.  The  very  word  for  man 
in  Assyrian  was  Zicarii,  like  the  Circassian  Zugcher,  people. 
Now  the  Zocharites  had  no  name  Ninip,  Nin,  Adar ;  but  a  name 
of  Ninip  is  Nin-kattin-barzil,  the  man  with  the  iron  coat, 
answering  to  the  Hittite  Amraphel.  Arbela  or  Beth-Arbel  was 
a  famous  phtce  in  Assyria,  and  Ctesias  has  an  Arabelus  among 
his  later  Assyrian  kings ;  these  represent  the  elliptical  form 
of  Amraphel.  As  monarchs  of  Assyria,  however,  speaking  the 
Semitic  language  of  the  unhistorical  descendants  of  Asshur,  the 
Hittite  con(iuerors  would  naturally  translate  their  names.  Such 
a  puzzling  translation  occurs  even  in  the  family  of  Saul  of  Israel, 
a  son  of  Jonathan  being  called  Merrib-baal  and  Mephibo-sheth. 
In  the  next  king.  Assur-Dayan,  the  Zerethite  family  of  Asher 
returned  to  sovereignty.  He  invaded  Babylonia,  on  the  throne  of 
which  Zamama-Suma-lddin  was  seated,  and  captured  his  cities 
Zaba,  Irriya,  and  Agarsal.  He  is  greatly  eulogized  by  the  first 
Tiglath  Pileser.  Little  is  known  of  his  successor  Mutakkil-Nebo, 
whose  name  shews  that  the  Ethnanite  Di  Nhaba  was  not  forgotten 
in  A.ssyria,  although  Babylonia  was  more  celebrated  for  the 
worship  of  the  son  of  Baal  Peor.  But  his  son  Assur-Ris-Ilim 
fought  with  Xebo-Kudur-Uzur  of  Babylonia,  and  overthrew  him. 
The  name  of  the  Babylonian  is  significant.  Its  Kudur-Uzur 
proclaims  him  a  man  of  Gedor,  of  the  family  of  Ezra  the 
Hamathite  ;  but  the  Nebo,  .appearing  almost  simultaneously  in 
A.ssyria  and  Babylonia,- suggests  that  the  Ethnanites  had  betaken 
themselves  to  the  east,  and  that  the  two  kingdoms  were  contend- 
ing for  their  alliance.  Hei"e,  therefore,  is  the  point  at  which  the 
fugitives  or  emigrants  from  Elephantine,  whose  migration  story 
is  told  ]>y  the  Cachifjuels  of  (iuatimala,  must  have  lost  their 
Hittite  speech,  and  have  picked  up  the  worship  of  Tohil  oi- 
T(jckilb  the  Tiglath  of  the  Assyi'ians. 

The  next  monarch  of  As.syria  is  Tiglath  Pileser  the  First,  whose 
long  insci'iption  takes  us  out  of  the  narrow  field  between  the 
southern  coui'scs  of  the  Tigris  and  Eu|)hrates  into  the  pvirely 
Hittite  area  in  the  north  and  west.'  The  date  of  his  inscription 
is    sup{)Osed    to   he    J  ).'}(),   P>.C.,   wlu'U   Sanuu'l   the    pi'ophct    and 

*    liocords  <.f  the  I'ast,  v.  7. 


230  THE    HITTITES. 

Samson  judged  Israel.  The  king  of  Babylonia  in  his  time  was 
Merodach-Iddin-Akhi,  who  successfully  invaded  Assyria  and 
carried  off  the  spoil  of  the  city  Hekali,  pai  t  of  which  Sennacherib 
recovered  418  years  afterwards.  Tiglath  Pileser  retaliated  and 
captured  Babylon,  Opis,  and  other  cities.  The  name  Merodach 
has  been  found  to  mean  the  son  of  Beor,  being  thus  equivalent 
to  Baal  Peor ;  the  Ethnanites,  therefore,  were  on  the  Babylonian 
throne.  While  Iddin,  as  a  constitutent  in  Babylonian  royal 
names,  reproduces  the  Atin-re  or  god  of  the  solar  disc  worshipped 
at  Tel  Amarna  in  Egypt,  rather  than  the  ancestral  Ethnan,  and 
thus  indicates  that  the  Babylonian  monarchs  of  this  line  had 
come  out  of  the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  it  seems  that  the  tradition 
of  Belus  and  Ninus,  as  the  first  rulers  in  the  east,  arose  with  them 
out  of  a  misconception  of  three  facts  in  ancient  history.  The  first 
fact  was  that  Ethnan,  the  son  of  Ashchur,  really  made  a  begin- 
ning of  royalt}^  in  Babylonia,  out  of  which  his  posterity  were  soon 
driven  ;  the  second,  that  Bela,  son  of  Beor,  actually  reigned  in 
the  neighbouring  country  of  Gebalene ;  and  the  third,  that 
Hammurabi,  the  son  of  Eshton,  who  founded  Babylon,  took 
Baal  Peor,  or  Merodach,  for  his  god,  although  he  belonged  to  a 
totally  different  branch  of  the  Hittite  family.  The  first  purely 
Hittite  country  to  engage  the  attention  of  Tiglath  Pileser  was 
one  that  plays  a  prominent  part  in  Hittite  history.  It  is  better 
to  speak  of  the  object  of  his  attention  as  a  people  than  as  a 
country,  for  in  his  time  populations  were  shifting;  yet  he  calls 
the  region  in  which  this  people  dwelt  the  country  of  Comukha. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  the  Coiuukhans  were  the  Commagenians, 
but  there  is  also  no  doubt  that  these  Commagenians  had  not 
reached  northern  Syria.  Tiglath  Pileser  found  them  on  the 
Tigris,  which  they  crossed  to  escape  from  him,  establishing  them- 
selves in  the  city  of  Sherisha,  which  must  be  Strabo's  Sareisa  of 
the  Gordyaians  or  Carduchi.  The  Commagenians  of  Syria  had 
Samosata  for  their  capital ;  it  may,  therefore,  be  inferred  that 
their  original  name  was  Sama  or  Samag.  Their  earliest 
appearance  in  geographical  history  would  be  at  Lake  Sama- 
clionites  or  Merom,  under  mount  Hermon.  The  Konite  genealogies 
present  many  competitoi-s  foi-  the  honour  of  conferring  this  name. 
Sliammaijin  tlie  family  of  Ezra,  was  the  ancestor  of  the  Hamathite 


.     THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     231 

Shimeathites,  with  whom  the  posterity  of  Miriam  or  the  Merono- 
thites  and  uamers  of  Merom  were  intimately  connected.^  In  the 
line  of  Ma  Reshah  appear  Shammai,  son  of  Rekem  and  father  of 
Maon,  and  Shema  father  of  Raham.**  The  Paseaehites  had  a 
Shemaiah  and  a  Shimei  on  either  side  of  Gog ;  and  Shema  was 
the  son  of  Joel  the  son  of  Aharhel."  Several  of  these  names  end 
with  the  letter  ayin,  so  that  they  may  be  pronounced  Shemag. 
A  survey  of  the  Hittite  colonies  narrows  the  en([uiry  to  the 
families  of  Paseach  and  Aharhel,  so  intimately  united  in  the 
genealogies.  The  island  of  Samos  was  possessed  by  the  Carians 
or  Ekronites,  relatives  and  allies  of  both  these  families  ;  but 
Samothrace  is  linked  through  the  stories  of  Jasion  father  of 
Plutus,  Harmonia,  and  Hercules,  with  that  of  Aharhel  the 
Achuzamite.  Cyme  in  ^Eolis  of  Asia  Minor  determines  nothing, 
for  while  its  name  Cyme  Phriconis  associates  it  with  Larisa,  its 
proximity  to  Hermus,  Caicus,  Myrina,  and  other  places  with 
Hittite  names  belonging  to  many  different  families,  deprives  it  of 
any  definite  relation  to  one ;  nevertheless  it  was  most  likely  a 
foundation  of  the  Ras.  Cumae  of  Campania  has  Paseachite  and 
Heraclid  connections,  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  many  places 
similarly  named.  The  centre  of  the  Paseachite  family  for  several 
centuries  was  Thapsacus  on  the  Euphrates,  and  there  is  no 
evidence  that  it  ever  made  establishments  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Commagene.  But  Coinmagene  in  northern  Syria  was  in  close 
proximity  to  Carchemish,  the  Hittite  capital,  in  which  the 
posterity  of  Regem,  Aharhel's  grandfather,  dwelt.  It  is  probable, 
therefore,  that  Shemag,  son  of  Joel,  and  crrandson  of  Aharhel,  was 
the  eponym  of  Commagene. 

The  Muskayans  or  Moschi  luid  taken  posses.sion  of  part  of 
this  priniitivt'  Commagene  on  the  northern  borders  of  Assyria 
and  Mesopotamia.  'i'iglatli  I-'ileser  defeated  them,  and  then 
attacked  the  Connnagenians.  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson  call,'^  one  of 
the  (Jommageniaii  kings  Ki]i-T(;ru,  son  of  ivali-Tern,  son  of 
Zunipin-Zihusuii  ;  Pi'ofessoi-  Sayce  styles  him  Cili-Anteru,  son  of 
Cali-Anteru,  son  of  Saru-pin-sihusuni  ;   Mr.   Fox   Talliot's  title  is 

■•    1  C'hn.ii.  iv.  17. 
'"'    1  (Jliroii.  ii.  U,  45. 
■     1  Chriiii.  V.  4,  s. 


232  .  THE   HITTITES. 

Tirikali  fil  Tirikali ;  and  that  of  Dr.  Hincks,  Kiliantiru,  eldest  son 
of  Campinei-yusan.  These  are  grave  discrepancies.  From  a 
Hittite  standpoint  the  higher  criticism  would  favour  Mr.  Talbot's 
reading,  but  such  criticism  can  never  lawfully  override  the  work 
of  the  philologist.  A  stronghold  of  Commagene  was  Urrakluiras, 
which  certainly  contains  Acharchel's  name.  Opposite  to  the 
island  of  Samos  was  the  promontory  Trogilium,  which  answers  to 
Tirikali,  and  not  far  off  were  Heraclea  and  Euromus.  The  king 
of  Urrakluiras  was  Shedi-Teru,  son  of  Khasutkh,  according  to  Sir 
Henry  Rawlinson,  Sadi-Anteru  son  of  Khattukhi,  according  to 
Professor  Sayce ;  Dr.  Hincks  terms  him  Sadiyantim  son  of 
Khathukhi,  and  Mr.  Fox  Talbot,  Tiridates  son  of  Kuthakin.  He 
belonged  to  the  country  of  Panari.  So  far  as  names  go,  the 
evidence  is  in  favour  of  makinor  this  kincr  a  descendant  of  Penuel, 
who,  by  the  marriage  of  his  daughter,  became  the  father  of  Gedor. 
He  was  no  Hittite  but  a  Cadmonite  of  the  family  of  Getam  or 
Etam,  whose  fortunes  were  linked  largely  with  those  of  the 
Hittites.  His  brother  was  Ezer  the  father  of  Chushah,  the  head 
of  the  Chushathites.*^  Penuel  explains  Panari ;  Chushah, 
Khasutkh  ;  and  Ezer,  Teru  or  Anteru  :  for  the  nasal  pronuncia- 
tion of  the  initial  ayin  of  Ezer  would  cause  it  to  be  rendered  by 
foreigners  as  Agra  or  Nagra,  as  in  India,  and  by  Adra  and  Andra 
as  in  Assyria  and  in  Greek  speaking  countries.  There  must, 
therefore,  have  been  a  fusion  of  part  of  the  Cadmonite  family 
with  that  of  the  Heraclidae.  Through  the  country  of  Aruma,  an 
embryo  Armenia  taking  its  name  from  Harum,  Tiglath  Pileser 
went  to  one  called  by  the  different  translators  already  named 
Miltis,  Eshtish,  or  Yem,  and  afterwards  to  Subair,  an  extensive 
region,  and  Alza  and  Purukhuz.  Subair  was  the  country  about 
the  Chaboras,  named  after  Heber  or  Cheber  the  Zerethite,  and 
Purukliuz  bore  the  name  of  his  father  Bengali,  the  ancestor  of 
the  Phrygians.  This  branch  of  the  family  of  Asher  had  been 
expelled  from  Assyria,  whose  empire  it  had  founded,  and  occu- 
pied the  central  part  of  northern  Mesopotamia.  As  a  Zerethite 
people,  the  Phrygians  retained  the  name  of  Gordius  for  their 
kings,  and,  as  the  Zerethites  were  from  anti(|uity  the  allies  of  the 
Midianites,  tlieir  Phrygian  descendants  alternated  Gordius  with 

•^    1  Chron.  iv.  4. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     :!33 

Midas.  Two  tribes  of  the  Kheti,  the  Kaskaya  and  Hurunaya, 
had  taken  possession  of  part  of  Subair  or  Mesopotamian  Iberia, 
and  had  seduced  the  Iberians  from  the  worship  of  their  ancestor 
Ashur,  but  they  submitted  on  the  approach  of  the  Assyrian 
monarch.  Here  the  name  Kheti  is  reserved  for  the  senior  Hittite 
line,  that  of  Achuzam,  from  whom  Haran  and  Gazez  descended. 
They  dwelt  in  Charran  and  Gauzanitis,  between  the  Belias  and 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Ghaboras. 

Once  more  Ticrlath  Pileser  ravajjed  Commagene,  and  thence 
passed  into  the  countr}'  of  Kharia  and  to  the  far-spreading  tribes 
of  the  Akhe.  He  met  the  warriors  of  these  people  in  Azutapis, 
which  is  apparently  Thospitis  in  southern  Armenia.  The 
Kharians  were  not  the  Japhetic  sons  of  Eker  and  Buz,  for  their 
cities  Suira,  Shelgu,  Arzanibru  and  Ayu  corres[)ond  to  Shual, 
Shelesh,  Harnepher,  and  Ahi,  names  of  descendants  of  Berigah 
the  Zerethite.^  But  no  Kharian  ancestor  appears  in  their  line  ; 
and  there  are  indications  which  point  to  the  incorporation  of 
these  Asherite  families  with  the  descendants  of  Korah,  the  eldest 
son  of  Hebron,  and  grandson  of  Ma  Reshah.  Hittite  settlements 
had  already  been  made  in  Media,  for  the  Assyrian  kin^  relates 
that,  after  subduing  the  people  of  Adavas,  Tsai'avas  and 
Ammavas  in  Aruma  or  Armenia,  he  crossed  the  lower  Zab,  named 
after  Ziph  the  ancient  Zerethite,  and  brought  Muraddan  and 
Tsaradavas,  near  Atsania  and  Atuva,  into  his  power.  The  people 
of  Muraddan  must  be  the  same  as  the  Amardi  or  Morundae  about 
Martianus  Lacus,  and  probably  represent  part  of  the  posterity  of 
the  Kenite  Mered.  But  the  other  names  endin*!  in  tui,  cas  and 
daras  recall  the  topographical  nomenclature  of  ]3acia  with  its 
endless  (hi.rti.s  and  douaH.  Tiglath  Pileser  mentions  also  the  coun- 
tries of  Gilkhi  and  Khirikhi,  but  gives  no  information  as  to  their 
site.  More  solid  ground  is  reached  when  he  enumerates  the 
kinifs  of  tlie  Nairi,  to  concjuei"  some  of  whom  at  least  he  was 
compelled  to  cross  the  Kuphratcs.  These  Nairi,  as  the  descen- 
dants of  Ab.'hir  the  father  of  Kslitoii,  should  include  the  three 
families  of  Kapha,  l^iseaeh,  and  Techinnah,  but  oth(;r  Hittite 
triltcs  s^'cm  to  have  Ixm'M  iiuinbci-ed  with  thriii.  Tscni,  king  of 
Dayani    oi-  Tehinnah  is  the  oidy  monarch  naiiicd,  so  that  lie  may 

•'    1  Cliroii.  vii.  '.M't,  i-tc. 


284  THE   HITTITES. 

have  been  the  head  of  the  Nairi  Confederacy  at  the  time. 
Paseach  is  unraentioned,  unless  Khimua  represent  a  city  named 
after  his  descendant  Shemaiah.  Beth  Rapha  as  Khani-Rabbi 
appears  apart  from  the  Nairi  but  along  with  the  king  of  Dayani, 
and  Milidia  is  said  to  belong  to  that  people,  a  place  which  must 
have  been  named  after  Moloketh  the  wife  of  Saralali  rather  than 
after  their  son  Mahalah.  Paiteri  probably  denotes  Abiezer.  The 
line  of  Amalek  stands  out  prominently  in  Albaya,  Hugina,  and 
Pilakinna.  Aturgina  is  an  oriental  Tirchanah ;  Tunubi,  a 
Dinhabah  ;  Huzula  perhaps  a  Hazor ;  and  Tuhali,  a  Zoliar.  In 
Nazabia  a  Mezahab  may  be  found,  although  such  a  name  would 
rather  be  sought  among  the  Moschi.  Yet  the  Moschi  were  in 
part  counted  to  the  Nairi,  for  their  city  Sururia  appears  in  the 
list.  Kidari  or  Kindari  is  a  transplanted  Gedor ;  Abaeni,  a 
Jephunneh,  Jabin,  or  abbreviated  Jabneel ;  and  Andiabi,  a 
Netophath.  The  unidentified  eight  are  Amassihuni,  Kirini, 
Adaeni,  Huiram,  Pigikanni,  Kulimazzini,  Unzamuni  and  Numme. 
The  last  of  these  may  be  the  Zocharite  Naam,  or  the  Beerothite 
Aniam,  but  one  would  expect  to  see  Nacham  for  the  former  and 
Anigam  for  the  latter.  This  fact  remains,  that  before  the  time  of 
Saul  king  of  Israel,  there  was  in  north-western  Mesopotamia  and 
in  the  neighbouring  region  of  Syria  a  confederacy  of  twenty - 
three  Hittite  kings  under  ttie  pi-esidency  of  a  descendant  of  Mehir 
the  Achaslitarite. 

Tiglath  Pileser  next  mentions  Karkamis  or  Carchemish  as  a 
city  of  the  Khatte,  making  his  conquests  extend  from  the  land  of 
the  Tsukha  or  Sliuhites  in  the  south,  northward  to  that  city,  but 
he  does  not  say  that  it  was  among  his  captures.  How  long  Car- 
chemish had  been  founded  we  have  no  means  of  knowing,  but 
it  certainly  was  not  in  existence  in  the  old  days  of  Egyptian  and 
Hittite  warfare.  At  this  time  it  was  regarded  as  a  Hittite 
Ultima  Thule.  Somewhere  in  northern  Syria,  probably  in  what 
afterwards  l^ecame  Commagene  and  Cyrrhestica,  the  Assyrian 
monarch  ftniiid  the  Comani  and  the  Muzri.  Between  them,  for 
the  ix'cord  is  not  clear,  they  possessed  Elammi,  Tala,  Kharutsa, 
Arin,  KhuTiutsa,  and  Kapshuna.  The  names  Khunutsa  and 
Kharutsa  seem  to  set  forth  the  Kenezzites  of  Charosheth,  once 
under  the  command  of  Sisera.     As  for  the  Comani,  they  were  an 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH    THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     235 

advanced  guard  of  the  Beerothites,  bearing  the  name  of  Shimon, 
the  son  of  Hadar ;  and  Arin  and  Tala  were  places  named  in 
honor  of  Rinnah  and  Tilon,  two  of  Shimon's  sons.  The  name 
Muzri  may  have  been  applied  to  both  nations  as  exiles  from  the 
land  of  Mizriara.  It  is  interesting  to  find  Tiglath  Pileser  rebuild- 
ing the  temple  founded  by  Ismidagon  or  Shemidag,  Shimon's 
gran-lson,  and  fighting  in  the  north  with  his  descendants,  the 
Comani.  The  strong  Hittite  kingdoms  in  central  and  southern 
Syria  he  left  undisturbed,  feeling  he  had  acquired  sufficient  glory 
by  penetrating  the  deep  forests  and  difficult  mountain  chains  of 
northern  Mesopotamia  and  southern  Armenia,  which  no  king  of 
Assyria  had  ever  reached  before  him.  His  lord  Ashur  impelled 
him  to  set  about  the  great  undertaking  to  conquer  the  powerful 
kings  who  dwelt  upon  the  upper  ocean,  an  enterprise  in  which 
he  partially  succeeded  ;  for,  tell  it  not  in  Gath,  his  upper  ocean 
was  lake  Van.  Even  in  his  day,  the  habitable  world  was  small ; 
how  much  more  so  in  the  ages  that  went  before  ! 

Assur-Bil-Kala  was  the  next  Assyrian  monarch,  of  whom 
there  are  two  fragmentary  records,  one  of  which  states  his  con- 
quest of  Babylonia,  and  the  other  that  of  the  Western  Land, 
which  certainly  was  not  Palestine. ^'^  Samas-Rimmon,  his  brother 
and  successor,  did  nothing  of  any  importance,  but  his  name  is 
significant,  both  of  its  elements  being  found  in  the  senior  Hittite 
family  as  Harum  and  Shomag.^^  Assur-Rabu-Amar  came  to  the 
throne  in  evil  days,  Init  unhappily  there  are  no  particulars  of  his 
catastrophe.  The  Hittites  threw  off  the  Assyrian  yoke,  and 
abfjut  tin;  year  1070  B.C.,  while  Saul  was  king  over  Israel,  they 
defeated  his  army  and  I'egained  their  independence.^"-  A  new 
Assyrian  dynasty  is  supposed  to  have  begun  with  Belkatirassu, 
the  Beletarus  of  the  Greeks,  who  was  followed  by  five  kings  of 
whom  nothing  is  known  l)ut  the  names.^-^  But  with  tlie  sixth, 
Vul-\irai-i,  the  Etjonvin  Ganon  begins  and  infoi-nis  us,  tiirouefh 
calculation,  that  he  i-eigne(l  fi'om  O.")!)  to  930  IJ.G  The  hi.stoiy  of 
Assyria  is,  therefore,  a  l)Iank  from  the  early  part  of  the  reign  of 
Saul  in  Israel,  down  to  those  of  Jeroboam  and  Asa  in  tlu;  divided 

■''  L<-iiorii].irit's  .MauiKtl,  i.  .'57'">. 

'  L<-iinriii;uit'.-  M:iiiu;il,  '.i7^'< 

■-'  L"-rinriJi.uit'.-  Manual. 

'■'  L'-iioi  iiiaiifV-  .Manual. 


236  THE    HITTITES. 

kingdom."  From  the  Hebrew  Scriptures,  however,  we  have 
learned  that  the  Nairi  made  common  cause  with  the  Hittite  kings 
of  Syria  against  David,  and  met  with  a  signal  defeat ;  and  that 
Solomon  reigned  from  Thapsacus  to  Gaza.^^  Tiglath  Ninip 
followed  Vul-Nirari,  and  made  warlike  expeditions  in  Armenia 
towards  the  sources  of  the  Tigris  against  the  Hittite  tribes,  of 
which  there  is  but  a  bare  record.^^  His  successor,  Assur-Akh- 
Bal  has  left  two  inscriptions,  of  which  one  only  mentions  his 
conquests.  He  subdued  the  Nairi,  Kirkhi,  and  Subari  of  Meso- 
potamia, together  with  the  land  of  Nireb.  The  Nairi  are  well 
known  ;  t^ie  Subari  are  the  Zerethite  Heberites  or  Iberians  about 
the  Chaboras  ;  the  Kirkhi  are  probably  the  Korachites  of  Ma 
Reshah,  who  incorporated  some  Iberian  tribes  ;  and  the  men  of 
Nireb  are  the  people  who  named  Kirjath  Arba,  and  who  dwelt  at 
this  time  below  the  Chaboras.  He  brought  under  his  sway  the 
Achashtarite  Shuhites  and  Laki  in  southern  Mesopotamia  and 
Babylonia,  and  is  the  first  to  mention  TJrardi,  the  land  of  the 
Alarodians,  descended  from  the  Zerethite  Jehaleleel.  who  had 
thus  in  some  of  their  branches  left  Assyria  and  betaken  themselves 
to  the  mountains  of  Armenia.  In  northern  Syria  he  carried  off 
Lubarna,  king  of  the  Patinians,  and  reduced  the  lands  of  Zamia 
and  Bit-Adini,  the  former  of  which  may  be  Commagene  under 
its  native  name  Shema,  while  the  latter  seems  to  have  been  an 
Aramaean  conquest  of  the  Ras.^'^  The  history  of  this  monarch's 
successor,  Assur-Nazir-Pal,  has  been  fully  considered  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Lion  Inscription  of  Merash,  which  indicates,  better 
than  any  Assyrian  monument  could,  the  extension  of  the  Hittites 
in  his  time.  It  shows  Habini  as  a  king  of  kings  over  the  nation 
of  the  Ras  and  neighbouring  peoples,  from  the  centre  of  Armenia 
westward  into  Cappadocia,  Saravene  or  Beth  Zur  being  his 
kingdom  proper.  To  the  south  of  his  dominions  lay  the  realm  of 
Commagene  under  a  strongr  monarch,  whom  he  calls  Hapisati, 
but  whom  the  Assyrian  king  names  Kundaspi.  In  Carcliemish 
at  the  same  time  dwelt  Sangara,  calling  himself  king  of  Syria  '■> 
and   in    Thapsacus   or   Khupuscia    the  king    of    the    Nairi    was 

'*  Lenorniiifit's  Maiiuiil  ;  The  Assyrian  E])onyin  Canon. 

'■'■  2  Sam.  \.  IC  ;  1  King.s  iv.  24. 

"'  Lfnoniiuiit's  Manual,  i.  377. 

17  Records  of  tlic  I'ast,  vii.  1],  17. 


THE    HITTITES    IN    CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     237 

another  king  of  kings.  Kasyari  or  Geshur  liad  become  a  power- 
ful kingdom  under  Labduri,  the  son  of  Dubuzi,  having 
moved  northwards  from  Mesopotamia  towards  Armenia.  The 
great  opponent  of  Assur-Nazir-Pal  however,  was  Akhuni  son  of 
Adini,  who  possessed  Bit-Adini,  and  was  the  general  of  the 
armies  of  Habini  of  Ras.  Over  the  Hittites  or  Khatti,  who 
seem  to  have  been  near  the  Orontes,  Lubarna  was  king,  with  a 
capital  called  Kunalua.  The  two  names  Kunalua  and  Lubarna 
indicate  that  the  Kenezzite  line  of  Gothniel  and  Leophrah  had 
usurped  the  throne  of  the  Achuzamites,  and  had  brought  the 
Patinians,  or  posterity  of  the  Zimrite  Bedan,  under  their  sway. 
The  fate  of  a  word  like  Gothniel  is  to  lose  one  of  its  medial  con- 
sonants, and,  as  these  are  both  dentals,  the  first  is  most  likely 
to  disappear.  In  several  cases,  however,  by  transposition  both 
are  preserved,  as  in  Khintiel,  the  name  of  a  king  of  the  Shuhite 
Laki,  and  in  the  Greek  Candaules.  The  Greek  Sthonelus  pre- 
sents the  most  complete  rendering  of  Gothniel.  In  Mexico  the 
equivalent  of  Kunalua  is  Sinaloa.  Its  tribes  speak  the  Cahita 
language  and  are  the  Yacjuis,  Mayos,  and  Tehuecos.^'^  The  Mayos 
are  hard  to  identify,  but  the  Tchuecs  are  the  Zochethites,  and 
the  Yaquis,  the  men  of  Ishi.  The  wide  extension  of  the  two 
Kenezzite  families  of  the  Charashim  or  Cilicians  and  of  the 
Zochethites  must  date  from  the  time  of  this  conquering  Lubarna, 
who  incorporated,  at  least  in  his  own  division  of  the  stock,  a 
large  foreign  element,  Achuzamite  and  Midianite.  Thus  the 
great  victories  of  Assur-Nazir-Pal  were  gained,  not  without  much 
hard  fighting,  over  Hittite  states  that  reached  from  Babylonia, 
through  all  Mesopotamia,  northward  to  the  Moschic  region  south 
of  the  Caucasus,  and  fi'om  the  eastern  borders  of  Armenia,  west- 
ward to  the  centre  of  Cappadocia,  as  well  as  over  all  Syria.  The 
inscription  of  Habini  of  Ras  shows  that  the  Assyrian  nu)narch 
was  looked  up  to  by  tli»;  Hittite  nations  as  an  ai'l)iter  or  judge  : 
an<i  he  S(.'enis  to  have  ke])t  them  under  tril)ute  by  force  of  arms.'-* 
in  tilt;  time  of  his  son  Shalmanezei',  ( "acia  was  king  of  the 
N;i.iri  in    Kliu])uscia.      He  I'ebcllL'ij,  and   tlu;   Assyi-ian    lnu'ned   his 


'"    Multi-    linui,   TaljliMU   di-   la   distiihutinn    clhiKit^'iaphiiiur  dcs   iiatimis  ct    (U'r< 
,,'uis  an  M<\i(iiii',  C(.ii^,'n-.s  <irs  Aiii'ricaiii.sts,  1S77.     'I'i>iui-  ii.  10. 
''■»     li.-';.,i(is  cf  ih.-  I'asl,  iii.  -M. 


238  THE   HITTITES. 

city  and  a  hundred  that  were  dependent  upon  it.  This  was  not 
hard  work ,  for  the  Hittite  cities  were  generally  built  of  wood 
upon  a  natural  or  artificial  mound.  The  Armenians  had  a  king 
bearing  the  ancestral  name  Arame.  His  city,  Sugunia,  was  burnt 
and  fourteen  dependent  ones  with  it.  Katazilu  of  Commagene, 
and  Mutallu  of  Gamgume  or  Zuzim,  who  had  regained  his 
independence,  submitted  to  Shalmanezer ;  but  other  Hittite 
monarchs  strove  to  reorganize  the  old  confederacy.  These  were 
Sangara,  king  of  Carchemish,  a  descendant,  probably,  of  the 
Japhetic  Eker,  and  the  Hittite  suzerain  ;  Akhuni  son  of  Adini, 
who  ruled  in  western  Armenia ;  Khanu  of  the  Samahlians,  who 
occupied  the  country  to  the  north  of  Adini  and  Ras  on  both  sides 
of  the  Euphrates,  including  Melitene  and  Analiba  or  Khanirabbi ; 
Pikhirim  of  Cilicia,  at  length  in  the  country  with  which  the 
name  of  the  Charashim  is  most  identified  ;  and  two  allied  peoples, 
the  Midianite  Patinians  under  Sapalulme  and  the  Midianite 
Yazbukians, descendants  of  Ishbak,  under  Buranate.  Shalmanezer 
defeated  the  confederates  and  took  cruel  vengeance  upon  them. 
The  gallant  Akhuni  son  of  Adini  made  many  a  stand,  but  was 
at  last  taken  at  the  upper  waters  of  the  Euphrates.  As  Tul 
Barsip  was  his  capital,  it  is  probable  that  he  was  a  Zerethite  of 
the  family  of  Asher,  whose  grandson  was  Malchiel,  the  father  of 
Birzavith.  He  certainly  exhibited  the  indomitable  valour  of  the 
Cherethite.  Shalmanezer,  having  subdued  the  northern  Hittites, 
turned  his  attention  to  those  of  central  and  southern  Syria,  whom 
the  Assyrian  kings  had  so  far  left  undisturbed.  Hamath, another 
centre  of  many  petty  kingdoms,  first  felt  his  power,  and  Irkhulena, 
the  descendant  of  Joram  and  Toi,  was  robbed  of  his  treasures, 
and  condemned  to  gaze  upon  his  blazing  cities.  The  Assyrian 
king  was  met  by  a  host  contributed  by  eleven  kings,  of  whom 
Irkhulena  of  Hamath,  and  Rimmon  Hidri  or  Benhadad  of 
Damascus  were  the  only  Hittites,  the  others  being  Ahab  of 
Israel,  who  sent  10,000  men,  Matin-Baal  of  Arvad  in  Phoenicia, 
Bahsa  of  Ammon,  Gindibriah  of  Arabia,  Adoni  Baal  of  the 
Sizanians,  and  the  kings  of  Egypt,  of  Goim  or  Syrian  Achaia,  of 
the  Irkanatians,  probably  Jerachmeclites  moving  northward,  and 
of  the  Usanatians.  These  forces  Shalmanezer  vanquished,  and 
prepared  the  way  for  further  conquests  in  the  south.     The  Black 


THE    HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH    THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.    239 

Obelisk  inscription  informs  us  that  the  empire  of  Habini  at 
Marasia  fell  before  the  same  monarch,  so  that  in  his  reign,  about 
900  B.C.,  the  westward  wanderings  of  the  Lydians  towards  the 
Mediterranean  coast  must  have  commenced.  To  the  north  of  the 
Samaldians  of  Melitene,  Shalmanezer  found  the  Tabalu,  men  of 
Diblath  or  Japhleti,  another  Zerethite  remnant,  often  identified 
with  the  Tibareni  of  the  Black  Sea.  These  were  a  branch  of  the 
Iberians  in  the  three  families  Pasach,  Bimhal,  and  Ashvath,  and 
contributed  largely  to  the  population  of  the  Caucasus,  leaving 
also,  as  the  Avars,  many  traces  of  their  presence  in  Europe.  In 
Media,  Shalmanezer  found  the  Zimri  or  Zimrites,  the  Aniadai  or 
Midianites,  and  the  Parsuai,  supposed  to  be  Parthians.  It  is  more 
likely  that  they  were  the  Persians,  descendants,  like  the  Celtic 
Parisii,  of  Peresh  the  Gileadite.  Lubarna  had  re-established  him- 
self on  the  Patinian  throne,  but  the  sons  of  Bedan  rose  against  him 
and  put  him  to  death,  elevating  Surri,  probably  a  Patinian  prince. 
Him  Shalmanezer  impaled  with  his  followers,  and  placed  Sasitur 
of  Uzza  over  the  Patinians  in  Cinalua.^*^ 

Shalmanezer's  son  Assur-Dayan  rebelled  against  his  father, 
and  another  son,  Samas  Rimmon,  who  succeeded  to  the  throne, 
has  preserved  a  list  of  the  Assyrian  cities  that  took  part  in  the 
rebellion.  Of  these,  Assur,  Zab,  Araphka,  Dur-baladh  represent 
the  Zerethites,  and  Arbela,  Tel-Abni,  and  Khuzirina,  the  men  of 
Zochar.  Samas  Rinmion  ([uelied  the  rebellion,  and  then  proceeded 
against  the  unhappy  Nairi,  whose  kings  he  subdued  to  the 
number  of  twenty-eight.  Their  cities  or  peoples  arc  entirely 
different  from  those  named  by  Tiglath  Pileser,  nor  can  they  be 
satisfactorily  connected  with  the  Hittite  lists  of  Chronicles. 
Here  and  there  a  familiar  name  appears,  such  as  Suma,  king  of 
the  Cinucai,  who  is  a  Sheina  of  the  Chanochites  ;  but  while  the 
Arimai,  Khundurai,  Huilai,  Singuriai,  give  Harum,  Gedor,  Joel, 
and  Zochar,  their  rulers  Ijisiraiii,  Zarisu,  Aspastatauk,  and  Sirasu, 
do  n(jt  stand  in  any  necessary  genealogical  relation  to  them. 
Dirnacus  again  is  an  Irnachash,  Init  how  does  he  come  to  lie  the 
king  of  the  Mtirruai  '.  Tatai  seems  to  be  a  Ifadad,  but  can  the 
(linginai  l)e  desceii<IaTits  of  Anigam  '.  In  addition  to  the  lords 
mentiorH-'l,  the  list  inchi(l(;s  Sirasvi  of  the  l>abarurai,  Aniakhar  of 

'■i"    Il.-c'irds  <A  th.-  J'ast,  iii.  K\  ;  v.  2!t. 


240  THE    HITTITES. 

Kharmis-andi,  Zarisu  of  the  Parsaniyai,  Sanisu  of  the  Cipabaru- 
tacai,  Ardara  of  Ustassi,  Parusta  of  the  Ciraarusai,  Amamas  of 
Cingistilin  Zakhari,  Khassikhu  of  the  Matsirausai,  Mamanis  of 
the  Luksai,  Zabel  of  the  Diinamai,  Gista  of  the  Abdanai,  Adadanu 
of  the  Asatai,  Ursi  of  the  Ginkhukhtai,  Bara  of  the  Ginzinai, 
Arna  of  the  Cindutansai,  Zaban  of  Zuza-rurai,  Irtizati  of  the 
Ginkhidai,  Bazzuta  of  the  Taurlai,  Sua  of  the  Nanikirai,  and  the 
nameless  kings  of  the  Satiriai  and  the  Arta-sirari.  Such  is  the 
thankless  list  of  the  kings  of  the  Nairi,  which  would  require  a 
monograph  of  no  small  bulk  for  its  elucidation.  If  Samas  Rimmon 
could  not  reconcile  his  list  with  that  of  Tiglath  Pileser,  how  shall 
the  nineteenth  Christian  century  effect  their  reconcilation  ? 
Samas  Rimmon  was  by  no  means  such  a  conqueror  as  his  father. 
His  borders  extended  from  the  Shuhites  about  Babylonia  north- 
ward to  near  Carchemish,  and  eastward  into  Media ;  but  he 
seems  to  have  swelled  his  victories  in  Mesopotamia  and  southern 
Armenia  over  the  Nairi  to  the  utmost  extent,  in  order  to  atone 
for  the  absence  of  more  distant  tributaries.  Dadi  of  Khupuskia 
paid  him  tribute,  but  there  is  no  mention  of  the  kings  of  Syria 
and  Asia  Minor  among  his  subject  princes."^^ 

Of  Vul-or  Rimmon-ISirari  who  followed  Samas-Rimmon  we 
havi;  but  general  statements  without  detail.  He  claimed  dominion 
over  all  Syria  and  Palestine,  and  actually  marched  to  Damascus, 
where  he  received  the  submission  of  Mai'ih,  a  successor  of 
Hazael.  He  did  not  make  any  con(^uests  in  Asia  Minor,  his  time 
l)eing  largely  taken  up  in  suppressing  revolts  in  Armenia.  Chief 
among  the  Hittite  peoples  mentioned  by  him  are  the  Albanians 
on  their  way  to  the  Caucasus,  the  men  of  Kharkhar,  or  Iberians 
of  Georgia,  not  yet  among  their  mountains,  and  those  of  Allapur 
or  Allabria,  named  after  the  Kenite  Leophrah,  in  Media,  or  it  may 
be  also  in  Armenia,  for  they  are  mentioned  along  with  the  people 
of  Van."^-  The  Hittite  inscriptions  of  Sagara  of  Carchemish  shed 
light  upon  the  obscure  period  that  follows.  The  Assyrian  power 
was  declining  rapidly.  The  assertion  of  Rinnnon-Nirari  that  he 
ruled  over  Syria  and  Palestine  is  not  borne  out  by  history.  There 
is  no  recorrl   of  any  Marih  king  of  Damascus.     Fi'om  857  B.C., 


-'1    Rw.rds  -if  tlie  Past,  i.  11. 
■-'    L<-n(irin;uit's  Manual,  i.  382. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE.     241 

when  he  began  to  reign,  until  839  when  Hazael  of  Syria  died,  the 
Hittite  empire  of  the  south  w^as  strong,  and  kept  Israel  in  cruel 
bondage.  Had  there  been  an  Assyrian  monarch  strong  enough 
to  cope  with  Hazael,  his  aid  would  certainly  have  been  invoked 
by  Jehoahaz.  When  Hazael  died,  the  valiant  Joash  and  his 
mightier  son, the  second  Jeroboam,  restored  Israel's  fallen  fortunes. 
They  drove  the  Syrians,  or  Syro-Hittites,  out  of  the  land  on  both 
sides  of  Jordan,  and  Jeroboam  took  possession  of  the  kingdoms  of 
Damascus  and  Hamath,  recovering  the  greater  part  of  the  ancient 
empire  of  Solomon  and  David.  Then  it  was  that  Jonah  the 
prophet  of  Gath  Hepher,  who  had  foretold  these  conquests,  pro- 
tected by  the  now  famous  name  of  Israel,  w^ent  to  Nineveh  and 
prophesied  its  destruction.^^  A  degenerate  Shalmanezer  was  on 
the  Assyrian  throne,  and,  for  a  time,  he  and  his  people  were 
moved  by  the  prophet's  warning  and  repented  of  their  evil  ways. 
The  story  of  Jonah's  flight  by  sea  from  Joppa  to  Tarsus,  of  his 
being  cast  overboard  and  saved  by  a  great  fish,  was  notorious 
among  the  Greeks  who  still  inliabited  the  sea  coast  of  Palestine 
from  Accho  to  the  south  of  Philistia,  and,  being  carried  by  them 
to  their  subsequent  settlements  in  Lesbos  and  Corinth,  was  there 
transformed  into  the  legend  of  the  poet  Arion,  who,  sailing  from 
Tarentum  to  Corinth,  or  from  Corinth  to  Methymna  in  Lesbos, 
was  compelled  by  covetous  seamen  to  leap  into  the  sea,  when  a 
dolphin  received  him  and  carried  him  in  safety  to  Taenarum  in 
Laconia.  Rejrarded  as  a  Philistine  storv,  it  is  sio-nificant  that  the 
eastc-rn  promontory  cori'esponding  to  Taenarum  is  that  of 
Onugnathus,  or  the  jaw  bone  of  the  ass,  a  reminiscence  of  the 
exploits  of  Samson."-'^ 

Returning  to  the  liistory  of  Assyria,  the  chief  information  is 
that  afibrdcd  in  the  fragmentary  inscriptions  of  Sagara  of  Carche- 
mish,  wliich  sliow  tliat,  towards  the  end  of  Jeroljoam's  reign, 
Shahiianezer  made  an  attempt  t<j  regain  liis  l(jst  power  on  er  the 
Hittite  ti'ib(-'s,  an<l  sent  his  son  Salaka  or  Assai-ac  into  Connnagene 
to  install  a  Hittite  ])rince  favourable  to  Assyrian  supremacy,  and 
to  incite  the   Hittite  tril)utaries  of  C'areheiiiisli  to  rebel  auainst 


-     Jonali  ;  2  Kind's  xiv.  2'). 

-■'    ilirodnt.  i.  2."{,  24  ;  Jmi(,'e.s  xv.  15  ;  The  iniuiy  i)lacf's  on  tlic  M(!(iit('rr:ini'iUi  coast 
of  I'ali-stinc,  call<'(i   Kliaii    founas,    liavc  no  relation   to   the    ])io]ihct   .lonali,    hutaro 
ancient  atxxies  of  the  Onitos  or  lonians,  whom  Stephanas  phices  in  (Jaz;!. 
Hi) 


212  THE    HITTITES. 

Sagara.  This  caused  an  outbreak  of  violence  on  the  part  of 
Hittite  populations  that  had  received  Assyrian  governors,  and 
Sagara,  placing  himself  at  the  head  of  the  confederacy  once  more 
organized,  entered  Commagene  and  drove  away  Assarac  and  his 
forces.  Then  he  made  alliance  with  Phalok,  the  revolting  king 
of  Babylonia,  and  with  Assur,  who  was  probably  a  younger  brother 
of  Assarac,  eager  to  deprive  his  elder  of  the  Assyrian  crown. 
Shalmanezer  died  during  the  contest,  and  Assarac  his  heir  was 
besieged  by  the  confederates  in  Nineveh.  Despairing  of  escape, 
he  set  fire  to  the  city  and  perished  in  the  conflagration  that 
destroyed  the  mistress  of  the  world.  Phalok,  the  Bible  Phul, 
united  the  Assyrian  and  Babylonian  empires  under  his  sceptre, 
but  appointed  Assur  as  his  viceroy  over  the  conquered  country. 
Then,  from  the  shores  of  the  Caspian  to  the  Mediterranean  coast 
and  the  centre  of  Cappadocia,  and  from  Thapsacus  to  the  Caucasus, 
Sagara  ruled  as  king  of  kings  over  the  united  and  victorious 
Hittites.  Elated  with  their  success,  they  forgot  their  Israelite 
enemy  in  the  south,  whose  yoke  Thapsacus  had  broken  in  the 
general  upheaval.  Zechariah  the  son  of  Jeroboam  had  been  cut 
off  by  his  officer  Shallum  after  a  reign  of  half  a  year,  and  the 
assassin  had  been  but  a  month  on  the  throne  when  Menahem,  who 
was  governor  over  the  Hittite  conquests  of  Israel  at  Tirzah,  came 
with  speed  to  Samaria,  and  rewarded  him  as  he  had  served  his 
master.  Menahem  then  placed  the  crown  on  his  own  head,  but 
was  at  once  summoned  away  by  the  Hittite  revolt.  Busy  in  other 
quarters,  the  confederate  kings  were  unable  to  help  Thapsacus,  the 
head  of  the  Nairi  kingdoms.  The  king  of  Israel  took  the  city 
and  ravaged  the  adjoining  country,  but,  on  the  advance  of  the 
Babylonian  Phalok  and  his  Hittite  confederates,  he  was  compelled 
to  retire,  losing  all  his  northern  possessions  and  saving  his  king- 
dom of  Samaria  only  by  the  payment  of  a  thousand  talents  of 
silver,  wherewith  the  destroyer  of  Nineveh  doubtless  rewarded 
his  allies  who  made  but  little  account  of  gold.-^  At  this  time 
another  Hittite  state  comes  into  prominence,  that  namely  of  Elam 
or  Susiana,  over  which  reigned  Sutruk-Nakhunta,  one  of  whose 
successors  Kudur-Nakhunte  restored  the  name  by  which  Chedor- 
laomer  was  known,  showing;  that  from  the  time  of  that  ancient 


2  Kings  XV.  IG,  19. 


THE   HITTITES   IN    CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     243 

monarch  the  kingdom  of  Elam  had  remained  in  the  possession  of 
his  family.  If  we  identify  the  Lakhmians  or  Mondars  of  Irak 
witli  the  Susian  posterity  of  Lechem  and  Manahath,  the  descend- 
ants of  Chedorlaomer  held  sway  over  the  country  about  the  Shat- 
el-Arab  down  to  the  seventh  Christian  century.-^ 

The  period  of  Hittite  independence  lasted  little  more  than 
forty  years.  After  the  death  of  Phalok  in  747  B.C.,  the  Assyrians 
reasserted  themselves,  and  in  744  Tiglath  Pileser  II.  became  king. 
He  was  probably  a  son  of  that  Assur  whom  Phalok  had  made 
vice-king  of  Assyria.  He  re-established  supremacy  over  the  Nairi 
in  Mesopotamia,  placing  his  border  for  the  time  at  the  Euphrates. 
Then  he  invaded  Babylonia  and  Chaldea,  which  were  full  of  Hittite 
and  Midianite  tribes,  the  very  name  Kaldi  being  that  of  Gilead 
the  Zimrite.  The  only  kings  mentioned  by  him  are  Nabu-Usabsi 
and  Chinzirus.  The  name  Nabu-Usabsi  sugfffests  a  Kenezzite 
origin  from  Di  Nhaba,  which  is  confirmed  by  Chinzirus,  an  oriental 
Cinyras  and  Acencheres  or  Uzzen-Sherah.  Yet  Nabu-Usabsi 
reigned  in  Sarrabanu  of  Bit  Silani,  which  seems  to  have  com- 
memorated Saraph  the  son  of  Shelah  the  Shuhite.  In  the  wide 
region  traversed  by  him,  Tiglath  Pileser  found  the  Pukudu  or 
southern  Picts,  afterwards  to  be  Indian  Pactyans,  in  their  cities 
Lahiru,  Idibirina,  Hilimmu,  and  Pillutu,  which  kept  alive  the 
memory  of  Jehaleleel,  Heber,  Helem,  and  Japhlet,  the  Zerethites. 
There  also  he  met  with  the  chief  tribes  of  the  Shuhites,  Lehitau,  and 
Marusu,  or  Laadah  and  Mareshah  ;  of  the  Temenites,  Damunu  and 
Amlatu,  or  Temeni  and  Amalek  ;  with  the  Birtu,  Parthians,  or 
Beerothites,  the  Gurumu  or  Garrnites,  and  a  mixed  multitude  of 
Hagarenes,  Nabataeans,  and  Ekronite  Ubulu,  named  after  Abihail. 
All  these  he  brought  under  his  sway.  In  the  north  he  reduced 
all  Syria  and  the  Hittite  kingdoms  as  far  as  the  Caucasus,  luim- 
bering  among  his  subjects  Pisiris  of  Carchemish,  Eniel  (properly 
Khintiel)  of  Hamath,  Rezin  of  Damascus,  Kustaspi  of  Commagene 
Sulumal  of  Melitene,  Panammu  of  Samhalai,  Tarhulara  of  Gam- 
guinai  or  Zuzini,  Uassurmi  of  Tuljalai,  Dadilu  of  Kaskai,  Ui'iiiuni 
of  HusaiHuii,  and  Ui-palla  of  Tuhanai,  who  were  Hittites,  together 
with  some  Phu-nician  and  .Japhetic  princes.  In  eflecting  the 
reduction  of  Syria  he  had  to  encounter  the  opposition  of  the  kings 

-'''   Salfi's  Koran,  I'reliiiiinary  DiHCdurHo. 


244  THE   HITTITES. 

of  Hamath  and  Damascus,  and  of  Pekah  the  king  of  Israel.  Two 
of  the  Hamathite  inscriptions  have  briefly  told  the  story  of  their 
revolt.  Ostensibly  it  arose  out  of  the  murder  of  the  king  of 
Chalcis  by  a  renegade  Hittite  chief,  whom  Rezin  defeated,  after 
he  had  invoked  the  aid  of  Assyria  to  support  him  in  his  act  of 
usurpation  in  Chalcis.  Elated  with  this  success,  the  king  of 
Hamath  engraved  an  account  of  the  mustering  of  the  Hittite  forces 
to  avenge  the  death  of  Caleb  of  Chalcis.  The  chief  conspirators 
were  the  suzerain,  Pisiris  of  Carchemish,  Yanzu  of  Thapsacus, 
Khintiel  of  Hamath,  and  Rezin  of  Damascus,  with  Pekah  of  Israel 
and  the  king  of  the  Patinians.  Tiglath  Pileser  overthrew  the 
confederates  and  put  Rezin  to  death,  thus  bringing  the  kingdom 
of  Damascus  to  an  end.^"  Shalmanezer,  who  followed  Tiglath 
Pileser,  appears  to  have  retained  the  conquests  of  his  predecessor, 
for  the  only  event  of  his  reign  that  is  known  is  his  siege  of 
Samaria,  in  the  midst  of  which  he  died,  leaving  the  throne  to  his 
officer  Sargon.^^ 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  Sargon  was  the  capture  of  Samaria 
in  the  ninth  year  of  King  Hoshea,  and  the  transportation  of 
27,280  Israelites  of  rank  into  Mesopotamia.  Then  he  treated 
Hamath,  under  its  king  Ilubid,  in  the  same  fashion.  The  next 
victim  was  Pisiris  king  of  Carchemish,  whom  he  expelled  from 
his  city,  the  inhabitants  of  which  he  transported  to  Assyria.  Of 
the  original  conspirators,  Yanzu  of  Thapsacus  was  the  only  one 
allowed  to  retain  his  kingdom  under  tribute.  Thus  in  the  year 
716  the  Hittite  confederacy  came  to  an  end  ;  but  the  Hittites 
were  still  strong  in  Armenia  and  Asia  Minor.  Commagene  fol- 
lowed the  fate  of  the  neighbouring  kingdoms  ;  Mutallu  its  last 
monarch,  "  fled  alone  and  his  trace  was  no  more  seen."  Ursaha 
of  Armenia,  however,  brought  under  his  standard  Bagadatti  of 
Militene,  and  the  great  ones  of  Karalla,  Zikirtu,  and  Van. 
Assurlih  was  king  of  Karalla,  a  name  so  like  Asarccl  as  to  leave 
one  in  doubt  whether  Karalla  denotes  the  Hcraclid  race  or  a 
branch  of  the  Zerethites.  Zikirtu  and  Van,  or  Zochar  and  Jep- 
hunueh,  had  Aza  for  king,  a  friend  of  the  Assyrians.  Him  the 
conspirators  slew,  but  when  Sargon  replaced  him  by  his  brother 


-"   Records  of  the  Past,  v.  4.5. 
^   Lenormant's  Manual,  i.  391. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE.     245 

Ullusun,  that  patriotic  Hittite  joined  the  Armenian  league  against 
Assyrian  tyranny.  Itti  of  Allapur,  towards  or  in  northern 
Media,  also  made  common  cause  with  the  revolters  ;  and  some  of 
the  Nairi  united  with  them.  The}'  were  defeated  in  detail,  and 
the  league  broken.  Ullusun  made  his  peace  with  Sargon  ;  the 
men  of  Allapur  and  Karalla  were  scattered  ;  and  Uisaha  was 
driven  into  the  mountains  a  fugitive.  He  is  the  romantic  char- 
acter, the  hero  of  this  period  of  Hittite  history.  For  two  years 
he  maintained  the  unequal  contest,  and  then,  hearing  that  his 
last  ally,  Urzana  of  Musasir,  had  been  overcome  and  his  god 
Haldia  captured  by  Sargon,  "  he  despaired  on  account  of  the 
victories  of  Assur,  and  he  with  his  own  hand,  with  the  dagger 
of  his  belt  he  pierced  his  entrails  as  to  a  wild  beast."  Another 
Hittite  enemy  of  Sargon  was  Mita  the  Moschian.  He  appears 
to  have  dwelt  in  Cappadocia,  for  some  of  his  raids  were  upon  the 
territory  of  the  Kui  or  Goim  of  south-eastern  Cilicia.  Sargon 
never  conquered  the  Moschi,  but  Mita  at  length,  satisfied  of  the 
might  of  Assyria,  paid  him  tribute  ;  and  this  tribute  continued, 
as  the  inscription  on  the  Stone  Bowl  of  Babylon  shows,  down  to 
the  time  of  Sargon's  grandson  Esarhaddon.  The  Albanians  or 
men  of  Ellip  were  submissive  to  his  yoke  till  their  king  Dalta 
died.  Then  his  two  sons,  Nibie  and  Ispabara,  contended  for  the 
crown  :  the  former  being  supported  by  Sutruk-Nakhunte  of 
Elam,  and  the  latter  by  Sargon.  Ispabara  triumphed,  and  Nibie 
was  taken  in  his  town  of  Mareobisti.  Of  Hittite  monarchies  in 
the  north  there  remained,  besides  those  of  the  Mosclii  and  Alban- 
ians, of  Allapur  and  Van,  Tabal,  Khamman  and  Gamguin.  Ambaris 
was  king  of  Tabal  and  of  Beth  Buritis  in  Colchis.  He  had 
joined  the  insurgents  under  Ursaha,  but  he  was  punished  for  this 
some  time  after  the  fall  of  that  warlike  rebel  and  the  submission 
of  his  confederates.  Sargon  depopulated  his  country  and  removed 
liis  people  to  Assyria.  Tarliunazi  ruled  over  Khamman  and 
Melitene,  a  good  evidence  that  the  Has  or  Lydians  had  with- 
ilrawn  from  that  region.  This  land  of  Khamman  appears  to  have 
been  nam»;d  t'loni  Coiiiaiia  of  I'oiitus  rather  than  from  that  of 
Ca])})adocia,  as,  wlieii  Sargon  ])esi(;ged  liim,  tlu;  town  in  which  he 
took  r(;fug<'  was  Tell-(j!arimiiii,  whose  name  is  an  echo  of  the 
Gariiii  that  came  of  the  family  of  .Jephunnc-'h,  fi'om  whom  Pontus 


246  THE   HITTITES. 

got  its  name.  Tarhunazi  was  taken  in  chains  to  Assyria,  with 
all  his  family  and  5,000  of  his  people.  The  position  of  Gamgum 
is  hard  to  determine,  though  Professor  Sayce  places  it  in  north- 
eastern Cilicia,  therefore  in  the  country  vacated  by  the  Ras. 
Mutallu,  its  king,  had  dethroned  his  father  Tarhulara,  who 
appealed  to  Sargon.  The  Assyrian,  nothing  loath,  marched  to 
Varkasi,  which  may  be  Merash  or  Marasia,  and  dethroned 
Mutallu.  carrying  away  his  spoil  and  removing  his  family  to 
Assyria.  Along  with  the  Gamgumian  princes,  he  took  the  family 
of  the  land  of  Bet-Pahalla,  or  the  Japhetic  line  of  Abihail,  still 
true  to  the  fortunes  of  the  Zuzimites,  as  in  ancient  days.  Thus 
Sargon  ruled  almost  to  the  centre  of  Asia  Minor,  so  that  what 
independent  Hittite  states  existed  in  that  country  must  have 
been  west  of  the  Halys.  Chief  among  these  kingdoms  must  have 
been  that  of  the  Ras  in  Lydia,  which  afterwards  dominated  the 
great  peninsula. 

The  men  of  Sumir  and  Akkad  were  still  in  the  south  under 
Merodach  Baladan  of  Babylonia,  and  Humbanlgas  of  Elam. 
These  kings  stirred  up  the  tribes  everywhere  against  Sargon, 
but  too  late.  Had  they  made  their  attempt  before  the  northern 
Hittites  were  subdued  and  scattered  abroad,  they  might  have 
hoped  for  success ;  now  their  solitary  ally  in  the  north  was 
Mita  the  Moschian,  who  had  not  yet  made  his  submission.  The 
Gambulian  lake  dwellers  came  forth  to  war,  and  were  first 
conquered.  The  Pukud  Avere  affrighted  and  suixendered,  as  did 
the  Eshtemoites  descended  from  Zochar,  the  Ibuliya  and  Patiyail 
or  Abihailites  and  Abdielites  descended  from  Buz,  the  men  of 
Rat,  Ur,  Kullab,  and  Larsa,  who  worshipped  the  god  Laguda, 
Laadah  or  Lagadah,  the  father  of  Mareshah,  and  representatives 
of  almost  all  the  Hittite  tribes.  In  the  south,  as  in  the  north, 
their  dream  of  independence  came  to  an  end  while  within  reach 
of  the  long  arm  of  Assyria's  warrior  king.  Sargon's  final  con- 
quest was  that  of  Uperi,  the  king  of  Dihnun  on  the  Persian 
Gulf,  a  Zerethite  probably  of  the  family  of  Talmai  of  Geshur. 
The  news  of  this  last  victory  brought  Mita's  tribute  to  Sargon 
into  Elam  ;  and  the  kings  of  Yahnagi  in  the  island  of  Yatnan  or 
Cyprus,  fearing  lest  the  Assyrian  monarch  should  cross  the  sea 
to  them  as  he  had  done   to   reach   Dihnun,  brought  him  presents 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE.    247 

to  Babylon,  and  kissed  his  feet.  The  various  names  of  Cyprus 
are  Hittite,  but  denoting  different  families.  The  Greek  name 
Cyprus  is  that  of  Chepher,  whose  posterity,  the  people  of  Aradus 
and  Marathus,  were  probably  the  first  to  colonize  it.  The  Assyr- 
ran  Yatnan  is  the  name  of  Ethnan,  the  ancestor  of  the  piratical 
Cilicians ;  and  Yahnagi  pertains  to  the  line  of  Paseach,  being 
derived  from  his  grandson  Hanoch.-^  A  large  Japhetic  element 
followed,  among  whom,  if  tradition  can  be  trusted,  the  Goira, 
Kue,  or  Achaeans,  occupied  a  prominent  position.  Judging  from 
the  names  of  its  kings  given  by  Esarhaddon,  it  must  have  been 
hellenized  in  speech  in  his  time,  and  the  process  probably  began 
before  that  of  Sargon.^*^ 

Sennacherib  had  no  trouble  with  any  of  the  northern  Hittites 
but  the  Albanians.  Ispabarra  was  compelled  to  flee,  and  most  of 
his  kingdom  was  annexed  to  Assyria.  Some  rebellious  Kuans 
and  Cilicians  were  subdued  and  brought  to  Chaldea  to  work  in 
bricktields,  like  the  Israelites  in  Egypt.  The  Medes,  whom 
Sennacherib  regarded  as  a  very  distant  people,  paid  tribute  and 
accepted  his  yoke.  These  Medes,  whose  kings  are  classed  by  the 
prophet  Jeremiah  with  those  of  Zirari  and  of  Elam,  were  the 
Midianites,  the  only  historical  people  of  that  name.  Among  the 
Nipur  mountains,  which  probably  represent  the  Zagros  range  in 
eastern  Assyria,  the  conqueror  found  the  Tocharri,  once  rulers  of 
Assyria,  now  a  race  of  wild  men,  who  had  fixed  their  dwellings 
like  the  nests  of  eagles  on  the  high  summits  and  crags.  Yet  he 
took  their  cities,  Sharum,  Ezama,  Kipsu,  Kalbuda,  Kua  and  Knna, 
names  that  tell  unmistakably  who  the  Tocharri  were.  Near  at 
hand  beyond  the  mountains  were  the  Kassi  or  Cossaei,  descen- 
dants of  Coz  and  his  son  Anub  separated  from  Amnion.  With 
them  were  the  YatsuV)i-Galla,  dwelling  in  Kilamzahk.  These  may 
have  been  the  men  of  Jashubi-Leliem,  descendants  of  Shuali  the 
Ashterathite,  who  had  dwelt  in  the  vicinity  of  Moab.  Botli  of 
these  peoples  Sennaclierib  transported  to  other  seats.  Afterwards 
in  Media,  wliere  they  dwelt  even  in  the  time  of  the  classical 
geographers,  he  encount<'red  the  rebellious  Dahae  or  Zohethites 


-'    Yet  till!  nairie  of  T(;l:uiiiiii  coiiiK'cU'd  with  (.'ypnis  .suggests  Anak  ratlicr  tlian 
"    Kwirdrt  of  th.;  Past,  vii.  25. 


248  THE   HITTITES. 

under  their  king  Maniah,  whose  city  was  Ukku.  The  capital 
and  thirty-three  dependent  cities  fell  before  the  Assyrian  mon- 
arch, and  again  the  work  of  transportation  M'^ent  on,  until  the 
Hittite  tribes  were  everywhere  broken  into  fragments.  AnothH* 
rebellion  broke  out  in  Babylonia  and  Elam  headed  by  the  Chal- 
dean Suzub  and  Umman-Minan  the  Elamite.  The  Hittites  of  the 
south  rushed  to  war,  Damunu,  Khindaru,  Pukudu,  Gambuli, 
Lahiru,  Malaku,  Lakabri,  Illipi,  Yashan,  Pasiru,  Ubudu,  Beth- 
Kutlan,  Beth-Adini,  Beth-Amukkan,  Dummuku,  Kipri,  Gurumu, 
Lihutahu,  and  others  too  numerous  to  mention,  tosrether  with  the 
allied  Gileadites,  Abihailites  and  Ishmaelites,  or  Kalatu,  and 
Parzush,  Ubuli  and  Nabatu  and  Hagaranu.  The  Hittite  tribes 
bear  the  names  of  Temeni,  Gedor,  Pasach,  Samlah,  Jehaleleel, 
Amalek,  Legophrah,  Eliphaz,  Husham,  Abiezer,  Obadiah,  Jekuth- 
iel,  Ethnan,  Megon,  Shemag,  Cheber,  Garmi,  Laadah.  Sennach- 
erib overcame  the  tumultuous  host,  and  for  a  time  the  south  had 
rest.  Of  his  conquests  in  Palestine  this  is  not  the  place  to  speak, 
but,  as  affecting  the  Hittites  in  Asia  Minor  and  Hellas,  it  is 
worthy  of  note  that  his  wars  with  the  Philistines  and  other 
Japhetic  tribes  of  the  sea  coast  must  have  caused  large  immigra- 
tions into  these  regions.^^ 

The  Hittites  were  not  yet  subdued.  When  Esarhaddon  heard 
how  his  brothers  had  put  his  father  to  death,  he  was  leading  a 
campaign  in  Pontus.  It  was  January,  and  a  great  snow-storm 
darkened  the  sky,  but  he  pushed  on  towards  Nineveh.  As  he 
passed  through  the  country  of  the  Khani -Rabbi  in  north-eastern 
Cappadocia  or  Armenia  Minor,  the  warriors  of  these  sons  of  the 
Rephaim  assembled  and  opposed  his  course  with  their  arrows. 
The  avenger  broke  through  them,  however,  and  made  good  his 
march  to  Nineveh.  In  Cilicia  or  south  of  that  country  in  Syria, 
one  Sanduarri  or  Ben-Zoheth,  king  of  Kundi  and  Sitzu,  allied 
himself  with  the  king  of  Sidon  against  the  new  monarch  of 
Assyria ;  but  to  use  his  own  language  "  like  a  bird  from  out  of 
the  mountains  I  took  him  and  I  cut  off  his  head."  In  Colchis 
also  rebellion  broke  out.  Trusting  to  their  mountains,  the  men 
of  Khilakki  and  Duhuka  or  of  the  twin  Kenezzite  lines  of  Charash 
and  Zocheth,  refused  to  submit  to  the  yoke  of  Assyria.     Esar- 

:'i    Kecords  of  the  Past,  i.  25,  35  ;  vii.  59. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.    249 

haddon  took  twenty-one  of  their  cities,  carried  off  their  spoil,  and 
placed  the  yoke  of  his  empire  heavily  upon  them.  Somewhere 
in  the  same  region  he  met  Tiuspa,  the  roving  warrior  of  the 
Cimmerians  or  Zimri,  "  whose  own  country  was  remote,  in  the 
province  of  Khubusna,"  and  destroyed  him  and  all  his  army  with 
the  sword.  It  is  not  known  where  Khubusna  was,  but  the 
probability  is  that  it  was  in  Northern  Media ;  and  this  seems  to 
have  been  the  beginning  of  those  Cimmerian  expeditions  which 
afterwards  ravaged  Asia  Minor  and  gave  to  Galatia  its  Celtic  or 
Gileadite  population.  The  Assyrian  monarch  does  not  state  when 
he  was  at  the  extreme  north-western  border  of  Cappadocia.  He 
went  there,  however,  and  crushed  the  people  of  Barnaki,  called 
in  classical  geography  Parnassus,  who  dwelt  in  Telassar,  probably 
the  Sar-alium  of  the  Greeks.  In  the  south  also  he  sought  out  the 
Hittites,  and  spoiled  the  city  of  Beth-Dakkuri,  "  which  is  in 
Chaldea  but  in  enmity  with  Babylon."  He  burned  the  king  of 
this  Semitized  Zochar  named  Shetns-Ibni,  because  he  refused  to 
worship  Merodach  and  spoiled  the  Babylonians.  But  he  made 
use  of  the  Gambulians  as  a  barrier  against  Elam,  for  "  Belbasha 
son  of  Bunani,  king  of  the  Gambulians,  who  at  the  distance  of 
twelve  hashu  among  the  waters  and  the  marshes  like  fishes  had 
placed  their  dwellings  "  brought  him  tribute  and  kissed  his  feet. 
Finally  the  ten  kings  of  Cyprus,  of  mingled  Hittite,  Greek  and 
Phoenician  blood,  submitted  to  the  yoke  of  Assyria.  These  were 
Ekistuz  of  Edihal,  Pisuagura  of  Kittie,  Kius  of  Sillumi,  Itu-Dagon 
of  Pappa,  Erili  of  Sillu,  Damasus  of  Kuri,  Rumitzu  of  Tainisu.s, 
Damusi  of  Amti-Kliadasta,  Unassagura  of  Lidini,  and  Butzu  of 
Upri.  Of  these,  Ekistuz  of  Edihal  was  probably  a  descendant  of 
the  Jerachmeelite  Jediael,  but  the  others  might  all,  so  far  as 
names  go,  have  been  of  Hittite  descent.^"- 

In  GG7  B.C.,  Assurbanipal  succeeded  his  father.  His  chief 
campaigns  were  in  Egypt,  Arabia,  and  Chaldea.  Mugallu  king 
of  Tubal,  and  Sandasarvi  of  Cilicia,  subinitti'd  to  him,  and  he 
received  a  tJaughter  of  each  in  marriage,  'i'he  kinj^s  of  Minni 
and  Ararat  in  Armenia  also  made  their  ])eace  in  a  siniilai'  way. 
Yet  there  app('a)'s  to  hfive  Ix-en  iigiitiiig  in  ('ilieia  and  Armenia 
prior  to  these;  reeoncilations.      Othei-wise   the    northei'n    Hittite 

■■-    K.cords  of  til.-  ]';i>t,  iii.  10:<,  111. 


250  THE   HITTITES. 

regions  were  quiescent,  the  bold  spirits  being  dead  or  on  their 
way  to  distant  lands  were  they  could  breathe  freely.  The  Ras 
had  reached  the  western  sea  ;  Sardis  was  built,  and  the  Lydian 
kingdom  organized.  But  they  were  not  fated  to  be  there  long 
alone.  Tiuspa  was  dead,  but  the  Cimmerians  lived,  and,  where 
Sumir  was,  Akkad  was  not  far  off.  The  rovers  had  made  their 
way  straight  through  Asia  Minor,  plundering  on  the  way,  and 
then,  when  they  thought  they  had  reached  the  outpost  of  civiliza- 
tion, the  treasures  of  Che  new  empire  of  the  west  greeted  their 
eyes.  Gyges  was  on  the  throne,  a  second  Gog,  perhaps  of  the 
same  Paseachite  line  as  the  first,  for  the  Paseachites  had  dwelt  in 
Baal  Meon  where  the  Lydians  were  first  called  Maeonians. 
Gyges  knew  very  well  who  the  Assyrians  were,  although  Assur- 
banipal  says  that  his  forefathers  had  not  heard  the  name  of  Lydia. 
The  Lydian  king  sent  ambassadors  asking  for  help  against  the 
invaders  of  his  kingdom,  pretending  that  the  god  Asshur  had 
revealed  to  him  in  a  dream  that  he  should  seek  the  friendship  of 
the  king  of  Assyria.  Accordingly  Assurbanipal  sent  him  aid,  and 
an  Assyrian  army  fought  with  the  Lydians  against  the  Zimrite 
spoilers,  drivin^^  them  northward  towards  the  Black  Sea.  Gyges 
probably  feared  that  he  had  made  a  mistake  in  letting  the 
Assyrians  know  of  his  existence,  for,  when  the  Cimmerians  and 
his  auxiliaries  had  departed,  he  sent  troops  to  help  Psammetichus 
of  Egypt  to  drive  the  Assyrians  out  of  that  country.  Assur- 
banipal complains  bitterly  of  this  act  of  ingratitude,  and  states 
that  he  gave  the  Cimmerians  permission  to  renew  their  ravages, 
of  which  permission  they  took  such  advantage  that  the  Lydian 
king  was  shut  up  in  the  citadel  of  Sardis.  Gyges  was  killed,  and 
his  son  hastened  to  make  his  submission  to  the  Assyrian  king, 
who  ordered  the  Cimmerians  to  retire  from  Lydia.  The  Hittites 
of  the  south  rose  in  favour  of  Saulmugina,  Assurbanipal's  brother, 
who  had  stirred  up  the  Semitic  peoples  of  Syria,  the  Goim,  and 
the  Egyptians  against  him,  and  who  was  confederate  with  Elam. 
The  con(j^ueror  of  Egypt  conquered  the  rebels,  and  threw  his 
brother  into  a  fiery  furnace.  In  Elam  he  found  the  southern 
Rms  at  Rasi  and  Kabrina,  and  the  posterity  of  Henian,  son  of 
Mahalah  and  grandson  of  Samlah,  at  Hamanu.  There  also  were 
the  Beerothites  at  Dur-Amnani  and  Dur-Amnanima,  at  Samunu, 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT  WITH   THE  ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE.    251 

and  Shushan.  All  of  these  he  overthrew.  The  marsh-loving 
Gambulians  he  took  from  their  watery  retreat  and  carried  them  to 
Assyria,  where  they  would  find  no  lakes  to  disport  in.  Then  he 
carried  away  the  Elamite  gods,  Susinak,  Sumudu,  Lagomer, 
Partikira,  Ammankasibar,  Uduran,  Sapak,  Ragiba,  Sumugursara, 
Karsa,  Kirsamas,  Sudunu,  Aipaksina,  Bilala,  Panintimri,  Silagara, 
Napsa,  Nabirtu,  and  Kindakarbu.  It  is  not  easy  to  identify  all 
these  deified  ancestors,  which  almost  all  pagan  gods  were,  but 
Sumudu  is  probably  Hamath  rather  than  Shemidag  ;  Lagomer  is 
Laomer ;  Ragiba,  Rechab  ;  Sumugur-sara,  Shamgar  the  Zari; 
Sudunu,  Eshton  ;  Karsa,  Korach,  grandson  of  MaReshah  ;  Kirsa- 
mas, Regem  as  Karegemish  ;  Uduran,  Hadarof  Pau  ;  Ammankasi- 
bar, Manachath  the  Horite.  The  reign  of  the  southern  Hittites 
was  thus  apparently  at  an  end,  although,  as  has  been  stated 
already,  there  are  indications  that  the  posterity  of  Chedorlaomer 
dwelt  as  a  princely  family,  with  occasional  royal  authority,  down 
into  the  Christian  centuries.  Strabo  quotes  Arfstobulus  to  the 
eftect  that  Assurbanipal,  or,  as  he  calls  him,  Sardanapalus,  was 
buried  at  Anchiale  in  Cilicia,  and  that  a  stone  figure  of  the 
conqueror,  in  the  attitude  of  one  snapping  his  fingers,  was  erected 
on  his  tomb,  with  an  inscription  in  Assyrian' characters:  "Sar- 
danapalus, son  of  Anacyndaraxes,  in  one  day  set  up  Anchiale  and 
Tarsus  Eat,  drink  and  be  merry,  for  everything  else  is  not 
worth  that."'*'^  M.  Lenormant  shews  that  Anacyftdaraxes  is 
anak iniddcsh arru  A8f:>hur,  or  "I,  the  great  king  of  Assyria,"  a 
common  statement  of  the  Assyrian  monarchs.  The  tradition  is 
given  for  what  it  is  worth.^* 

Assurljanipal  died  647  B.C.  and  was  followed  by  his  son 
Assuredililani  in  whose  time  Assyrian  monarchy  came  to  an  end. 
His  period  is  one  of  great  obscurity  owing  to  the  absence  of 
historical  monuments  with  wdiicli  to  check  the  traditions  of  the 
Greek  historians.^''  Its  liistory  is  further  complicated  by  the 
conft)unding  of  tlie  events  connected  with  the  first  fall  of 
Nineveh  before  Phalok  and  Sagara  with  those  of  the  second  fall 
before  Nebuchadnezzar.      \W)  know  that  Nebuchadnezzar  in  the 


■'■'  Stratx),   xiv.  5,  9. 

■''■'  L<;iioriii;iiit,  Manual,  i.  414  ;  f(ir  the  whole  reign  of  AsHurhanipal,  Records  of  the 

Pa-it,  i.  57. 

^'  Li-iioriiiaiit,  41."). 


252  THE   HITTITES. 

year  606  B.C.,  took  Nineveh,  and  established  himself  as  lord  over 
all  the  Assyrian  empire.  His  name,  Nabu-Kudur-Ussur,  and  that 
of  his  father  Nabu-Pal-Ussur,  or  Nabopolassar,  together  with  the 
special  worship  they  paid  to  Nebo  and  Merodach  in  the  temple 
of  Saggathu,  mark  him  a  descendant  of  the  Kenezzite  royal 
family  in  alliance  with  the  Gedors  of  Chaldea  and  Elam.  This 
family,  which  left  Egypt  some  time  after  the  Exodus  of  Israel, 
does  not  come  prominently  into  view  in  Babylonian  history  till 
about  1300  B.C.,  when  Rimmon-Pal-Idinna  sat  on  the  throne  of 
Babylon.  All  of  his  successors  bear  the  characteristic  Kenezzite 
or  Ethnanite  names,  Merodach,  Bel,  Nebo,  Idinna,  setting  forth 
the  son  of  Beor,  Bela,  Di  Nhaba,  and  Atin-re  or  Othniel,  with  the 
exception  of  Sibir,  and  Kinziru  the  son  of  Amukkan,  the  last  of 
whom,  however,  represents  Uzzensherah,  while  Amukkan,  his 
father  bears  part  of  the  name  of  Megon-othai.  These  Kenezzites 
had  been  allied  with  the  family  of  Rapha  or  Hammurabi  the 
founder  of  Babylon  from  time  immemorial,  and  the  alliance  had 
been  confirmed  in  Egyptian  days  by  the  marriage  of  Abiezer,  the 
son  of  Samlah,  to  Hathath,  the  heiress  of  Othniel.  When  the 
posterity  of  Ethnan  returned  to  Babylonia,  they  established 
themselves  in  Ava  or  Aeiopolis  on  the  Euphrates,  so  named  after 
the  son  of  Ethnan  and  eponym  of  the  Avim.  There  they 
received  Dardag,  the  son  of  Mahalah,  into  the  number  of  their 
divinities.  When  Sargon  transplanted  the  Babylonians  of 
Babylonia,  Cutha,  and  Ava,  into  Samaria,  the  Avites  carried 
with  them  the  worship  of  Nibhaz  and  Tartak  or  Nebo  and 
Dardag,  the  Cuthites,  that  of  Nergal  or  Acharchel,  and  the 
Babylonians, that  of  Succoth-Benoth.^^  The  Kenezzites,  Ethanites, 
or  Avites  speedily  displaced  the  Heraclidae,  or  family  of  Arman- 
Agarsal  and  the  Rephaim  on  the  throne  of  Babylonia,  causing  the 
former  to  retire  into  the  north,  and  sending  the  latter  southwards 
to  the  Gambulian  marshes.  They  then  effected  alliances  with 
tlie  Kudurs  of  Elam,  introducing  their  royal  title  into  the  nomen- 
clature of  the  Babylonian  family.  As  we  have  seen,  the  popula- 
tion of  Babylonia,  Chaldea,  and  Elam  was  by  no  means  purely 
Hittite.  Its  substratum  was  Semitic  and  unhistorical.  Chaldea 
derived    its    name    from    the    Kaldai,    called    a  leading  tribe  of 

•■'•   2  Kind's  xvii.  :^0,  'M. 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN    EMPIRE.     253 

Akkad,  but  who  were  reallj'  the  same  as  their  allies  the  Sumir  or 
Zimrites,  for  they  were  men  of  Gilead  descended  from  Zimran. 
At  some  unknown  period,  or  periods,  these  primitive  Celts  crossed 
the  Shat  el  Arab  into  Susiana,  whence  they  afterwards  sent  a 
colony  into  southern  Media,  and  reestablished  the  ancient  name 
of  Elam  in  both  of  these  countries  as  that  of  the  Elymaei, 
or  descendants  of  Ulam  the  Gileadite.  The  senior  branch  of  the 
Ulamites,  known  as  the  sons  of  Peresh,  separated  from  the 
Elymaei  of  Susiana,  and,  moving  eastward,  occupied  the  country 
known  as  Persis.  Where  these  Celts,  who  gave  their  name  to 
the  Persian  empire,  came  under  pure  Aryan  influences  is  not 
easy  to  decide.  This,  at  any  rate,  is  not  the  place  to  enter  upon 
the  extensive  field  of  Aryan  migrations.  There  w'ere  Japhetic 
tribes  in  Babylonia,  Chaldea,  and  Elam,  who  accompanied  the 
fortunes  of  the  Zuzimite  Hittites,  being  the  descendants  of  Eker 
and  Buz.  Some  of  these  as  Busae  constituted  one  of  the  leading 
Median  tribes.  The  same  people,  as  Ubuli  or  Ubulu,  descendants 
of  Abihail,  were  in  Chaldea  and  Elam  ;  and  as  Sagartians,  bearing 
the  name  Geker  or  Sagara,  they  w^ere  counted  as  a  Persian  tribe. 
That  there  were  other  Japhetic  peoples  among  the  tribes  east  of 
the  Tigris  is  proved  by  the  statements  of  the  Assyrian  monarchs, 
who  tell  how  they  transported  them  from  the  sea  coast  of  Syria 
and  Palestine.  Among  these  must  be  counted  the  descendants  of 
^laaz  or  Magaz,  the  son  of  Ram  and  brother  of  Eker.  From  him 
came  the  Magi,  who  were  to  Media  what  the  Brahmans  were  to 
India,  a  ruling  priestly  caste.  The  name  Brahman  or  Brachuian 
originated  doubtle.ss  in  Egy])t,  where  the  Coptic  ai-ticlc  p'l  trans- 
formed such  words  as  rorii'i,  a  man,  into  i^iroral  and  similar 
forms.  Tliere  the  name  Jerachmeel,  which  the  Arabs  called 
Arkam,  rejecting  the  final  el,  became  Brachmecl  and  Brachma. 
To  tills  Brachman  race  Geker  and  Magaz  belonged,  the  former 
bfing  a  warrior  and  the  latt(,'r  a  priestly  line  that  succeeded  for  a 
time  in  dominating  some  of  the  Hittite  trii^es  among  wln'cii  tliey 
dwelt.  The  Japhetic  famili(,'S  W(;re  tenacious  of  their  language  ; 
the  Hittites  and  Midianites  wei'e  not.  Accordingly  in  AiMuenia, 
Persia,  and  India,  the  .l(;raclnneelites  of  h^ker  and  .Maaz  ini])ose(l 
their  tongue  U])()n  the  Hittite  and  Midianite  tribes,  and  e\-en 
can-ied   Japhetic   sp(;ech    into   Bokhara,   its  north-east(;rn    limit. 


254  THE   HITTITES. 

Almost  all  the  Hittite  families  had  representation  in  Babylonia, 
Chaldea,  and  Elam  ;  and  many  Ishmaelite  tribes  occupied  these 
countries  with  them. 

When  Nebuchadnezzar  succeeded  his  father  Nabopolassar  as 
viceroy  of  Babylon  he  thought  of  the  traditions  of  his  race,  and 
recalled  the  great  exploit  of  his  ancestor  Phalok.  Looking  abroad, 
he  saw  that  there  was  no  Assyrian  nation,  but  a  mixed  multitude 
bearing  that  name  and  speaking  the  Assyrian  language,  yet  pre- 
serving, in  its  individual  elements,  the  creeds  and  conditions  of 
ancient  non-Assyrian  days.  He  saw  the  Hittite  nationality,  which 
Sargon  thought  he  had  extinguished  when  he  drove  Pisiris  and 
his  people  from  Carchemish,  when  he  depopulated  Hamath  and 
Damascus  and  transported  the  northern  tribes  to  distant  parts  of 
the  Assyrian  empire,  still  extant  in  the  Caucasus,  in  parts  of 
Armenia,  and  especially  in  the  large  tract  east  of  Assyria  from 
the  Araxes  and  the  Caspian  down  to  the  Persian  Gulf.  The 
Hittites  were  not  dead  ;  they  had  merely  changed  their  ground 
from  west  to  east,  and  there  they  had  amalgamated  in  a  measure 
with  the  Midianite  hordes,  whose  ancestors  had  fought  in  Moab 
and  on  the  plain  of  Jezreel.  Could  he  but  unite  the  Hittites  of 
the  north  with  those  who  acknowledged  his  sway  in  the  south, 
Assyria  would  be  crushed  between  these  two  millstones,  as  it  had 
been  in  the  days  of  Phalok  and  Sagara.  But  where  was  the 
Sagara  ?  It  is  in  attempting  to  answer  this  question  that  the 
historian  finds  himself  baffled  by  the  confusion  of  the  two  stories 
of  Nineveh's  fall.  The  Babylonian  kings  have  left  no  historical 
records,  and  no  Hittite  documents  have  been  brought  to  light  which 
can  clear  up  the  mystery.  According  to  Ctesias,  the  ally  of 
Nebuchadnezzar  was  Cyaxares  the  Mede,  in  whom  we  recognize 
a  Sahara.  Now  it  was  Sagrara  of  Carchemish  who  aided  Phalok 
in  destroying  Nineveh  a  hundred  and  eighty  years  before,  and  the 
name  of  the  Assyrian  king  whom  Nebuchadnezzar  and  Cyaxares 
overthrew  is  called  Assarac,  which  is  the  same  as  the  Salaka  of 
Sagara's  inscription.  Nevertheless,  the  name  Sagara  was  so  com- 
mon a  one  among  the  Japhetic  rulers  of  the  Hittites,  that  there 
is  no  improbaljility  in  its  repetition  in  a  Babylonian  alliance 
against  Assyria.  It  is  most  unlikely,  however,  that  this  Cyaxares 
or  Sagara  was  the  third  of  a  dynasty  of  Median  kings  reigning 


THE   HITTITES   IN   CONTACT   WITH   THE   ASSYRIAN   EMPIRE.     255 

in  Ecbatana,  for  Esarhaddon,  who  overran  Media,  only  found 
there  Sidirparna  and  Eparna,  two  chiefs  of  fortresses,  and  three 
chiefs  of  cities  named  Uppiz,  Zanasan,  and  Ramatiah,  who  ruled 
respectively  in  Partakka,  Pardukka,  and  Uraka-Zabarna.  If  any 
dynasty  really  existed  exercisincr  royal  authority,  it  must  have 
been  in  Hyrcania  to  the  south-east  of  the  Caspian,  where  the 
Regemite  name  was  restored  and  a  Chorasmia  revived  the  memory 
of  the  fallen  Carchemish  on  the  Euphrates.  When  Pisiris  was 
driven  out  of  Carchemish,  and  Mutallu  of  Commagene  his  neigh- 
bour, not  long  afterwards,  wandered  away  into  the  mountains  and 
left  no  trace  of  his  presence,  what  is  more  natural  than  that  they 
.should  strive  to  put  the  broad  sea  between  them  and  the  destroyer 
of  their  homes  and  people,  and  that  they  should  give  to  that  sea 
the  names  of  their  great  father  and  mother  Regem  and  Gazubah, 
as  the  Hyrcanian  and  the  Caspian.  In  Hyrcania,  the  mother 
after  whom  Sazabe  of  Carchemish  was  named  had  another  memo- 
rial in  the  royal  town  Casape.  Here  also  Carchemish  and  Com- 
magene kept  company  still,  for  Comisene  was  the  .southern 
boundary  of  Hyrcania.  Such  was  the  rallying  point  of  the 
northern  Hittite  clans,  but  not  the  only  one.  In  Armenia  the 
Zocharites,  formerly  of  Van,  dwelt  among  the  mountains,  brethren 
of  the  Tocharri  of  the  Zagros  range,  and  they  were  the  nucleus  of 
an  Armenian  kini^dom.  And  between  the  divided  Hittite  states 
lay  Zimri  and  the  Medes,  ever  ready  to  go  where  there  was  fight- 
ing to  be  done  and  plunder  to  be  gained.  Under  the  banner  of 
the  Hyrcanian  Sagara  the  northern  men  of  the  east  advanced,  a 
countless  host,  to  make  common  cause  with  their  ])rethren  of 
Babylonia  ;  and  between  the  two  millstones  Assyria  was  crushed 
and  forever. 


256 


CHAPTER  XIX. 

The  Aryan  Struggle  for  Supremacy  over  the  Hittites  of 

Western  Asia. 

Prior  to  the  second  fall  of  Nineveh  there  had  been  no 
Japhetic  empire.  The  only  historical  line  descended  from 
Japheth  was  that  of  Jerachmeel,  who,  with  his  son  Ram  and 
grandson  Jamin,  gave  the  names  Erechtheus,  Romulus,  Brachma, 
Rom  and  Mannus,  which  characterize  the  traditions  of  the 
Aryans.^  Some  of  the  Jerachmeelites  were  the  Arkam,  wander- 
ing tribes  in  Arabia ;  others,  the  Cyrenians  of  Northern  Africa, 
who  early  lorded  it  over  the  Hittite  and  Midianite  colonists. 
Their  chief  domain  was  the  Mediterranean  coast  of  Palestine  in 
Philistia  and  northward  to  the  border  of  Phoenicia.  But  they 
were  scattered  about  in  small  communities  in  various  parts  of 
Syria  and  Palestine  and  Egypt,  and  early  found  their  way  into 
Babylonia  and  Assyria  in  company  with  the  Hittites.  These 
eastern  Aryans  were  chieHy,  as  has  been  indicated,  of  the  poster- 
ity of  Geker,  the  youngest  son  of  Ram,  and  of  his  oldest  brother 
Maaz.  But  the  Onites,  or  lonians  as  the  Greeks  called  them,  who 
descended  from  a  half-brother  of  Ram,  and  who  named  the  trans- 
Jordanic  Ataroths  after  their  mother  Atarah,  were  among  the 
earliest  colonists  of  Chaldea.-  The  ancestral  Onam  or  Cannes 
appears  in  the  most  ancient  page  of  Chaldean  history,  as  a  wise 
being  with  the  body  of  a  fish  who  taught  letters  and  science  and 
the  art  of  building  cities.^  The  fish  fable  finds  its  explanation 
in  the  name  of  Onam's  second  son  Jadag,  who  became  Odacon  or 
Dagon  the  fish-god  of  Aslidod.  The  Onites,  therefore,  must  have 
contributed  to  the  Aryan  population  of  the  cast ;  but  they  are 
not  to  be  confounded  with  the  Yavanas  of  the  Egyptians  and 


1  1  Chron.  ii.  25. 
«  1  Chrr.n.  ii.  20. 
■'   I'ero.sus,  etc.  in  Cory's  Ancient  Fragments ;  Smith,  Chaldean  Account  of  Genesis. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  257 

Hindus  who  were  Hittite  Jephunnites.^  The  reputation  of  the 
Jerachmeelites  for  learning  was  doubtless  well  founded.  The 
Sanscrit  scriptures  are  full  of  their  superiority  in  this  respect, 
and,  fjoing:  back  as  these  records  do  to  the  earliest  historic  scenes 
in  Babylonia,  Palestine,  and  Egypt,  they  present  a  faithful 
picture  of  the  relation  in  which  the  white  race  stood  to  those  of 
alien  blood.  To  some  of  the  Hittite  tribes  in  particular  they  were 
guides,  philosophers,  and  highly  esteemed  friends ;  and  in  course 
of  time,  they  were  looked  up  to  with  superstitious  reverence  as 
beings  of  a  superior  order.  While  some  of  them,  especially  the 
Gekerites,  were  brave  warriors,  and  furnished  the  chief  defence 
of  the  early  Egyptian  throne,  they  generally  posed  as  priests  and 
lawgivers,  allowing  the  Kshattriyas  or  Indian  Dioscuri  to  fight 
their  battles  and  receive  their  blessing.  They  wrote  Vedic 
hymns  in  honour  of  the  ancestral  gods  of  the  Hittites  in  their 
own  sacred  language,  and  permitted  Hittite  monai'chs  and  sages 
who  had  ac(|uired  proficiency  in  that  old  Pelasgic  tongue  to 
contribute  to  the  poetic  collections.^  Nor  did  they  obtrude 
their  own  ancestors  on  the  notice  of  their  Hamitic  patrons  to  any 
extent.  But,  in  after  centuries,  the  Brahman  forgot  the  origin  of 
the  Vedic  deities  and  regarded  them  as  the  special  property  of  his 
race. 

On  and  Pharbaethus,  the  latter  originating  the  story  of 
Prometheus,  were  Jerachmeelite  settlements,  petty  kingdoms  in 
Lower  Egypt,  of  which  there  were  probably  several  more." 
During  the  troublous  times  after  the  reign  of  Jaboz,  a  short-lived 
Gekerite  dynasty  reigned  in  Thebes,  marked  in  Greek  story  by 
the  name  of  Creon.  Men  of  Jemini,  or  of  tlie  race  of  Jamin,  the 
second  son  of  Ram,  helped  the  Israelites  against  their  oppressors  ; 
and  it  seems  that  Saul  king  of  Israel  was  of  that  Japlietic 
family.''  The  tii'st  Jei'achmeelites,  howev(-i-,  to  encroach  upon 
the  prerogative  of  Hittite  royalty,  seem  to  have  been  the  descen- 
dants of  (jeker,  Buz,  and  Abihail,  among  the  Acliuzaniites  of 
Carehemish  and  Ccjinmngene.  Sagara  and  Pisiris,  or  Pisi  tlie 
zarl.    are    (jl(.-ker    and    Buz;  and    tlie    Connnagenian    Kundaspi, 

'  -Muir',-  S;ii;.-crit  Texts  ;   l)e  Laiioyc's  Ujuucscs  the  (Ircat. 

■  Mnii'.-  Suii.-crit  Texts. 
'•  IM.'I.  Sic.  i.  1,  \). 

■  1   Saiii.  ix.  1. 

(17) 


258  THE    HITTITES. 

Kustaspi  and  Mutallu  are  not  Hittite.  Two  kings  of  the  related 
Gamgumi,  Zanizummim  or  Aehuzamites,  also  bore  the  name 
Mutallu.  The  supremacy  of  Carehemish  and  Commagene  and  of 
Khupuscia  or  Thapsacus  was  no  doubt  largely  due  to  the 
strength  afforded  these  kingdoms  by  the  presence  of  the  Japhetic 
element  in  them ;  for  the  families  of  Aharhel  and  Paseach  w'ere 
the  ones  most  closely  allied  with  that  of  Buz.  The  same 
Japhetic  element  appeared  in  Armenia,  where  the  Minni,  Jamini, 
or  Minyans  dwelt  side  by  side  with  the  Zocharites  of  Van,  and 
hellenized  the  Hittite  Zochar  into  Tigranes.  So  far  no  attempt 
had  been  made  by  the  Aryans  to  set  up  an  empire  or  to  supersede 
the  names  of  Hittite  ancestors  in  geographical  and  tribal  nomen- 
clature with  their  owm.  It  was  neither  lack  of  strength  nor  of 
intellect  that  made  them  thus  unobtrusive.  They  seem  to  have 
regarded  it  as  their  mission  to  civilize  the  Hittites ;  but  there  is 
little  evidence  of  this  in  what  remains  of  Hittite  art  or  in  the 
traditions  of  the  Hittite  people.  Yet  one  is  loth  to  think  that 
the  ancestors  of  the  most  active  and  enlightened  peoples  of  the 
world  were  in  the  east  a  pack  of  idle  impostors,  trading  for  their 
support  upon  the  credulity  of  the  people  as  they  are  represented 
in  Sanscrit  story.  If  they  w^ere  such,  the  Assyrian  kings  may 
be  thanked  for  shaking  them  out  of  their  lazy  fervour  and  com- 
pelling them  to  take  part  in  the  activities  of  life.  The  exile  of 
Pisiris  to  Hyrcania  was  the  circumstance  that  led  to  the  develop- 
ment of  Aryan  ambition.  During  the  century  that  elapsed 
between  the  fall  of  Hittite  authority  at  Carehemish  and  the 
reign  of  Nebuchadnezzar  in  Babylon,  the  expatriated  king  and 
his  successors  had  ample  time  to  mature  plans  for  the  recovery  of 
lost  empire  and  for  revenge  on  their  Assyrian  foes.  They  found 
themselves  surrounded  by  tribes  hostile  to  Nineveh,  but  all  of 
them,  whether  Hittite  or  Median,  destitute  of  organization.  The 
old  league  had  not  succeeded  in  effecting  any  continuous  union 
of  the  Hittite  states,  which  were  mutually  jealous  and  resented 
the  assumption  of  superiority  on  the  part  of  any  one  tribe  or 
family.  It  was  useless,  therefore,  to  reestablish  the  Zuzimite 
precedence.  The  Hittite  name  was  no  longer  one  to  conjure  by  ; 
i»ut  tiiere  were  younger  nations,  linked  by  ancient  friendship  to 
one  at  least  of  the  Hittite  families,  the  Medes  namely  and  the 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  259 

Persians,  both  descended  from  the  Midianites,  whose  legions  had 
aided  Zereth  on  the  field  of  Moab,  and  whose  names  of  Sumir  and 
Kaldi,  Ulam  and  Buryas,  recalled  the  memor}"  of  ancient  empire. 
Proud  of  the  Japhetic  descent  of  their  mother  Keturah,  they  had 
sought  in  vain  recognition  from  their  Jerachmeelite  kinsmen. 
Let  this  recognition  be  granted,  none  would  be  more  faithful  than 
they  to  their  Aryan  rulers ;  and,  with  such  a  nucleus  of  nation- 
ality, it  would  not  be  hard  to  bring  the  Hittites  into  a  modern 
kingdom  of  Sumir  and  Akkad.  Such  was  the  dream  of  the 
successors  of  Pisiris,  a  dream  that  was  soon  to  be  realized  in  fact. 
The  Kenite  lists  furnish  no  genealogies  of  the  Midianites 
later  than  the  third  generation,  with  the  exception  of  that 
of  Zimran  which  ends  with  Bedan  the  great-grandson  of  Gilead. 
The  other  families  were,  therefore,  unhistorical,  in  this  sense, 
that  no  ancient  dynasty  of  kings  proeeeded  from  them.  Never- 
theless, besides  the  five  sons  of  Midian  who  gave  name  to  the 
whole  race,  who  are  called  Ephah,  Epher,  Hanoch,  Abidah,  and 
Eldaah,  we  find  mention  in  the  Bible  of  Midianite  princes  in  the 
bgoks  of  Numbers  and  Judges.^  In  Numbers  the  five  princes 
contemporary  with  Joshua  are  Evi,  Rekem,  Zur,  Hur,  and  Reba. 
In  Judges  the  four  leaders  put  to  death  by  Gideon  and  his  allies 
were  Oreb,  Zeeb,  Zebah,  and  Zalmunna.  Their  names  are 
valuable  as  aidino;  the  effort  to  trace  the  wanderinfrs  and  connec- 
tions  of  the  Midianites,  but  they  present  no  means  for  determin- 
ing the  history  of  their  owners  in  other  records.  In  Irish 
histor}',  which  knows  the  Midianites  as  the  Nemedians  who 
named  Midhe  or  Mcath  with  its  capital  Tara,  the  Nemedian 
(fcnealofjies  are  full  of  foreisrn  names.^  Celtic  Scotland  and 
Wales  furnish  in  their  traditions  no  early  line  of  Celtic  monarchs. 
The  ruling  families  whose  names  they  have  handed  down  were, 
with  rare  exceptions,  Hittite.  So  the  Median  history  of  Ctesias, 
which  begins  with  Arbaccs,  from  six  to  eight  generations  before 
Cvaxari'S,  ac'cording  to  the  diiierent  (juotations  made  from  his 
lost  wf^rk,  is  a  list  of  names  Hittite  and  Gekerite,  anujng  which 
Mt'dicjus  alone  makes  a  douhtful  assertion  of  Median  indepen- 
dt-nc*,'.      Aili.ict'S,  the   head   of  the   dynasty,  is  a  Zfi-ctliite  Ai'liag 

^    Nnni'xTs  xxxi.  8  :  .luii^fs  \ii.  "J-j  ;  viii.  .">. 


260  THE   HITTITES, 

and  Art3mes  is  an  Ardon  of  the  same  line ;  Phraortes  is  Beero- 
thite  or  Parthian ;  Deioces  and  Astyages  are  Zochethite  ;  and 
Cyaxares  marks  the  rise  of  Aryan  influence  as  a  Sagara  or  Geker. 
The  ancient  language  of  Media  was  neither  Celtic  nor  Pelasgic, 
but  Ugrian  or  Hittite.  Its  leading  tribe  in  point  of  numbers, 
which  gave  name  to  the  whole  country,  was  that  of  the  Matiani. 
But  its  ancient  capital  was  Rhagae,  and  its  northern  boundary 
the  river  Araxes,  names  that  belong  to  the  Ras,  descended  from 
Ma  Beshah,  who  united  with  the  Midianites  in  Media,  as  the 
Milesians  and  Nemedians  are  said  to  have  united  in  Ireland.'*^ 
Herodotus  mentions  the  tribes  that  constituted  the  Median 
nation.  These  were  the  Busae,  Paretaceni,  Struchates,  Arizanti, 
Budii,  and  Magi.^^  Of  these  the  Busae  were  the  Buzites  descended 
from  Geker,  of  whom  came  Sagara  and  Pisiris,or  Pisi  the  zari;  they 
were  Japhetic,  therefore,  and  so  probably  were  the  Magi,  although 
this  is  not  determined.  The  Paretaceni  and  Budii  were  Beero- 
thites,  or  early  Parthians.  The  Struchates  were  in  all  likelihood 
Tirgathi  or  Arachotians,  still  in  the  west.  The  Arizanti,  however, 
are  harder  to  classify,  so  many  competitors  are  there  for  the 
name  of  Regem  or  Rekem.  Rekem  is  the  name  of  a  Midianite 
prince  overcome  by  Joshua,  and  of  a  grandson  of  Ma  Reshah  ; 
while  Rakem  denotes  a  son  of  Peresh  the  Gileadite,  and  Regem 
is  the  eponym  of  Hyrcania.  The  presence  of  Cyaxares  among 
the  Median  kings,  and  of  several  Sagaras  among  those  of 
Carchemish,  suggest  the  Hyrcanians  or  transported  men  of 
Carchemish  as  the  Arizanti,  but  other  things  favour  the 
descendants   of   Ma   Reshah. 

The  Median  religion  was  a  corrupt  form  of  Zoroastrianism. 
It  has  been  seen  that  this  creed  originated  in  Egypt  with  the 
union  of  the  two  rival  lines  of  the  Ammono-Hittite  Mezahab,  and 
the  Horite  Tahath  or  Thothmes.  The  Mithriac  cult  was  adopted 
Ijy  the  Moschi  or  Cappodocians  representing  the  "family  of  Jabez, 
Mesha,  and  Mezahab,  by  the  Beerothites  or  Parthians  to  whom 
Hadar  the  son-in-law  of  Thothmes  introduced  it,  by  such  of  the 
Kenezzites  as  did  not  follow  the  disc-worshipping  heretic 
Bechenaten  of  Tell-el  Amarna,  and  by  the  Gekerite  Brahmans 


1"   Keating. 

11   Herodot.  i.  101. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HI'ITITES.  261 

whose  early  writings  celebrate  Mitra  with  Varuna.  The  creed  to 
which  this  worship  pertained  was  a  mediating  one  so  far  as  the 
Horite  and  Ammono-Hittite  religions  were  concerned,  but  it  was 
one  of  antagonism  to  other  Hittite  systems.  Ormuzd,  or  Ahura- 
Mazda,  its  chief  divinity,  was  the  enemy  of  the  demon  Ahriman, 
or  Angra-Mainyus,  and  the  evil  spirits  classified  with  him  appear 
to  represent  the  chief  advocates  of  the  worship  of  Baal  Peor  or 
Merodach  in  Palestine  and  Chaldea.  In  Media,  however,  this 
religion  underwent  a  chanoje.  The  Medes  or  Midianites  had  been 
ardent  votaries  of  Baal  Peor  when  they  dwelt  in  Moab,  and,  as 
they  carried  his  worship  in  later  days  into  Gaul  and  Ireland,  it  is 
not  likely  that  they  had  given  it  up  in  Media.  If  the  Japhetic 
pontiff  kings  of  Hyrcania  and  Comisene,  the  Sagaras  and 
Kustaspis,  were  to  gain  the  aid  of  the  Medes  against  Assyria,  it 
could  only  be  done  by  a  religious  revolution.  They  must 
surrender  their  more  humane  creed,  or  convert  the  Medes  to  it,  or 
what  was  more  feasible  than  either  plan,  they  might  introduce  a 
new  theology  that  mediated.  This  last  plan  was  adopted,  and 
the  agents  in  preparing  the  new  system  and  in  propagating  it 
were  the  Magi.  These  seem  to  have  been  the  priestly,  and 
therefore  not  historical  descendants  of  Ram,  the  Sanscrit  Brahma, 
the  children  of  his  first  born  Maaz  or  Magaz,  whose  name  invites 
comparison  with  the  Mauzzim  or  Maguzzim  of  Daniel's  prophecy. ^^ 
Among  the  oriental  Ras,  who  were  widely  scattered  over  Media, 
Armenia,  and  Susiana,  they  found  a  deity  of  note,  the  Beth-Zur 
of  the  Kenite  list,  who  had  been  worshipped  in  Egypt  as  Serapis, 
and  in  Babylonia  as  a  masculine  form  of  Zarpanit,  who  had  given 
his  name  to  Saravene  in  south-eastern  Cappadocia,  and  who,  as 
Zervan,  was  honoured  by  the  Medes.  He  was,  as  the  son  of 
^laon,  the  Baal  Meon  whose  sanctuary,  Beth  Baal  Meon,  was 
f|uite  near  to  Mount  Poor  in  Moab.  There  doubtless  the  Midian- 
ites had  adopted  his  worship.  So  highly  honoured  was  his  race 
by  them,  that  two  of  their  princes  in  the  time  of  Joshua  l)ore 
Rassite  names  pertaining  to  it,  namely,  Rekem  and  Zur.  Here, 
then,  was  a  lever  wherewith  to  iviisc  Midian  and  Ras  against  the 
Assyrian,  a  bond  whei'fwith  to  unite  the  n^ligions  that  had  been 
for  aifes  in  deadly  antagonism.  There  were  no  objections  to 
'•    Dan.  xi. :«. 


262  THE   HITTITES. 

Zervan.  This  oriental  Tharonhiawakon,  or  the  House  of  Heaven, 
had  made  no  enemies.  His  great  grand-father  Ma  Reshah,  an 
Ares  and  a  Mars,  a  Marsus  and  a  Marsyas,  though  a  great 
warrior,  received  honours  from  many  hostile  tribes  of  Heth ; 
and  even  the  Assyrian  Sargon  respected  the  older  Laadah  or 
Laguda  in  his  Babylonian  and  Chaldean  sanctuaries.  So  Zervan, 
young  in  comparison  with  most  deities,  became  the  ancestral  god 
as  the  unlimited  overarching  sky,  from  whom  emanated  or  were 
evolved  first  of  all  the  twin  deities  Ormuzd  and  Ahriman,  and, 
through  them,  all  beings  and  objects  that  exist.  Thus  philosopliy 
began  to  replace  history  in  religion  so  far  as  the  Magi  and  other 
pretenders  to  wisdom  were  concerned,  but  the  vulgar  were  left  to 
worship  what  god  or  gods  they  pleased,  inasmuch  as  they  were 
equally,  whether  good  or  bad,  emanations  from  one  substance.  It 
is  the  presence  of  this  Zervan  in  the  Median  creed  that  makes 
doubtful  the  identification  of  the  Arizanti  with  the  Regemites  of 
Hyrcania,  and  would  rather  associate  them  with  the  Rassite 
Rekemites,  who  named  Rhagiana  and  dwelt  in  Rhagae  or 
Arsacia.  The  Midianites  themselves  are  left  without  representa- 
tion among  the  tribes,  unless  the  Budii  or  Vitii  be  given  to  them, 
as  descendants  of  Midian's  son  Abidah,  rather  than  to  the  Beero- 
thites,  as  descendants  of  Bedad.  The  name  of  the  second  Zoroaster 
who  originated  this  flexible  and  comprehensive  religion  has  not 
been  preserved.  He  was  a  Magus,  and  his  Japhetic  brethren 
became  the  apostles  of  the  new  faith.  When  it  first  began  to  be 
propagated  we  cannot  tell,  save  that  it  was  within  the  century 
that  intervened  between  the  exodus  from  Carchemish  and  the  fall 
of  Nineveh.  The  Magi  were  successful.  The  warlike  men  of 
Ras  rejoiced  to  hear  that  their  tribal  divinity  was  the  king  of  all 
the  gods,  and  the  Medes,  who  had  adopted  Zervan,  shared  their 
appreciation  of  the  honoui'.  The  other  Hittite  tribes  were 
satisfied  with  the  recognition  of  their  contending  deities  as 
emanations  from  a  common  divine  source,  and  accepted  Zervan  as 
the  new  mediator.  Under  Japhetic  leaders,  represented  by 
Cyaxares  in  the  tradition  of  Ctesias,  the  warriors  of  the  Median 
kingdom,  constituted  on  the  basis  of  the  Zervanian  creed,  marched 
to  Nineveh  and  united  with  the  Babylonian  hordes  collected  hy 
Nebuchadnezzer  to  effect  its  final  overthrow. 


THE  AllYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  263 

The  capital  of  the  Median  kingdom,  which  according  to 
Herodotus  was  built  by  Deioces,  a  predecessor  of  Oyaxai'es,  was 
called  Agbatana  or  Ecbatana.  In  the  book  of  Ezra  it  is  named 
Achmetha.^^  Herodotus  mentions  a  Syrian  Agbatana  where 
Cambyses  died  as  an  oracle  had  testified.^'*  Stephanus  of  Byzan- 
tium also  says  that  the  Syrian  Agbatana  w^as  called  Epiphania, 
which  Mr.  Blakesley,  quoted  by  Professor  Eawlinson,  shows  was 
a  name  of  Hamath.  It  is  with  Hamath  as  a  word,  not  as  a  place, 
that  Gesenius  connects  the  Achmetha  of  Ezra.^^  But  Pliny  says 
that  on  mount  Carmel  there  was  a  town  of  the  same  name,  which 
was  anciently  called  Acbatana.^*^  Carmel  was  a  great  sanctuary 
of  Baal,  but  Hamath  was  even  more  famous  in  this  respect,  as  the 
inscribed  altar  stones  of  Pisiris  testify.  The  Mardi  or  Amardi 
dwelt  in  Media,  and  they  were  of  the  family  of  Hamath,  as  were 
the  Median  Paretaceni  or  Beerothites.  At  Hamath  in  Syria  the 
emperors  of  Carchemish  had  been  in  the  habit  of  worshipping,  so 
that  it  would  be  perfectly  natural  to  find  them  reviving  the  name 
of  their  ancient  sanctuary  and  making  it  the  capital  of  the  new 
nation.  As  the  language  of  Media  was  Hittite,  it  would  also  be 
most  desirable  to  retain  the  services  of  the  Kenite  scribes,  whose 
etlbrts,  when  gained  over  to  the  new  religion,  would  be  largely 
successful  in  seconding  those  of  the  Magi  as  propagandists. 
During  the  seventy- three  years  that  elapsed  between  the  fall  of 
Nineveh  and  the  capture  of  Babylon,  the  Aryans  made  their 
influence  felt  over  the  Hittite  and  Celtic  tribes.  Yet  it  is  to  be 
remein])ered  that  the  dynasty  of  the  Babylonian  Nebuchadnezzar 
was  Hittite,  uniting  the  Elamite  Gedors  with  the  Kenozzites. 
The  question  therefore  arises,  Was  }iot  the  name  of  the  Median 
capital  as  well  as  the  exaltation  of  Zervan  a  bait  by  which 
Cyaxares  and  his  Magi  sought  to  draw  to  themselves  the  Hama- 
thite  and  Rassite  triljes  that  dwelt  in  Chaldea  and  Elam  ?  During 
this  interval  the  ]\le(les  became  strong  and  extended  their  sway 
over  the  whole  of  the  western  area  which  the  Hittites  had 
fcn-inerly  occupied.  The  native  Zerethites  or  Carduchi  of 
northern    Assyria,   d(q)rived    of    their    powerful    and    oppressive 

1-    |-:zr,i  vi.  2. 

"    Ifi-roiiot.  iii.  '12,  Kuwliiisuii's  iiolf. 

'■'    C.i-^-MH-,    L.'X.    H.-t,. 

"■■    I'liny  V.  17. 


264  THE   HITTITES. 

kings,  transferred  their  allegiance  to  those  of  Media.  The 
Armenian  chiefs  gladly  recognized  their  sway ;  and  the  tribes  of 
Pontus  and  Cappadocia  rejoiced  in  their  new-found  freedom. 
But  a  competitor  for  empire  was  the  Lydian  kingdom  of  western 
Asia  Minor.  In  Sardis  the  king  Alyattes,  a  late  Laadah,  kept 
royal  state,  and  his  arms  extended  over  the  whole  country 
towards  the  river  Halys  which  formed  the  western  boundary  of 
Pontus  and  Cappadocia.  Some  vagabond  tribes,  Celtic  or 
Hittite,  dislikinor  the  Median  rule,  had  taken  refugee  with  the 
king  of  Lydia,  who  refused  to  extradite  them  at  the  request  of 
Cyaxares.  We  do  not  know  the  whole  particulars  of  the  history, 
but  subsequent  events  seem  to  show  that  the  new  Aryan  rulers 
were  aware  of  the  existence  of  colonists  of  their  own  race  on  the 
Lydian  sea  board,  and  that  the  war  which  followed  the  refusal 
of  Alyattes,  in  which  Hittite  fought  against  Hittite,  was  under- 
taken more  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  Japhetic  rule  in  the 
west  than  for  getting  back  a  few  escaped  slaves.  The  war  ended, 
however,  when  a  sudden  eclipse  of  the  sun  took  place,  a  pheno- 
menon terrifying  to  both  parties  alike  ;  and,  through  the  media- 
tion of  the  Babylonian  Labynetus  and  the  Cilician  Syennesis,  a 
peace  was  arranged,  by  which  the  Halys  was  made  the  boundary 
of  the  respective  empires,  and  Astyages  the  son  of  Cyaxares 
received  Aryenis,  Alyattes'  daughter,  in  marriage. 

When  Cyaxares  died  about  .595  B.C.,  two  years  after  the 
eclipse,  Astyages  succeeded  him.  His  name  casts  a  shade  of  doubt 
over  the  story,  for  it  is,  like  Deioces,  a  form  of  the  Persian  Zahak 
as  Asi  Dahaka,  the  biting  serpent,  and  in  history  represents 
Zoheth  of  the  Kenezzite  family.  It  is  a  name  that  should  belong 
to  Babylonia,  where  Nebo  and  Merodach  were  chief  deities  and 
where  the  temple  of  Saggathu  reared  its  towers  to  the  skies.  It 
may  be  that  Cyaxares,  by  giving  his  son  this  non-Aryan  name, 
thought  to  attach  to  his  fortunes  the  Kenezzites  of  the  Babylonian 
empire,  the  Cilicians  of  kindred  blood,  and  the  wild  Dahae  of  the 
east,  whose  ancestors  had  fought  under  the  banners  of  Seti 
Menephtah  ;  but  this  is  a  mere  supposition.  Astyages  was  a  tyrant, 
according  to  all  accounts  but  that  of  Xenophon,  and  succeeded  in 
alienating  the  inhabitants  of  Persis  in  the  soutli  and  those  of 
Armenia  in  the  west.     The  story  of  his  grandson  Cyrus  is  well 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  265 

known.  This  son  of  his  daughter  Mandane  and  the  Achaemenian 
Cambyses  he  ordered  to  be  put  to  death  when  the  Magi  inter- 
preted his  dream  of  a  vine  growing  out  of  his  daughter  that  over- 
shadowed all  Asia  as  a  prophecy  that  her  son  should  deprive  him 
of  the  kingdom.  A  somewhat  similar  dream  appears  in  Irish 
history,  the  dreamer  being  Eachtach,  the  concubine  of  Art  and 
mother  of  Cormac  Ulfada,  who  beheld  a  tree  springing  from  her 
neck,  whose  branches  overspread  the  whole  kingdom  of  Ireland.^" 
Harpagus  the  officer  of  Astyages  delivered  the  infant  to  a  herds- 
man to  be  exposed  on  a  mountain,  but  the  herdsman  brought  up 
the  child  and  called  him  Agradates.  Agradates  became  a  right 
royal  youth,  and  so  lorded  it  even  over  young  Median  nobles  that 
he  was  brought  before  the  king  to  be  punished.  Astyages  recog- 
nized his  grandson  and  brought  him  up  in  his  palace.  This  latter 
part  of  the  story  is  the  same  as  that  told  of  Pravarasena  the  son 
of  Toramana  in  the  Raja  Tarangini.  Hiranya  son  of  Srechtha- 
sena,  a  name  that  has  been  identified  with  the  Persian  Rustam, 
cast  his  co-regent  brother  Toramana  into  prison- for  aiming  at  sole 
dominion.  The  wife  of  the  prisoner,  Anjana,  a  name  not  unlike 
Mandane,  bore  a.  son  Pravarasena  who  was  brought  up  by  the 
wife  of  a  potter.  This  boy  was  elected  king  by  his  playmates, 
and  in  this  position  was  recognized  by  his  mother's  brother 
Jayendra.  After  the  death  of  Vicramaditya,  the  emperor  of  all 
India,  and  of  Matrigupta,  his  lieutenant  in  Cashmere,  Pravarasena 
became  king  and  overthrew  the  kingdom  of  Saurashtra  or 
Oujerat.^^  Agradates  was  allowed  by  Astyages  to  visit  his  father 
CamVjyses  in  Persis.  There  he  united  the  Persian  tribes  and, 
incited  by  Harpagus  and  aided  by  the  Armenian  Tigranos,  he  rose 
in  revolt  against  Astyages,  dethroned  him,  and  superseded  the 
Median  empire  by  the  Persian,  at  the  same  time  changing  his 
name  to  Cyrus.  His  subsequent  achievements  were  the  overthrow 
of  the  Lydian  Cra'sus  and  conquest  of  all  Asia  Minor,  the 
annexation  to  his  empire  of  all  the  countries  between  the  Zagros 
mountains  and  the  Punjab,  the  capture  of  Babylon  and  extinction 
of  royalty  in  Babylonia,  the  liberation  of  the  Jews,  and  his  cani- 
pniifn  against  the   Massagutae,  in  which  he  is  said  to  have  falK'ii. 

'•    Kcatirif,'. 

'■^    Raja  Taraiif,'iiii. 


266  THE   HITTITES. 

The  historical  traditions  of  the  Persians  are  Hittite ;  their 
name  is  Zimrite  or  Celtic  ;  their  lanofuagre  was  and  is  Indo-Euro- 
pean.  According  to  the  records  preserved  by  the  Greeks,  Persian 
monarchy  began  with  Cyrus ;  but  the  book  of  Esther  represents 
the  captive  Jews,  whom  Cyrus  restored  to  their  own  land,  as 
suffering  oppression  and  in  danger  of  extinction  from  Ha  man  the 
Amalekite  in  the  reign  of  Ahasuerus  or  Achashverosh,  the  royal 
husband  of  Esther  the  Jewess.^^  The  whole  story  of  the  rise  of 
the  Persian  empire  is  involved  in  such  contradictions,  that,  with- 
out further  data,  it  would  be  unwise  to  attempt  that  reconciliation 
of  historical  statements  and  traditions  in  which  so  many  acute 
and  learned  investigators  have  failed.  Turning,  however,  to  the 
Hittite  element  in  the  history,  the  striking  fact  appears  of  a  con- 
test between  the  new  Persian  creed  and  that  of  the  Medes.  The 
Persians  professed  to  restore  a  pure  Zoroastrianism  in  opposition 
to  the  eclectic  Zervanism  of  the  Median  kingdom.  This  meant 
the  revival  of  the  old  antagonism  between  Ormuzd  and  Ahriman, 
and  a  definite  refusal  to  conciliate  the  Kenezzites  of  Babylonia 
and  the  north.  Nevertheless  this  religious  animosity  was  accom- 
panied with  proselytism,for  theZerethites  and  theZimrite  Persians, 
who  were  originally  worshippers  of  Baal  Peor,  became  the  fast 
allies  of  the  new  king.  Wliat  the  Median  Magi  had  thought  to 
effect  by  a  change  of  religion,  Cyrus  accomplished  by  the  union 
of  widely  different  historical  traditions,  which  were  probably  at 
first  collected  into  a  Persian  epic  that  furnished  Firdusi  with  the 
elements  of  his  poem  the  Shah  Nameh.  In  this  epic  the  great 
theme  was  the  contest  between  Zohak  and  Afrasiab  or  Zohcth 
and  Ophrah,  as  incarnations  of  the  principle  of  evil,  on  the  one 
hand,  and  a  beneficent  race,  whose  royal  and  princely  genealogies 
consisted  of  excerpts  from  the  traditions  of  the  Zerethites,  Achu- 
zamites,  MaReshethites,  and  Beerothites.  Thus  it  happened  that 
Feridun  the  great  Zerethite  hero,  the  Duryodhana  of  the  Hindus, 
the  Ardon  of  the  Kenite  list,  who  was  the  son  of  Hur  and  Jcrigoth, 
became  the  great  hero  of  the  Persians.  The  Persians  proper  or 
Pereshites  had  indeed  so  regarded  him  from  ancient  days,  when 
the  family  of  Peresh,  Ulam,  and  Bedan,  through  their  connection 
with    Ardon,    sat   upon    the    Zimrite    throne   in   Babylonia   and 

•2   I^sther :  Bosanquet,  Cyrus  the  Second,  Trans.  Soc.  Bib.  Arch.  i.  173. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  267 

Gebalene.  But  the  Achuzamites  and,  especially,  the  MaReshethites 
and  Beerothites  had  been  the  determined  enemies  of  the  allied 
Zerethites  and  Zimrites,  as  the  Mahabharata,  the  Gododin,  and 
other  ancient  documents,  testify.  All  this,  however,  was  forootten ; 
and  Kai  Kobad  or  Jabez,  the  first  of  the  Cappadocians,  was 
ingeniously  made  a  descendant  of  Iraj,  Feridun's  son,  while  Ma 
Reshah  and  Harum  became  his  sons  under  the  names  of  Arish  and 
Aramin,  and  the  Beerothites  were  glorified  in  Zaul  and  Rustarn. 
Hadad  the  son  of  Bedad  and  other  historic  names  that  would  have 
roused  suspicion,  from  the  notorietj^  of  their  antagonism  to  the 
Zerethite  and  Zimrite  tribes,  were  carefully  suppressed ;  and, 
while  popular  current  traditions  were  incorporated  in  the  poem, 
they  were  so  unified,  at  the  expense  of  historic  truth,  as  to  pre- 
sent the  story  of  one  Aryan  family  that  had  been  in  former  days 
the  masters  of  the  world.  The  ingenious  interpolation  of  the 
Aryan  Lohorasp  and  Gushtasp  between  KaiKhusrau  and  Esfendiar 
gave  a  Japhetic  flavour  to  the  whole  history,  and  favoured  the 
pretensions  of  later  Hy^taspes  to  dominion  over  the  Perso-Hittite 
tribes.  And,  to  flatter  the  Persians  who  had  no  place  assigned 
them  in  the  poetic  record,  the  king  took  to  himself  the  name,  not 
indeed  of  Peresh  but,  of  his  brother  Sheresh,  the  priestly  Chryses 
of  the  Greeks,  whose  daughter  Chryseis  w^as  taken  from  Aga- 
memnon, who  in  return  took  Briseis  from  Achilles ;  as  Cyrus  he 
thus  became  the  royal  pontiff'  of  the  Persians. 

The  Zerethite  line  to  which  Cyrus  allied  himself  was  that 
which  descended  from  Asareel  through  Hur  and  Jerigoth.  From 
Hur  and  his  Kenite  spouse  the  Aryans  and  Arachoti,  who  after- 
wards dwelt  in  Aria  west  of  the  Indus,  received  their  names. 
There  the  Casirotae  kept  up  the  name  of  Jeslier  or  Geshur,  after- 
wards to  be  transferred  to  Gujerat  in  the  east  and  to  the  Jaxartes 
in  the  north.  Th^re  also  two  families  of  Anak  the  son  of  Arba, 
those  of  Sheshai  and  Ahiman,  dwelt,  in  Sacastene  and  on  the 
Etynmnder.  Th.is  purely  Zerethite  stock  gave  the  spurious  Aryan 
name  to  the  whole  Japhetic  race,  and  from  its  most  famous  offshoot, 
that  of  Achiman,  Cyrus  deiluced  his  d('sc<'ut.  Tliai  there  was  a 
Japhetic  Achaemenes  is  \bry  proliable,  as  Darius  calls  the  father 
of  Teispes,  from  whom  he  and  (Jyi'us  e(|ually  desct'iuled,  hy  that 
name.-"'     But  Achaemenes  or  Achiman  was  oi-iginally  Hittite.     It 

'-'"    Ijclii.stiiti  Iiiscriiitioii,  Records  (if  tlir  Past,  i.  107. 


268  THE   HITTITES. 

is  no  mere  coincidence  that  an  Arbag  or  Arbaces  heads  the  line 
of  Media,  and  an  Achaemenes  that  of  Persia.  Ogamhan  appears 
in  the  Irish  genealogies  of  the  Milesians.^^  He  was  the  Achoron 
Achaman  of  the  Guanches  who  were  the  aborigines  of  the  Canary 
Islands,  and  from  him  the  oldest  Guanche  tribe  was  called  that 
of  the  Achimenceys.^^  In  Japan  he  is  Hachiman,  the  god  of  war ; 
in  Mexico  Hueuian  the  last  king  of  the  Toltecs  ;  and  in  Peru,  the 
land  of  the  Incas,  Huaman.^^  In  the  Iliad,  Acamas  is  a  leader  of 
the  Dardanians  and  a  son  of  Antenor,  and  he  fights  along  with 
-^neas  the  son  of  Anchises;  or  he  is  a  Thracian  son  of  Eyssorus, 
or  Jesher.^*  When  further  we  consider  the  tribe  to  which  Achae- 
menes and  Cj^'rus  belonged,  we  find  it  is  that  of  the  Pasargadae, 
whose  name  resembles  most  that  of  the  Sarragitu  who  were  in 
Babylonia  in  the  time  of  Tiglath  Pileser  11.-^  These  again  are 
the  Arachoti,  among  whom  the  Etymandri  dwelt.  Next  in  point 
of  rank  to  the  Pasargadae,  according  to  Herodotus,  came  the 
Maraphii  and  the  Maspii.  The  latter  are  the  same  as  the  Mes- 
abatae,  and  represent  the  eastern  Messapians  or  descendants  of 
Mezahab,  who  carried  the  name  of  Menthesuphis  into  the  Xew 
World  as  Montezuma.  But  the  Maraphii  may  have  been  Meropes 
or  Hammurabians ;  or  the  same  as  the  Assyrian  Nirbu,  who  were 
descendants  of  Arba  the  father  of  Anak,  the  eponym  of  Arrapa- 
chitis  in  Assyria,  and  the  original  Arbaces.  The  fact  that  the 
later  classical  geographers  replace  the  Maraphii  by  the  Rapsii 
favours  the  latter  identification.  The  Sagartians,  whom  Herodotus 
makes  shepherds,  and  the  Panthialaeans,  whom  he  calls  cultiva- 
tors of  the  soil,  appear  to  have  been  Japhetic  tribes,  the  first 
bearing;  the  name  of  Geker  or  Sagara,  and  the  second,  that  of 
Abdiel  descended  from  him.  In  India  the  kingdom  of  Saurashtra, 
Syrastrene,  or  Gujerat,  was  contiguous  to  Patalene ;  and  among 
the  Afighans,  who  inhaV:)it  ancient  Aria,  the  tribal  name  Abdolli 
occurs  along  with  Safi,  Hyber,  Chigi,  Sur,  and  Jasini,  which 
resemble  the  Buzite  Abdiel,  Sheba,  Heber,  Ziag,  Jorai  and  Jachan. 
Yet  their  generic  name  of  Pushtan  or  Puchto  favours  a  descent 

^'  Keating. 

'^''  Pegot  Ogier,  The  Fortunate  Isles  ;  Malte  Bnin,  Geography. 

•-■'*  Hepburn,  Jap.  Diet.  ;  B.  de  Bourbourg  ;  Peruv.  Antiq. 

-■'  Iliad,  ii.  823  ;  vi.  8. 

■■■'  Records  of  the  Past,  v.  4",  101. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  269 

from  the  oriental  Pactyans  or  Bakhdi  of  Bactria.  It  was  by  tlie 
influence  of  these  Japhetic  tribes  that  the  language  and  manners 
of  the  confederate  Hittites  and  Celts  were  aryanized.  Other 
Persian  tribes  were  the  Derusiae,  Germanii,  Dahae,  Mardi,  and 
Dropici.  The  Mardi  of  Mardyene  bordering  on  Susiana  were  the 
Hamathites  of  the  line  of  Mered  ;  we  know  too  little  of  the  Ger- 
manii or  Carmanians  to  assert  that  they  w^ere  oriental  Garmites 
or  Garamaei  of  the  line  of  Zochar  ;  nor  can  it  be  positively  asserted 
that  the  Dropici  were  a  branch  of  the  Rephaim,  although  the  his- 
tory of  Cashmere  always  associates  the  Darvas  and  the  Abhisaras, 
the  latter  of  whom,  as  Abiezrites,  descended  from  Kapha.  The 
Derusiae  bear  a  Thracian-like  name  answering  to  the  i^malekite 
Zerah  or  Tserach,  and  may  denote  the  branch  of  the  Temenites 
to  which  Haman  belonged  ;  and  the  Dahae  of  Taocene  must  have 
been  friendly  Zohethites,  whom  the  Persian  hatred  of  Zohak  had 
not  alienated. 

It  is  evident  that  many  tribes,  which  the  classical  atlas  places 
in  India  or  on  its  borders,  were  much  nearer  to  Persis  and  Media 
in  the  time  of  Cyrus.  The  prophet  Isaiah,  speaking  of  the  tribes 
that  were  summoned  to  the  overthrow  of  Babylon,  derives  some 
of  them  from  the  Yom  Kesuphoth,  or  Caspian  sea,  and  mentions 
among  these  the  Boged  and  Shoded,  or  Bakhdhi  and  Sughdha  of 
the  Zend  Avesta,  and  Bactrians  and  Sogdians  of  the  Greeks,  the 
former  of  whom  descended  from  the  Zerethite  Pasach,  and  the 
latter,  from  Ishhod  the  son  of  Samlah  of  the  Rephaim.'-'^ 
Only  those  Hittite  tribes  which  dwelt  near  the  centres  of  Ayran 
influence  in  Media  or  Hyrcania  and  in  Persis  can  have  lost  tlieir 
ancient  tongue  and  customs.  Even  within  that  restricted  area 
the  denationalizing  process  seems  to  have  been  very  imperfect,  for 
when  the  Parthians  rose  to  power  in  the  middle  of  the  third 
century,  B.C.,  they  appeared  as  a  purely  Hittite  people  in 
physical  character,  speech,  and  habits.  Many  tribes  moved  east- 
ward to  escape  from  Persian  exactions,  and  their  migrations  pro- 
bably began  from  the  very  commencement  of  Persian  empirt^'. 
The  inscriptions  of  Darius  show  that  there  were  many  leaders 
disaffected  towards  his  person  and  government,  whose  followers 
after  their  fall   would  naturally  move  eastward   in  the  track  of 

■■;<■'    Isaiah  xxi.  1,  2. 


270  THE   HITTITES. 

the  dark  races. ^^  Some  of  the  seeolonies  were  led  by  Aryans  ; 
others  by  their  own  Hittite  chiefs.  Of  the  former,  one  of  the 
earliest  to  take  to  the  east  was  the  senior  Hittite  tribe  which 
arrogated  to  itself  the  Hittite  or  Khita  name,  and  which  in  the 
Punjab  the  Greeks,  in  the  time  of  Alexander,  called  the  nation  of 
the  Cathaei.  The  first  division  of  this  tribe  pressed  upon  by 
later  immitrrants  crossed  the  upper  waters  of  the  Ganges  and 
established  itself  in  Oude,  a  reminiscence  of  Jahdai,  and  com- 
memorated his  son  Regem  in  Lucknow.  But  their  successors  of 
the  same  race  dropped  the  ancestral  names  and  did  honour  to  their 
Aryan  leaders  by  calling  their  capital  Sangala,  The  dethrone- 
ment of  Sagara  or  Cyaxares  from  his  seat  in  Media,  and  his  re- 
tirement to  his  original  home  in  Hyrcania,  as  Ctesias  relates,  was 
the  first  act  that  prompted  the  withdrawal  of  the  original  Hittite 
suzerains  from  Persia.  Then  in  the  reign  of  Darius  two  men, 
with  armies  at  their  disposal,  claimed  to  be  descendants  of 
Cyaxares, and  fought  against  the  royal  troops.  One  was  Phraortes, 
who  professed  to  be  Xathrites  of  the  race  of  Cyaxares  ;  the  other 
was  Sitratachmes  a  Sagartian,  who  also  said  that  he  was  of  the 
lace  of  Cyaxares.  Media,  Parthia,  Hyrcania,  and  Sagartia  took 
part  with  the  pretenders,  of  whom  the  last  was  certainl}"  an 
Aryan,  the  name  Sitratachmes  denoting  this  as  uell  as  the  fact 
that  he  was  of  Sao-artia.^^  There  is  no  record  of  anv  migration 
after  the  defeat  of  the  two  rebels,  but,  with  a  wandering  people 
such  as  the  Hittites  were,  nothing  could  be  more  natural  than 
that  they  and  their  Japhetic  lords  should  betake  themselves  to  a 
free  country.  In  India  the  Brahman  name  seems  to  have  come 
into  use  to  denote  the  Japhetic  stock  descended  from  Jerachmeel 
and  his  son  Ram,  the  original  Brahma.  The  Magi  and  Sagartians, 
priests  and  warriors  descended  from  the  brothers  Magaz  and 
Geker,  united  under  the  common  name,  and  continued  to  exercise 
a  strong  influence  over  their  Hittite  and  Midianite  companions. 
Among  the  latter  were  the  Prasii,  a  powerful  nation  of  the  same 
parentage  as  the  Persians  proper  and  the  Parisii  of  Gaul  and 
Britain.  Brahman  rule  cannot  have  lasted  long  in  India.  If  we 
accept  the  year  543,  B.C.  as  that  of  the  death  of  Gautama  Buddha, 

-'•    Rf'cords  of  the  Past. 

'-'■s    K.'conis  of  tlu-  P:ist,  i.  ]  1(),  119. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  271 

and  allow  that  such  a  person  actually  lived  in  India,  thei-e  must 
have  been  Hittite  and  Brahman  settlements  in  that  country  prior 
to  the  time  of  Cyrus,  for  Gautama  belono;ed  to  the  Sakya  or 
Shuchite  branch  of  the  Kshattriya  race,  and  the  Brahmans  were 
in  the  land  in  his  day.  It  was  not,  however,  till  about  300  B.C., 
that  the  Emperor  Asoka  adopted  the  Buddhist  creed,  and  in  doing 
so  compelled  the  Brahmans  to  separate  themselves  from  the 
Buddhist  Hittites.  Prior  to  that  time  they  seem  to  have  been 
scattered  over  the  country,  in  some  places  as  rulers,  in  others 
occupying  a  subordinate  civil,  but  supreme  religious  position  as 
priests  and  holy  sages.  The  acceptance  of  Buddhism  by  the 
Hittite  princes  was  a  protest  against  ancestor  worship,  a  disclaimer 
of  the  Brahmanical  caste  and  priestly  pretentions,  and  thus  a 
signal  of  hostility  between  the  Aryan  and  the  Turanian.  But  all 
the  Hittites  did  not  become  Buddhists.  The  Ethnanite  or 
Kenezzite  family,  in  the  line  of  the  Charashim  at  least,  and 
doubtless  in  that  of  Zohetli  also,  was  Sivaite,  their  Siva  an 
incarnation  of  Baal  Peor,and  virtually  the  same  unclean  god,  being 
Joab,  the  father  of  the  Charashim.  Among  the  Bharatas  or 
Beerothites  also  there  were  Vishnavites,  whose  Vishnu  was 
Achian,  the  son  of  Shemidag,  the  same  as  Baal  Berith,  who  had 
been  worshipped  at  Shechem  in  Palestine.  The  Brahmans  made 
common  cause  with  these  idolaters,  and  thus  created  a  trinity 
formerly  unknown  of  Brahma,  Vishnu,  and  Siva,  which  some 
writers,  ignorant  of  its  origin  in  political  expediency,  have  com- 
pared with  that  of  revelation.  The  Buddhism  which  this  new 
Brahmanical  system  opposed  was,  in  its  essential  feature  of 
humanity,  nothing  new,  being  as  far  as  that  is  concerned  a 
successful  revival  of  the  old  systems  of  Paseach  and  Job  and  of 
Saul  of  Rehoboth,  which  the  Pythagoreans  of  Magna  (iraecia 
endeavoured  to  restore  in  the  west.  But  it  does  not  appear  that 
tlic  old  systems  included  the  atheism  of  Indian  Buddhism.  Job 
was  a  worshipper  of  the  one  God,  and  there  is  reason  to  believe 
tliat  his  father  Paseach  and  the  later  Saul  had  a  similar  faith. 
Yet  Pythagoras  and  Gautama  Ijuddha  must  i.ave  di'iived  from  a 
connnon  source  in  Hittite  auti(|uity  their  doctrine  of  iiu'teinpsy- 
chosis.  Buddhist  atlieisiii  had  its  oi-igin  in  the  knowledge  of 
history.      Gautama  Jjiiddha,  possessing  jtrobaltly  tiie  vi-ry  Kenite 


272  THE   HITTITES, 

genealogies  preserved  in  Chronicles,  perceived  that  the  gods  of 
polytheism  were  deified  ancestors,  and  he  naturally  asked  the 
question,  If  these  ancestors  became  gods,  why  may  their  descen- 
dants not  attain  the  same  position,  seeing  that  they  are  the 
ancestors  yet  to  be  ?  Hence  the  doctrine  that  any  human  being 
may,  by  heaping  up  merit  through  successive  stages  of  existence, 
attain  to  the  position  of  a  supreme  Buddha,  which  is  the  nearest 
thing  to  a  god  that  the  Buddhist  system  allows.  Brahmanism, 
which,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Vishnavites  and  Sivaites, 
ultimately  drove  Buddhism  out  of  India,  did  not  follow  the 
Hittites  in  their  northern  migrations  through  Tartary  and 
Thibet  towards  Siberia.  In  the  Malay  archipelago,  however, 
through  which  the  Hittites  of  changed  speech  passed  towards 
America,  the  Brahmans  pursued  them,  and  imposed  their  peculiar 
idolatry  on  the  wanderers.  Yet  even  there,  Siva  received  more 
worship  than  any  other  god  of  the  Brahman  pantheon,  and  he 
was  a  native  Hittite  divinity.  Buddhism  on  the  other  hand 
pursued  the  Hittites  into  Siberia,  almost  all  the  inscriptions  of 
that  country  referring  to  Buddhist  temples ;  and  thence,  into 
Corea  and  Japan.  No  full-fledged  Buddhism  is  found  in  America 
but  traces  of  its  influence  appear  in  Mexican  history,  and  it  may 
be  that  the  Mound  Builders  and  the  Neutral  Nation  of  Iroquois 
history  were  affected  by  its  teachings.  The  area  of  the  aryanized 
Hittites  in  the  east  is  bounded  by  the  limits  of  Bengal,  named 
after  Abichail  the  Gekerite  or  Gangarid,  and  in  the  north  by 
Bokhara  in  Tartary,  the  Ultima  Thule  of  ancient  Japhetic  speech 
iy  Asia.^'^ 

West  of  Media  and  Persia,  the  Armenians  and  Kurds,  origin 
ally  of  pure  Hittite  blood,  were  modified  by  admixture  with 
Japhetic  tribes.  The  Kurds,  Gordyaei,  Carduchi,  or  Cherethites 
had  inhabited  the  mountains  of  northern  Assyria  from  remote 
antiquity.  They  constituted  the  chief  element  in  the  victorious 
Assyrian  armies,  and  seem  to  have  possessed  Praetorian  power. 
If  they  proved  unfaithful  or  were  overcome,  the  Assyrian  empire 
fell.     To  the  present  day  they  are  as  warlike  as  ever,  among  the 

2'J  Although  Japhetic  Hjjeech  did  not  extend  farther  to  the  north  than  Bokhara, 
there  is  good  evidence  for  a  considerable  Aryan  and  Celtic  or  Midianite  element  in 
northern  and  eastern  Hittite  populations. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  273 

bravest  and  most  trusted  soldiers  of  the  Porte.  It  was  to  gain 
them  over  to  his  interests  and  the  interests  of  Aryanism,  that 
Cyrus  or  his  pre«lecessors  pretended  descent  from  their  hero 
Ardon  or  Feridun  ;  and  by  their  help  and  that  of  the  allied 
Medes,  some  of  whose  descendants  as  Kaldani  and  Bottani  still 
dwell  among  them, he  succeeded  in  conquering  the  world.  Semitic 
Assyrian  influences  had  largely  modified  their  speech,  thus  separ- 
ating them  from  their  brethren  who  preserved  the  Hittite 
language  in  its  integrity.  Under  Persian  rule  their  speech  under- 
went new  transformation,  so  much  so  as  to  cause  them  to  be 
ranked  by  ethnologists  in  the  Asiatic  division  of  the  Indo- 
European  family.  In  Armenia  many  Hittite  tribes  had  dwelt, 
but  before  the  rise  of  the  Median  empire  most  of  these  had 
betaken  themselves  to  the  shores  of  the  Caspian  and  the  Black 
Sea  and  to  the  range  of  Caucasus,  hoping  thus  to  esca)>e  from  the 
exactions  of  the  world's  rulers.  Such  w^ere  the  Albanians  and 
Ossetes  of  Temenite  descent,  the  Iberic  Georgians,  a  mingled 
Zerethite  and  MaReshethite  people,  and  the  Colchians,  who  com- 
bined elements  belonging  to  the  Kenezzite  Charasliim  and  the 
Paseachites.  Of  these  the  Ossetes,  descended  from  Husham  the 
Temenite,  exhibit  the  most  decided  traces  of  Aryan  culture.  The 
tribes  that  remained  in  Armenia  were  the  Zocharite  men  of  Van, 
and  some  of  the  posterity  of  Harum  the  father  of  Acharchel,  from 
whom  the  country  received  its  name.  The  Vannic  kingdom  was 
in  existence  in  the  time  of  Cyrus  under  a  king  Tigranes,  who 
preserved  the  old  Zocharite  name.  But  along  with  tliese  Hittite 
tribes  dwelt  the  Minni  or  Jemini,  the  Minyans  of  the  Greeks, 
identified  alike  with  Armenia  and  wnth  the  ancient  Orchomenos, 
which  marks  them  as  a  Jerachmeelite  people.  These  Japhetic 
Jemini  were  in  three  great  divisions,  the  Belaites  of  whom  came 
the  Shaharaim  or  Sanuatians  and  many  other  Kurojx'aii  families, 
the  Jetliaelitc  /Etolians  and  Italians,  and  the  l>eclu'rites  of 
Bokhara  in  the  east  and  Bucharest  in  the  west.""  Tiie  Miiiyan 
family  that  settled  in  Armenia  apjtcars  to  have  been  that  of 
Jediael,  the  Andalus  son  of  Japhet  of  the  Ai'abiaii  historians,  the 
.Ktfjlus  son  of  Enilymion  of  the  (Ji-tM'ks.  His  Minni  niaih^ 
common  cause    with    tlu;    men    of    Van,    as    thcii-    lnTthren    the 


»'    1  Cliroii.  vii.  (J. 
(IS) 


274  THE    HITTITES. 

Gekerites  had  done  with  the  Achuzamites  of  Carchemish,  and  as 
the  Mao-azites,  with  them  and  the  Medes.  As  a  nation  the  Van- 
nites  or  Huns  were  little  influenced  by  their  Japhetic  alHes.  In 
Armenia  and  Pontus  some  of  them  became  civilized  and  accom- 
panied their  friends  to  other  seats  in  Asia  Minor  and  Europe.  As 
Ophionenses  they  dwelt  among  them  in  ^tolia,  and,  to  the  north- 
east of  that  Greek  country,  occupied  a  great  part  of  Thessaly 
named  after  their  ancestor  Zochar.  But  the  great  body  of  the 
Zocharites  known  in  ditt'erent  regions  as  Tochari,  Orpelians, 
Chalybes,  Vanni,  and  Huns,  hovered  about  the  region  of  the  two 
seas,  the  Black  and  the  Caspian,  ready  to  throw  themselves  into 
the  east  or  the  west  as  fancy  might  dictate  or  the  hope  of  plunder 
might  allure.  One  thing  they  picked  up  from  the  Japhetic  Minni, 
and  that  was  the  name  Jediael,  which  on  their  lips  became  Attila, 
the  designation  of  the  Scourge  of  God.  The  Abbe  Cuoq  has 
shown  that  Attila  is  an  Iroquois  name,  descending  in  many 
families  from  grandfather  to  grandson,  and  that  it  denotes  the 
raccoon  as  a  common  noun.  Its  various  forms  in  the  Iroquois 
dialect  are  Atila,  Atira,  Latilan,  Tiron,  and  Ratiron.  He  also 
compares  the  Iroquois  Ratakhes  the  runner  with  the  Gothic  or 
Vandalic  Radagaisus  and  Rhadagast.^^  In  Latin  Jediael  is  also 
an  animal  name  as  vitidiis,  a  calf  or  a  seal.  A  great  deal  of 
curious  history  lies  about  the  name  of  this  man  of  Jemimi,  as  the 
Arab  Wathil,  the  Greek  ^tolus,  the  Latin  Italus,  and  the  Teu- 
tonic Etzel ;  but  to  follow  up  all  such  connections  of  the  Hittites 
would  be  to  write  the  history  of  more  than  half  the  world.  The 
Greek  legends  confound  Jediael  with  Tola  the  son  of  Anub,  or 
Talus  son  of  Qllnopion,  whose  connections  with  the  Hittites  were 
even  more  intimate  than  those  of  the  Minyan  leader. 

The  aryanizing  of  Asia  Minor  was  brought  about  by  two  sepa- 
rate influences,  one  proceeding  from  the  Persian  court  in  Susa  or 
Ecbatana,  the  other  from  Japhetic  colonies  on  the  sea  coast  and 
in  the  interior  of  the  country.  The  population  of  the  peninsula 
was  not  purely  Hittite  apart  from  these  colonies.  As  in  otlier 
places,  so  in  Asia  Minor,  Sumir  kept  company  with  Akkad,  the 
Celt  with  the  Iljerian.     The  chief  Zimritc   reirion   was  Bithvnia. 


■"    Cviofi,  Lcxiquc  dc  la  langue  iro()uoi.se,  62  ;  Jugeineiit  errone  de  M.   E.   Ktnaii 
Kur  li's  liuiK'K's  sauvage-;,  104. 


THE  ARYAN  STRUGGLE  FOR  SUPREMACY  OVER  THE  HITTITES.  275 

where  the  Bedanites  or  Patinians  revived  their  national  life  not 
far  from  their  old  allies  the  Dardanians,  and  where  kin<i-s  named 
Prusias  ruled  over  the  descendants  of  Peresh  or  Buryas.  In  that 
country,  and  scattered  throuo^hout  Phrygia,  another  Zerethite 
region,  dwelt  Cimmerians,  Galatians,  and  Midianites.  These  Cim- 
merians had  founded  Smyrna,  and  the  Midianites  of  the  line  of 
Ephah,  the  famous  city  of  Ephesus  in  the  very  heart  of  the  Lydian 
kingdom.  In  Phrygia  their  kings  ruled  alternately  with  those 
of  Zerethite  blood,  a  Midas  following  a  Gordius,  and  a  Gordius  a 
Midas.  Those  who  occupied  Galatia  in  the  third  century  B.C.  seem 
to  have  been  unsuccessful  invaders  of  Greece,  who  had  been  com- 
pelled to  retire  to  their  Asiatic  home.  These  Galatians  kept  their 
Celtic  speech  down  to  the  time  of  St.  Jerome,  about  400  A.D. 
Probably  the  most  conservative  Hittites  of  Asia  Minor  were  the 
Cilicians,  who  continued  under  the  sway  of  their  native  kings 
down  to  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era.  When  St.  Paul 
visited  Lycaonia,  so  named  after  Beth-Lechem,  the  people  of  that 
countr}^  had  a  language  peculiar  to  themselves,  which  the  Phry- 
gian inscriptions,  belonging  to  the  period  of  Persian  occupation, 
show  to  have  been  Hittite.^"'  As  the  vernacular  of  Cilicia  was  of 
the  same  character,  it  is  probable  that  the  apostle  understood  it, 
and  that  his  companion  St.  Barnabas  from  the  Hittito  country 
of  Cyprus  was  also  acquainted  with  the  widespread  but  then 
perishing  tongue.  The  utter  indifference  of  the  Greeks  and 
Romans  to  all  mattei's  ethnological,  save  as  these  concerned  them- 
selves, has  left  us  almost  entirely  destitute  of  data  for  determining 
the  nature  of  the  al)original  speech  of  the  nations  of  Asia  Elinor 
and  the  time  of  its  cessation.  There  is  no  evidence  that  any  of 
these  nations  adopted  the  Persian  language.  Prior  to  tlie  time  of 
Alexander,  theref(jre,  the  peoples  of  Pontus,  Caj^pudocia,  and 
Cilicia,  of  Paphlagonia,  Phrygia,  and  L^'cia,  of  Mysia  and  l^ydia 
must  hav(j  spoken  dialects  of  the  Hittitf  language,  wliicli  the 
inscription  on  the  Stone  Bowl  from  Babylon  and  those  found  in 
Phrygia  and  Lycia  show  to  ]iav<;  been  archaic  |]as(|U('  a]i]u-oaeliing 
inform  the  Etruscan,  in  Pisidia,  Pain})liyllia,  and  Cai-ia.  and 
along  the  coasts  of  Lydia  and  .My.'^ia,  a  Pclasgic  tonguf  allied  to 
the  (jlrei'k  was  in   use.      Ami    in   parts   of    iiitliynia,   Galatia,  and 

'■'■    Acts  xiv.  11. 


■276  THE    HITTITES. 

Phrygia  proper  the  Celtic  dialects,  Cymric  and  Gaelic,  were  cur- 
rent. After  Alexander  opened  up  the  eastern  world  this  primitive 
state  of  things  underwent  a  change.  In  all  the  Hittite  area  Greek 
became  the  language  of  the  cities  and  towns,  with  the  exception 
of  the  eastern  part  of  Cappadocia  which  fell  under  Armenian 
influences,  and  the  corresponding  region  of  Pontus,  which  retained 
its  Hittite  affinities  with  the  peoples  of  the  neighbouring  Caucasus. 
Elsewhere  in  Asia  Minor  the  Hittite  language  was  banished  to 
rural  districts,  and  there,  for  all  that  is  known  to  the  contrary,  it 
may  have  continued  to  exist  far  into  the  Christian  centuries.  The 
hellenizing  process  begun  in  the  time  of  Alexander  must  have 
been  the  cause  of  many  migrations  into  Europe,  although  such 
migrations  must  have  taken  place  many  centuries  earlier,  owing  to 
Assyrian,  Lydian,  Cimmerian,  and  Persian  encroachments  on  that 
personal  liberty  of  which  the  Hittite  was  most  tenacious.  We 
must  look,  therefore,  to  other  lands  and  other  influences  for  the 
extinction  in  the  west  of  the  Hittite  language  and  nationality. 


277 


CHAPTER  XX.     . 

The  Western  Dispersion  of  the  Hittites. 

W:ftEN  Herodotus  the  Carian  wrote  his  history  in  the  micklle  of 
the  tifth  century  B.C.,  he  was  able  to  indicate  two  great  Hittite 
migration  routes,  and  to  give  much  information  regarding  the 
peoples  whom  he  found  upon  them.  He  also  indicates  another  in 
Africa  which  has  been  already  mentioned,  although  it  should  be 
added  that,  while  the  Canary  Islands  formed  its  western  terminus, 
it  was  also  continued  across  the  Mediterranean  to  the  southern 
shores  of  western  Europe  to  which  it  brought  a  mingled  Iberian 
and  Celtic  population,  some  considerable  time  before  the  same 
elements  descended  into  Italy,  Gaul,  and  Spain,  from  the  north. 
The  two  routes  which  Herodotus  points  out  are  the  Thracian  and 
the  Scythic  ;  of  these  the  Thracian  was  probably  the  more  ancient. 
It  is  impossible  to  tell  when  the  first  Greek  settlements  were 
made  in  Hellas,  on  account  of  the  transference  of  traditions  from 
site  to  site,  those  pertaining  to  Egypt,  Palestine,  and  other  eastern 
countries,  being  located  in  the  European  seats  in  which  the  Greeks 
at  last  built  up  a  national  existence.  As  diflicult  is  it  to  tell  when 
the  Hittite  who  preceded  the  Greek  first  established  himself  in 
Delphi  and  Thebes,  in  Athens  and  Mycene.  We  know,  however^ 
that  wlien  Darius  the  son  of  Hystaspes  entered  Europe,  towards 
the  end  of  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  he  found  the  Thracians  and 
Scythians  there  in  large  numbers,  and  the  latter  so  strong  that 
he  was  compelled  to  retire  before  tliem.  It  is  evident,  therefore, 
that  some  of  the  Hittites  must  have  passed  into  luirope  wlim  the 
g<)\-crrniient  of  Asia  Minor  was  di\i(l<'d  lictwecn  the  Assyrians 
and  tlui  Lyiliaiis.  The  latter  ])e()])le  left  Saraveiie  and  Mclitene 
in  eastern  (jap])adocia,  soon  after  the  reign  of  Asliur-Na/.ir-l*al, 
])i'i)baljly  about  the  yeai'  OOO  i5.('.,  and  niovcil  \v('st\\ai-<l  towards 
tli<'  .M<'dit('iTancan.  It  is  not  likely  that  fliry  found  the  intei-- 
\(,'riing  )-cgion  unoceu])icd,  for  Hittite  i'ugiti\('s  e\ci-y where' 
Ix'Caine  tlu;  world's  ])ione(;is.  {.\\i-'\v  loxc  of  lihei'ty  leading  llieiii  to 


278  THE   HITTITES. 

seek  new  and  unfrequented  regions,  where  for  a  time  they  could 
live  the  nomad  hunter's  life,  merely  clearing  as  much  land 
as  would  suffice  to  let  in  the  air  to  drive  away  the  flies  from  about 
their  dwellinj^s,  and  to  produce  the  crop  of  grain  and  vegetables 
which  would  keep  them  in  daily  bread.  They  did  not  move  by 
nations  but  by  communities  consisting  of  the  representatives  of 
various  tribes,  so  that  their  track  is  hard  to  follow.  Among  the 
oldest  exiles  from  Asia  Minor  may  be  placed  the  Hittite 
aborigines  of  Peloponnesus,  whom  later  immigiants  drove  out  of 
Thrace,  then  out  of  Macedonia  and  southern  Illyria,  and  after- 
wards from  Epirus,  Thessaly,  and  the  southern  states  of  northern 
Greece.  These  were  of  many  different  tribes.  The  Ethnanites 
were  scattered  from  Athens  in  the  east  to  Lepreum  in  Triphyllia 
in  the  west ;  the  Temenites  dwelt  throughout  Achaia,  and  south- 
ward to  the  Alphaeus ;  the  Hepherite  family  of  Lechem  seem  to 
have  been  the  original  dwellers  in  Arcadia ;  and  the  descendants 
of  the  Paseachite  and  Heraclid  Joels  possessed  Elis,  and  sent 
colonies  into  Messenia.  In  Megara,  Corinth,  and  Argos,  the 
Rephaim  and  Regemites  were  found,  and  the  men  of  Ir  Nahash, 
the  nephew  of  Raphah.  With  these  Hittite  families  were 
mingled  the  Etamites  of  Horite  descent  whose  centres  were 
Sparta  and  Ithome  ;  and  the  Buzite-^  and  Gekerites  generally, 
with  the  Orchomenian  Minyans,  and  the  Japhetic  Goim.  exercised 
lordship  over  them  and  their  Hittite  congeners.  The  next 
colonists  in  point  of  antiquity  were  those  of  northern  Greece, 
which  contained  the  two  great  regions  of  Thessaly  and  Epirus, 
named  after  the  Hittite  ancestors  Zochar  and  Hepher.  Leucadia 
and  Cephallenia  in  the  extreme  west  were  colonized  by  exiled 
Rassites,  Leucadia  being  named  after  Laadah  or  Lagadah,  and 
Cephallenia  after  his  grandson  Chebron.  Acarnania  was  largely 
a  Japhetic  settlement  of  the  Ekronites  or  descendants  of  Geker, 
and  /Etolia  was  so  called  from  Jediael  the  son  of  his  brother 
Jamin,  although  it  contained  Hittite  and  Midianite  settlements. 
Doris  also  seeins  to  have  been  purely  Japhetic,  being  colonized 
from  the  Palestinian  Dor,  no  doubt  by  sea.  But  the  three  regions 
of  the  Locri  with  Phocis  and  Boeotia  were  meeting  places  of  many 
tribes.  Etamite, Hittite  and  Jcrachmeelite, where  Thebes  comiiiemo- 
rated  Jabez,  Delphi,  the  Temenite  Eliphaz,  and  Parnassus,  the 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF   THE    HITTITES.  279 

Mehirite  Ir  Nachash.  The  neighbouring  island  of  Euboea  was 
divided  between  the  Kenezzite  Charashim  and  the  Ishhod  of 
Sara  1  ah  of  Masrekah. 

West  of  Macedonia,  the  Dardanii  and  Illyrii  dwelt,  two  names 
denoting  one  people,  the  Zerethites  and  those  called  after  Zereth's 
descendant,  Jehaleleel.  Cavii  from  Ziph,  Jehaleel's  son,  also  dwelt 
there,  with  Temenite  Albani,  and  Hamathite  Parthini.  Macedonia 
was  brimfull  of  Hittite  tribes,  the  very  Macedonian  name  being 
that  of  the  Maachathites  which  was  preserved  also  in  that  of  the 
Mygdones.  Chalcidice  and  Elymea  were  Midianite,  but  Emathia, 
Pieria,  Pelagonia,  Paeonia,  Orbelia,  were  settlements  of  the 
Hamathites,  Beorians,  Baalchananites,  Jephunnites,  and  Amra- 
phelites.  The  Paeones  were  a  remnant  of  the  Teucri.  The 
Thracians  then  were  the  latest  of  this  succession  of  Hittite 
colonists.  Herodotus  calls  them  the  most  powerful  people  in  the 
world  except  the  Indians.  Their  name  came  from  the  Temenite 
Zerach,  from  whom  probably  the  Thracian  Trausi  and  Dersaei 
were  derived.  The  Edoni  were  Ethnanites,  and  the  Sithones 
descendants  of  Eshton  ;  the  Brygi  were  European  Phrygians, 
descended  from  the  Zerethite  Berigah.  and  the  Cicones,  Chusha- 
mites.  The  Sapaei  were  Ziphites  and  the  Satrae  bore  the  name 
of  Achashtari  ;  but  the  Crobyzi,  Coeletae,  and  Triballi  seem  to 
have  been  Celtic  or  Midianite, and  the  Bessi  and  Bisaltae,ott-shoots 
from  the  Japhetic  lines  of  Buz  and  Abichail.  After  the  time  of 
Herodotus,  the  regions  to  the  north  of  Trace,  namely  Moesia  and 
Dacia,  were  tilled  with  MaReshethite  and  Moschic  tribes,  among 
which  were  mingled  Paseachites  about  Tihiscus,  Iberian  Zerethites 
at  Bersovia,  Burridensii  or  Beerothites,  and  Arpii  or  Rephaim. 
That  the  Getae  who  accompanied  these  ])eop]es  wei'e  ilittites  is 
doubtful,  for  the  Goths  first  appeare(l  in  that  country,  whose 
name  may  Ite  connected  with  the  Philistine  (lath.  It  was  the 
men  (jf  ( Jftth  who  slew  the  sous  ol'Tahath  or  the  second  'I'liotlnucs 
at  the  siege  f)f  Thebes,  and  thcs(;  were  the  Bu/.itcs  in  tiic  line  of 
Abiliail,  the  Gi-eek  ^Ebahis.'  Apuluin  was  a  great  stroiigliold  of 
thf  Dacians,  and  tho-e  arc  otlirr  imlieations  that  this  .la])hrtic 
p(;ople  was  seatt(,'rcd  among  tlic  llittitr  ti-ibcs.  l''roni  about  the 
tiiiK-  of  Hi'i-odotus,  a  (Jothic  language  must  have  hrcn  cxoKcd  out 

1    1  Chron.  vii.  21. 


280  THE   HITTITES. 

of  the  old  Pelasgic  speech  of  Philistia  and  Caria,  and  this  language 
the  Goths  imposed  upon  many  Hittite  tribes,  some  of  which  are 
known  in  history  as  the  Lombards,  Burgundians,  Franks,  and 
Gepidae,  who  were  original  Leophrites,  Kegemites,  Irnahashites, 
and  Jabezites.  In  the  north  of  Dacia,  the  Thracian  stream  met 
that  which  caine  from  the  Caucasus  and  the  country  north  of  that 
range  between  the  Caspian  and  the  Black  Seas,  and  flowed  west- 
ward along  the  northern  shores  of  the  latter.  All  the  rivers  in 
these  two  regions  bore  Hittite  names;  the  Isteror  Danube  uniting 
Achashtari  with  Dinhaba,  and  the  Marisus,  Moschius,  Tibiscus, 
Savus,  and  Porata  honouring  Mareshah,  Meshag,  Pasach,  Ziph, 
and  Beroth,  while  the  Hypanis,  Naparis,  Ararus,  Borysthenes, 
Tiarantus,and  Tyras  commemorate  Jephunneh,  Hepher,  Jehaleleel, 
Rishathaim,  Tirhanah,  and  Zerach.  Everywhere  over  the  world 
the  Hittites  may  be  traced  as  the  namers  of  rivers.  Before  the 
time  of  the  patriarch  Abraham  they  began  this  practice  in 
Babylonia,  Palestine,  and  Egypt,  and,  far  down  in  the  Christian 
centuries,  they  continued  it,  giving  to  the  streams  of  the  New 
World,  down  into  Chili,  the  ancient  names  that  their  forefathers 
imposed  upon  the  rivers  of  Europe  and  Asia. 

The  tribes  to  the  north  of  the  Black  Sea  which  Herodotus 
calls  Scythic  were  not  all  Hittite.  His  Sauromatae  or  Sarmatians 
were  descendants  of  the  Jerachmeelite  Shaharaim,  and  thus  a 
purely  Japhetic  people.^  The  Budini  again,  with  deep  blue  eyes 
and  bright  red  hair,  were  Midianite  or  Celtic  Bedanites,  Patinians, 
or  Bithynians  of  the  same  Persic  race  as  those  who  named 
Batthina  in  Persis.^  His  Scyths  proper,  however,  were  the 
Beerothites  westward  bound,  whose  wanderings  were  not  to  cease 
till  in  Albion  they  left  the  name  of  Briton.  He  calls  them  Scytlis 
or  Borysthenites  as  the  inhabitants  of  Olbia  or  Borysthenes.  This 
name  was  probably  formed  out  of  that  of  Rishathaim  or  Rustam, 
tlie  last  great  monarch  of  their  golden  age.  Herodotus  gives  seven 
generations  of  these  Scythians,  beginning  with  Spargapithes,  the 
form  of  whose  name  suggf^sts  that,  as  Partliians,  these  Borysthe- 
nites had  been  for  a  time  under  Persian  influences.  The  essential 
part  of  the  wcn'd  is  Rechab.     His  son  Lycus  bears  the  Beerothite 

'^   ]  Chnjii.  \iii.  8. 
•'    llerodot.  iv.  ]0M. 


THE   WESTERN    DISPERSION    OF   THE    HITTITES.  281 

name  Likhi,  but»Gnurus,  that  of  his  grandson,  has  no  special 
connection  with  the  family.  Saulins,  however,  the  son  of  Gnurus, 
recalls  Saul  of  Rehoboth,  and  his  son  Idan thyrsus  appears  in  a 
Tyndarid  and  Tentyrid  form  of  Hadadezer.  Ariapithes,  the  son 
of  Idanthyrsus,  gives  Rehob  instead  of  Rechab,  with  the  Persian 
termination.  His  three  sons  were  Scylas,  a  second  Saul, 
Octamasadas,  an  Eshtemoag*,  which  was  indeed  a  Zocharite  name 
but  belonged  also  to  the  Hamathites  of  Ezra,  and  Oricus  a  designa- 
tion of  no  ethnic  import.  The  Scythians,  from  whom  Herodotus 
got  the  story  of  Targitaus  and  his  three  sons  as  ancestors  of  all 
the  Scyths,  must  have  been  Zerethites  of  the  very  family  from 
which  Cyrus  claimed  descent,  for  this  Targitaus  is  either  Jerigoth 
or  a  Tirgathi  descended  from  her,  and  interposing  between  her 
and  Jesher,  Shobab,  and  Ardon.  The  eldest  son  Leipoxais,  the 
head  of  the  Auchatae,  is,  however,  an  Elihhaz,  from  whom,  through 
Chushamof  the  land  of  Temeni,  came  the  Chushathites  or  Ossetes. 
Arpoxais,  the  progenitor  of  the  Catiari  and  Traspians,  is  Arbag 
who  was  a  great  man  among  the  Anakini,  and  the  Catiari  are  the 
Gesshurites  to  whose  line  he  belonged.  He  is  the  only  genuine 
descendant  of  Targitaus.  The  third  son  Colaxais,  father  of  the 
Paralatae,  is  a  puzzle,  for  his  is  the  Cilician  and  Colchian  name 
belonging  to  the  Kenezzite  Charashim,  while  the  Paralatae  or 
royal  Scythians  should  be  the  descendants  of  Aharhel  who  con- 
tinued the  line  of  Regem  and  Harum.  The  two  families  may 
have  become  connected  in  Upper  Egypt,  but  no  I'ecord  of  such 
connection  has  yet  been  found.  The  Scythic  Issedones,  whom 
Aristeas  of  Proconnesus  found  in  the  far  north,  were  nt)  doubt  a 
branch  of  the  Esthonians,  descended  from  Eshton  the  father  of 
Beth  Kapha.  The  (Jallipedae,  dwelling  on  the  Hyj)anis,  seem 
idf-ntitied,  through  their  river,  with  Caleb  the  son  of  Jepliuinieh 
as  Zocharites,  and  thus  with  the  Chalybes  of  i^)ntus.  N(\\t  to 
tlicin  wci-f  tlx,' Alazoniaiis,  a  people  known  to  lloiiier  who  lin'ngs 
tlieni  lo 'J'roy  from  .\l\-)Ki  under  Hodius  and  i^pisti-oj)lins.  The 
Ala/onus  i-i\er  was  in  Albania  ;  and  it  has  been  shown  that  tliis 
woi'd  Alazon  is  a  form  of  Uaalclianan  answei-ing  to  it  as  the 
Sanscrit  .Vrjuna  answers  to  j'halgnna.  The  Ahizonians.  therefore, 
W(;re,  •■i|ually  witli  tl:e  Auchatae,  descendants  ol'  beipoxais  or 
Eliphiiz.      An  Amei'ican  oll'->hoot    of   the   same  peo|)h'  named    the 


282  THE    HITTITES. 

Allegheny  mountains.  They  were  the  constant  eompanions  of  the 
Jephunnites,  so  much  so  that  some  of  the  ancient  geographers 
make  them  as  Pelagones  the  same  people  as  the  Paeones.^  They 
were  a  branch  of  the  Alans,  who,  with  the  Huns  or  Jephunnites 
and  the  Iberians  or  Avars,  became  for  many  years  the  scourges 
of  Europe.  Northward  of  the  Alazones  dwelt  the  Neuri,  beyond 
whom  lay  a  terra  incognita.  These*  were  the  descendants  of  the 
Egyptian  Naharina  and  the  Assyrian  Nairi,  and  of  the  same  race 
as  the  Maurui  or  Moors,  who,  while  those  dwelt  above  the  Black 
Sea,  were  threading  their  way  along  the  Mediterranean  coast  of 
Africa.  Eshton  was  embraced  under  this  name  and  his  sons 
Ra])ha,  Paseach,and  Techinnah  the  father  of  Ir  Nachash.  The 
Neuri  reached  Italy  and  constituted  part  of  the  Etruscan  popula- 
tion as  the  Naharcer  of  the  Eugubine  Tables.  They  changed  their 
doubtful  medial  guttural  into  a  labial  when  the}'  founded  Novaria 
in  Cisalpine  Gaul,  and  when  they  took  possession  of  a  part  of 
northern  Spain  and  called  it  Navarra.  But  the  Ugrianized  portion 
of  this  family,  claiming  kindred,  through  language  as  well  as  by 
name  and  blood,  with  the  Esthonians  and  the  Lapps,  called 
themselves  Majiars  ;  and  they,  in  the  ninth  century  A.D.,  from 
some  eastern  I'egion  descended  upon  the  plains  of  Hungary,  where 
like  the  Basques  in  the  Pyrenees  they  hold  their  own  to  this  day. 
Unfortunately  Herodotus  does  not  give  the  native  names  of  other 
Scythian  tribes,  but  calls  them  Ploughers,  Husbandmen,  Man- 
eaters,  and  Black  robes.  He  has  said  enough,  however,  to  indicate 
without  any  doubt  the  fact  that  the  so-called  Scythians  were 
Hittites  with  a  few  intermingled  Celtic  and  Japhetic  tribes.  The 
customs  of  the  Scythians  as  described  by  him  are  those  of  many 
of  the  Siberian  and  American  aborigines.  Such  are  the  burial  of 
their  kings  and  great  chiefs  under  huge  mounds,  the  scalping  of 
their  slain  enemies,  the  use  of  the  vapour  bath,  and  the  setting  up 
a  stuffed  liorse-hide  on  stakes  beside  a  warrior's  grave.  The 
cloak  generally  black  and  the  capuchin  like  head-dress  attached 
to  it,  as  figured  in  tombs  at  Kei'tch  and  elsewhere  in  the  Scythian 
area,  cr^rrespond  with  the  Hittite  attire  set  forth  in  carvings  in 
Asia  Minor,  and  agree  with  the  dress  of  the  ancient  Mexican 
priests  as  described  by  native  authors.     The  trowsers  depicted  on 

•    .Str;il)(»,  Fraf^.  xxxviii. 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION    OF   THE    HITTITES.  283 

the  Kertch  figures  must  have  been  borrowed  from  the  Celts,  from 
whom  those  Persians  who  were  not  Celts  adopted  them.  Sir 
Henr}^  Rawlinson  remarks  that  the  Scythic  manner  of  stringing 
a  bow  by  passing  the  arc  under  the  left  leg  below  the  knee  and 
thus  depressing  it  is  common  to  the  Bhils,  Huzarehs,  Kurds  and 
other  orientals.  The  orientals  he  names  are  Hittites  by 
descent.-' 

The  regions  that  stand  next  in  geographical  relation  to  Dacia 
and  European  Scythia  are  Pannonia  and  Illyricuin,  but  while  the 
latter  bears  a  purely  Hittite  name  and  is  well  attested  as  the 
abode  of  a  mixed  Iberian  and  Celtic  people,  it  does  not  exhibit 
traces  of  occupation  by  the  principal  Hittite  tribes  that  possessed 
Italy,  all  of  which  were  in  that  country  in  the  time  of  Herodotus. 
The  story  of  the  Etruscans  brings  them  from  L3alia  by  sea  to  the 
Tyrrhenian  coast,  and  that  of  the  ^lessapian  Japygians  of  Apulia 
is  that  they  came  in  the  same  way  from  the  island  of  Crete.^ 
But  according  to  Latin  tradition  the  Umbrians  w^ere  among  the 
oldest  inhabitants  of  Italy  and  predecessors  of  the  Etruscans ; 
they  are  also  said  to  have  dwelt  originally  far  north  in  Cisalpine 
Gaul,  out  of  which  they  were  driven  by  the  Boii,  Senones,  and 
more  recent  Celtic  colonists.  The  recently  translated  Umbrian 
tables  of  the  Euo'ubine  series  state  that  thev  were  ensfraved  in 
the  three  hundredth  year  of  the  Umbrian  era,  and  as  their  date 
is  177  B.C.,  it  follows  that  that  era  was  477  B.C.-  This  is 
certainly  recent,  but  it  suffices  to  take  us  back  to  the  shadowy 
Roman  period  of  Cincinnatus  and  the  Fabii.  The  knowledge 
which  Herodotus  possessed  concerning  the  Umbrians,  beside 
whom  the  Etruscans  settled,  w^as  vague,  for  he  repivsonts  two 
unknown  rivers,  the  Alpis  and  Carpis,  as  rising  in  their  counti-v 
and  thnving  into  the  Danube.  If  by  the  Al])is  he  means  tlie 
Colapis,  a  triljutary  of  the  Save,  his  Umbrians  must  have  bi'cn  in 
the  north  of  IllyiMCum.  Be  this  as  it  may,  it  is  evident  tliat  the 
Umbrians,  whom  theii"  ta])les,  which  are  insci^ilied  witli  a  ]mi'ely 
('eltic  hmguage  most  alli(;d  to  JM'se  (iaelie,  ])i'()\('  to   ha\-e   been   a 

'    Kau'linsiiirs  Hcmdotus,  iv.  .'i,  imti'  H. 

'■■    H.To(|.,t.   vii.  170. 

■  Th.'j..-  hav..  l)...Ti  tnmslat.-d  hy  tli.-  licv.  Xril  .MacXi^li.  I'..li..  I.L.D.,  iiitli.- 
I'r.pcci-diiit,'-^ 'if  till'  (J:uiailiaii  Instiriitc,  ami  liy  iiii'  in  tlic  'I'raiisarl  imis  nf  tlii'  fcltic 
Snci.tvof  .M.,iitn'a.l. 


284  THE   HITTITES. 

Celtic  or  Midianite  people,  came  into  Italy  overland.  The 
traditions  of  the  Cymri  bring  them  from  DefFrobani  in  the  land 
of  Hav,  which  is  well  identified  with  Taphrae  or  Perekop  in  the 
Crimea.  Whether  they  came  there  through  the  passes  of  the 
Caucasus  or  coasted  round  the  Black  Sea  when  expelled  from 
Asia  Minor,  or,  leaving  Media,  went  all  the  way  round  the 
Caspian,  we  cannot  tell.  But  the  Cimmerians  were  certainly 
there,  together  with  the  Hittite  Scythians,  and  in  the  time  of 
Herodotus  the  Budini  were  still  in  that  ancient  seat,  while  other 
tribes,  the  Crobyzi,  Sensii,  and  Triballi  were  farther  to  the  south 
and  west.  The  next  region  occupied  by  these  Celtic  tribes  was 
Pannonia  or  Hungary  which  was  almost  purely  Celtic  for 
centuries.  Mutenum,  the  Coletiani,  the  Hercuniates,  Perso. 
Ulmum,  Bodonhely,  setting  forth  Midian,  Gilead,  Rakem,  Peresh, 
Ulam,  Bedan,  are  a  few  indications  of  that  Celtic  population  of 
Pannonia  for  which  the  classical  geographers  vouch. ^  The  very 
name  Pannonia  is  one  that  has  suffered  from  phonetic  decay, 
being  a  corruption  of  Padonia.  These  Celts,  not  unaccompanied 
by  Hittites,  crossed  the  Carnic  Alps  into  Histria  or  eastern 
Venetia,  and  made  their  way  to  the  broad  region  between  the 
Padus  or  Bodencus,  which  they  named  after  Bedan,  and  the 
Tiber.  There,  about  the  year  477  B.C.,  they  set  up  a  kingdom 
which  the  Romans  called  Umbrian  but  also  Sappinian,  and  which 
the  Etruscans  called  that  of  the  Amra  and  of  the  Ugabemini :  but 
the  Umbrians  themselves  entitle  it  the  kingdom  of  the  Ijovein, 
whence  the  name  of  their  capital  Iguvium.'^  The  Sabines  seem 
to  have  belonged  to  the  same  race.  Other  Celtic  tribes  held  a 
great  part  of  Cisalpine  Gaul  and  Venetia,  with  parts  of  Rhaetia 
and  Noricum.  These,  from  time  to  time,  submitted  to  the  lord  of 
the  Ijovein  in  Iguvium,  who  by  a  large  aiiny  maintained  his 
authority  over  them.  When  the  Eugubine  Tables  were  written 
in  177  B.C.  king  Herti  had  just  concluded  a  war  against  his 
revolted  colonists,  many  of  whom  had  exchanged  Umbrian  for 
Etruscan  rulers,  and  who,  with  the  Umbrian  and  Etruscan  states, 
soon  fell  under  the  immediate  power  of  the  Romans. 

At  the  time  that  the  (Jelts  established  tliemselves  in  Pannonia 


**   Strabo  :   liobiou,  Histoire  des  Gaulois  d'Otient. 
'■'    Livy  :   The  Eugubine  Tables. 


THE   WESTERN    DISPERSION    OF   THE    HITTITES.  285 

and  Italy,  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Adriatic  was  inhabited  chiefly  by 
two  powerful  Hittite  tribes,  the  Liburnians  in  the  north,  and  below 
them,  extending  over  the  greater  part  of  the  country,  the  Illyrians. 
The  Liburnians  were  the  men  of  Leophrah,  who,  as  the  Allapur,  had 
dwelt  in  that  Armenia  whence  came  the  Alarodians  of  Herodotus.^'* 
They  had  tyrannized  over  the  Patinians  and  Zuzim  in  Syria,  and 
had  imposed  their  kings  named  Lubarna  upon  them.  Their 
record  in  Asia  Minor  is  small,  being  restricted  in  the  west  to 
Labranda  in  Caria,  and  Leucophrys  or  Tenedos,  with  part  of  the 
Mysian  coast  lying  opposite  to  that  island.  They  seem,  however, 
to  have  accompanied  the  Carians  in  some  of  their  migrations,  for 
Lepreum  in  Elis,  and  Aliphera,  near  by  in  Arcadia,  were  two  of 
their  memorials.  But  the  main  body  formed  a  Hittite  advanced 
guard  which  reached  the  head  of  the  Polatic  Gulf  of  the 
Adriatic.  There  the  Absyrtides,  the  chief  of  which  was  Absorus, 
and  Monetium  retained  the  memory  of  Leophrah 's  grandfather 
Abiezer  and  his  father  Meonothai  and  the  Daesitiates  set  fortti 
Zoheth.  The  Liburnians,  favoured  by  the  many  islands  that 
shut  in  their  coast,  became  expei't  seamen  and  developed  into 
pirates  who  were  for  a  long  time  the  terror  of  the  natives  of  the 
opposite  Italian  shore.  On  it  they  made  many  settlements, 
chiefly  represented  by  the  Zoheth  name  as  in  Venetia,  where  the 
Atestini  are  called  by  the  Umbrian  king  Herti  the  Daet-om,  and 
further  south  where  the  Teateas  of  Sabinum  and  Apulia  appear. 
But  they  played  a  more  important  part  in  Italian  colonization 
when  they  planted  on  the  western  coast  the  Osci  or  Ausones  and 
tlie  Aurunci,  took  possession  of  the  Liparae  islands  and 
strongly  established  themselves  in  Sicily.  Then  they  moved 
northwards  to  Portus  Herculis  Labronis  or  Liburni  south  of 
Pisa(!  in  Etruria,  and  from  thence  to  Liguria  of  which  they  were 
pi-obably  among  the  earliest  colonists,  for  their  Libarna  was  far 
inland  Ijcyoiid  the  Apennines  and  tluiir  Stati(;lli  or,  as  the 
L'lnlii-ian  I'ecord  calls  th(;in,  Sihit-ii"  and  An-Sihit-ir,  repi'esent- 
ing  (loulitiess  Zoli(;th  and  Henzoheth,  wen;  the  chief  people  or 
jieoples  of  iJguria.  Many  other  I'cgions  were  occupied  bv 
the  pii-atical  Libui'nians,  who  finjilly  pj-occcdiMl  to  the  extreme 
south-Wfst     of     (Jaul     wli(;re     they      founded      Lapuivlum      now 

1"    R.oiidK  (,f  the  J'ast,  vii.  lil,  Wl  ;  U.Tod.  iii.  'Jl. 


286  THE   HITTITES. 

Bayonne,  and  where  in  the  Labourd  their  descendants  may  be 
found  to  the  present  day  as  the  Lapurtanian  Basques.  Strange 
to  say  lapur  in  Basque  means  a  robber. 

The  Illyrians  had  as  evil  a  reputation  as  the  Liburnians, 
Bearing  the  name  of  Jehaleleel  they  numbered  among  them  the 
cave-dwelling  Dardanii  called  after  his  ancestor  Zereth.  The 
Illyrians  were  not  Ziphites  apparently  but  the  descendants  of 
Tiria  and  Asareel.  The  former  were  represented  by  the  Derrii, 
and  the  latter,  by  the  people  of  Ancus  and  Arba,  but  especially 
by  the  Dalmatians  between  Delminium  and  the  sea,  whose  great 
father  was  Talmai  the  son  of  Anak,  the  son  of  Arba.  These 
Zerethites  took  possession  of  Sardinia  and  planted  colonies  in 
Itah^  including  the  places  called  by  the  Romans  Solaria  and 
Ad  Solaria  in  northern  Etruria  and  on  the  Ligurian  coast,  but 
which  the  Etruscan  Eugubine  Tables  call  Ilerda.  It  is  pro- 
bable that  they  named  the  Rhodanus  or  Rhone,  and  that  they 
renamed  the  Padus,  calling  it  Eridanus  after  the  ancestral  Ardon. 
They  must,  therefore,  have  had  colonies  in  eastern  Gaul.  Out 
of  these,  however,  they  were  driven  to  the  Pyrenees  where  they 
were  known  as  Sardones,  where  Iluro  was  one  of  their  founda- 
tions, and  whence  the  tribes  of  the  Ilergfetes  and  Ilercaones 
passed  into  Spain.  They  were  also  represented  in  the  latter 
country  by  the  Arevaci,  the  Oretani,  and  the  Segobrigenses 
settino-  forth  Arba,  Ardon,  and  Segub,  and  by  other  tribes  includ- 
ing  the  Turdetani,  the  Toltecs  of  the  west.  South  of  Dalmatia, 
where  the  Adriatic  coasts  narrow  its  channel,  the  Albani  had  their 
habitation,  and  the  kilted  mountaineers  who  call  themselves 
Skipetar  dwell  in  that  Albania  to  the  present  day  speaking  a  lan- 
guage half  Greek,  half  Hittite.  Some  of  them  were  Epidamni,aname 
of  which  the  epi  is  superfluous,  for  their  British  brethren  were 
simply  Damnii  AlVjani.  Epidanmus  too  was  called  Dyrrachium 
from  Zerach,  and  above  it  lay  Petra  named  after  Zerach's 
father  Bozrah.  The  x\lbani  seem  to  have  been  men  of  the  sea 
like  the  Liburnians  and  Illyrians  ;  they  must  also  have  been  in 
the  van  of  Hittite  migration  from  Paphlagonia  in  Asia  Minor 
and  from  All)ania  in  the  Caucasus,  for  they  appear  in  Elis  as  the 
namers  of  the  Alpheus,  in  Arcadia  about  Thelphusa,  and 
at    Delplii     in     Phocis.       They    were    also    among    the    most 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION    OF   THE   HITTITES.  287 

western  of  the  Daciaii  tribes  as  the  Albocensii.  But  the  chief 
reason  for  recjardino;  them  as  early  colonists  of  Itah-  is  that, 
although  a  coast  people  by  nature,  they  occupied  an  inland 
position  in  that  peninsula,  being  shut  out  from  the  sea 
on  every  side  by  later  intruders.  How  their  name  of 
Temenite  was  changed  to  Samnite  may  not  be  easily  told,  but 
there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Samnites  were  the  Temenite  Albanians. 
Their  Alban  name  survived  in  Allifae,  but  the  distinguishing 
name  that  henceforth  follows  them  in  history  is  that  of  Pentri, 
given  to  one  of  their  tribes  to  replace  the  Petras  of  Acliaia  and 
Albania,  a  name  already  associated  with  the  Temenites  in  the 
story  of  Pandareus,  whose  legend  is  that  of  Tereus  or  Zerach. 
The  Caraceni,  another  Samnite  tribe,  conniiemorated  Zerach,  and 
Abellinum  was  the  record  of  Baalhanan.  The  Phaebatae  in 
Albania  of  Illyricum  preserved  the  memory  of  Jobab  as  a  Delphic 
Phoebus  :  in  Saninium,  Bovianum  was  called  after  him.  At  an 
early  period  these  Samnites  sent  colonies  into  Liguria  which 
reproduced  the  nomenclature  of  central  Italy.  Livy  calls  the 
mountain  region  of  the  Apennines  in  which  the  Ligurian  Temenites 
dwelt,  and  which  is  now  called  Diamante,  by  the  name  Suismon- 
tium.^^  These  Temenites  wei'e  Epanterii,  with  a  capital  at 
Bobium,  and  many  Albas  round  about  them.  In  many  parts  of 
the  south  of  France  their  traces  are  found,  and  in  northern  Spain 
they  constitute  the  Alavan  division  of  the  Basques:  but  their 
principal  colonies  were  to  the  north  of  Italy  and  in  Gaul.  The 
Umbrian  Eugubino  tables  call  the  Epanterii  of  Liguria  the 
Fondli,  <jr,  in  the  plural,  Fondlire,  a  name  which  carries  at  once 
to  Vindeiicia,  which  anciently  included  those  parts  of  l^avaria 
and  Wurteniburg  that  lie  to  the  south  of  the  Danube,  and  to  the 
Vandals.  Confusion  is  likely  to  result,  however,  in  tracing  the 
Vandal  name,  which  arises  almost  as  naturally  out  of  -lediael  as 
out  (jf  Ijotsrah,  and  certainly  with  far  more  appaiH-nt  resemblance. 
The  Samnites  in  the  peninsula  wrrc  hemmed  in  by  those 
Hittite  trilies  which  had  allicid  tlmmselves  in  Eg_\'ptan<l  Palestine 
with  th('  Japhetic  (jlekei'itcs.  Thrsc  liad  possessed  the  Saronic 
sea  coast  in  Palestine,  and  in  Asia  .Miiioi-  oeenj)ied  (,'aria  ami  part 
of    Pamphyllia.      That    they   eai'l\'   sent    colonies   into   (Jreece    is 

"    Li\  \ ,  xxxix.  2  ;  xl.   11 . 


288  THE    HITTITES. 

apparent  from  the  position  of  their  colonies  in  the  extreme  west 
in  Elis  and  the  Epirotic  coast.  The  three  districts  in  'northern 
Greece  called  Locris  seem  also  to  have  been  indebted  to  these 
tribes  for  part  of  their  population.  The  word  Locris  is  of  doubt- 
ful ethnic  character.  In  British  history  it  is  made  Locrin,  and 
denotes  the  eponym  of  one  of  the  three  great  divisions  of  the 
ancient  British  population,  the  others  being  Albanact  and 
Kamber.^"^  The  Loegrians,  descended  from  him,  seem  to  have 
belonged  to  the  same  race  as  the  people  of  Lochlyn  or  Scandinavia. 
The  Palestinian  name  that  answers  to  these  is  Lasharon  and  this, 
with  initial  and  final  augments,  is  Halicarnassus  of  Caria.^^  No 
special  Hittite  series  of  names  accompanies  this  geographical  and 
tribal  designation,  which  seems  to  have  been  applied  to  off-shoots 
from  various  tribes  that  placed  themselves  under  the  government 
of  the  Gekerites  who  once  owned  Lasharon  and  carried  that  name 
with  them  to  other  lands.  Wherever  the  name  appears  it  carries 
with  it  the  record  of  an  Aryan  influence,  by  which  Hittites  were 
converted  into  Greek,  Latin,  and  Teutonic  tribes.  To  the  east  of 
Samnium,  and  extending  far  beyond  it  to  the  south,  lay  Apulia 
with  a  chief  city  Luceria.  There  the  Japhetic  descendants  of 
Abihail  had  come  to  power,  and  with  them  their  bi'ethren  of  the 
same  Buzite  family,  the  Pediculi  or  men  of  Abdigel  whose  record 
in  Elis  was  Epitalium.  Under  their  sway  were  Hittite  Daunians, 
Peucetians,  and  Messapian  Japygians.  The  latter  call  for  some 
attention.  They  were  the  descendants  of  that  Ammono-Hittite 
stock  over  which  Jabez  and  Mezahab  had  ruled  in  Egypt,  and 
were  thus  the  Caphtorim  w^ho  had  gone  out  of  that  land  with  the 
Philistines  into  Canaan.  Nothing  more  is  heard  of  these 
Caphtorim  until  the  Assyrians  make  mention  of  them  under 
a  new  name,  that  of  Moschi,  derived  from  Meshag,  the  son  of 
Jabez  and  grandfather  of  Mezahab.  In  Asia  ■Minor,  however,  they 
got  back  the  Cappadocian  name.  To  the  Greeks  the  Cappadocians 
were  known  as  the  White  Syrians,  which  shows  that  they  must 
have  owned  a  large  pr-oportion  of  Aryan  blood  ;  Philistine  and 
Caphtorim  must,  therefore,  have  kept  company.^'*     No  people  of 

i~    (j!(;f)fFrey's  British  History. 

'■'   Josh.  xii.  18  ;  coinj).  1  Chri)n.  v.  10. 

'*    Strabo,  xii.  3,  5. 


THE   WESTERN    DISPEBSION   OF   THE'HIITITES.  289 

Asia  Minor  was  subjected  to  harder  treatment  than  the  Cappa- 
docians,  for  they  lay  in  the  westward  track  of  migrating  nations 
and  of  eastern  conquerors.  The  pressure  exercised  upon  them 
from  Lydia,  on  the  one  hand,  and  Assyria  and  Media,  on  the 
other,  was  probably  the  cause  of  a  great  migration  to  the  sea 
coast  of  western  Cilicia  or  Pamphyllia,  and  a  water  transit  from 
thence  to  the  shores  of  Europe.  Herodotus  and  other  writers,  who 
followed  his  statement,  derive  the  Messapians  from  Crete 
at  a  point  of  time  not  kmg  subsequent  to  the  Trojan  war.  Crete, 
however,  although  it  contained  other  colonists  besides  the 
Zerethites  who  gave  to  it  its  name,  exhibits  no  traces  of  the 
Caplitorim.  Herodotus  says  that  those  who  became  Messapian 
Japyges  were  originally  Polichnetes  and  Praesians,  but  the  latter 
names  have  no  historical  connection  with  the  former.  On  the 
other  hand  it  is  certain  that  the  Cappadocians  were  Caplitorim. 
The  tirst  migration,  therefore,  was  from  Asia  Minor,  and  not  from 
Crete,  but  it  was  under  Carian  or  Gekerite  leadership  and  this 
may  have  originated  the  Cretan  story.  There  was  a  Messapius 
mountain  in  Boeotia,  and  from  that  country,  of  which  Thebes  was 
the  capital,  Strabo  makes  Messapus  lead  the  Messapians  to  Italy. 
In  Pausanias,  Methapus  is  an  Athenian  author  of  mysteries.  Most 
geographers  place  the  Greek  Messapii  in  Ozolian  Locris ;  and 
there  is  an  obscure  mention  of  a  Messapeae  in  Peloponnesus.  The 
story  of  the  foundation  of  Metapontum  by  Metabus,  the  son  of 
Sisyphus,  is  not  to  be  separated  from  those  relating  to  the 
Messapians,  for  Metapontum  with  its  harvest  of  gold  is  but  a 
form  of  Mezahab  the  golden  Horus  and  the  father  of  Matred,  the 
Greek  Danae  of  tlie  shower  of  gold.  Profe.ssor  Rawlinson  would 
bring  the  Messapians  from  Peloponnesus, but  it  is  hard  to  find  any 
traces  of  them  there.^''  Adjoining  the  Locri  Ozolae  in  /Etolia, 
however,  the  Apodoti  dwelt,  whose  name,  together  with  the 
tradition  that  Apis  of  ancient  royal  fame  was  a  stranger  from 
/Etolia,  tlie  ])roximity  of  the  Locrian  Messapians,  and  of  a 
Hali'.yrna  an<l  a  Uria  in  the  south  of  /Ktolia,  favours  their 
identification  with  the  Japygians  who  founded  Hyria  or  Uria  in 
Apulia,  jjut  anotlicr  conipi-titor  foi-  the  honour  of  stMiding  the 
.JajjVLjians  to  Italy  is  the  Illyrian  Albania.     Tlif  Allianiaus  do  not 

''    Itiiwliii.soii'H  lli-ro(i.itu.-. 


290  THE   HITTITES. 

call  themselves  by  that  name,  which  belonged  to  former  occupants 
of  their  country.  They  are  Skipetar,  a  word  said  to  mean 
mountaineers,  but  which  so  resembles  Caphtor  that  their 
Cappadocian  origin  is  determined  by  it  and  confirmed  by  the 
name  of  their  city  Mezzovo.  The  date  of  the  arrival  of  the 
Messapian  Japygians  in  Apulia  must  be  found  not  later  than  the 
beginning  of  the  sixth  century,  B.C.,  for  the  Eleatic  School  of 
Philosophy  was  founded  in  the  midst  of  a  kindred  population  in 
Lucania  belonging  to  the  same  migration,  in  536.  That  they  came 
from  Locris  or  ^tolia,  from  Albania  of  the  Skipetar,  or  from  the 
more  northern  parts  of  Illyricum  where  in  the  time  of  the  classical 
geographers  the  lapodes  dwelt,  is  very  doubtful.  These  Jabezite 
or  Cappadocian  colonies  were  probably  subsequent  to  that  which, 
from  Asia  Minor  and  Cappadocia  direct,  in  the  troublous  times  of 
contest  between  the  Lydians  and  the  Medes,  set  sail  under  the 
leadership  of  the  Apulians  for  the  Italian  coast.  The  Messapian 
Japyges  and  their  Apulian  protectors  may  thus  be  regarded  as 
among  the  earliest  of  Italian  colonists.  As  preserving  the  names 
of  the  greatest  and  the  last  of  the  Hittite  Pharaohs,  more  romantic 
interest  attaches  to  the  Messapian  Japyges  than  to  any  other 
Hittite  people.  Herodotus  relates  the  story  of  Aristaeus  of  the 
island  of  Proconnesus  in  the  sea  of  Marmora.  Aristaeus  was  a 
poet  of  a  noble  family  in  Proconnesus  who  suddenly  dropped  dead 
in  a  baker's  shop,  to  the  great  alarm  of  the  tradesman.  When  his 
friends  came  to  give  him  burial  his  body  had  disappeared,  and  a 
man  from  Cyzicus  averred  that  he  had  met  Aristaeus  at  the  time 
he  was  reported  to  have  died,  and  had  spoken  to  him.  Seven 
years  after,  the  poet  made  his  appearance  at  Proconnesus,  and 
composed  his  work  called  the  Arimaspeia,  in  which  he  gave  an 
account  of  his  northward  wanderings  among  the  Arimaspians,  the 
Issedones,  and  the  gold  guarding  griffins.  Once  more  he  vanished, 
and  three  hundred  and  forty  years  later,  he  went  to  the 
Metapontines  and  commanded  them  to  erect  an  altar  to  Apollo  and 
a  statue  to  himself,  which  they  did.^^  Herodotus  says  that  the 
Arimaspi  were  so  called  from  two  Sc)"tliic  words  arirtia,  one  and 
spu,  eye,  as  they  were  a  one-eyed  people.  Their  relation  to  the 
gold  guarding  griffins  and  Metapontum  shews  that  they  were  a 

16   Henidot.  iv.  14,  15. 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF   THE   HITTITES.  291 

northern  branch  of  the  Messapians,  still  adhering  to  the  Egyptian 
form  of  Mezahab's  name  as  Har-em-hebi  or  Hor-em-neb,  the 
golden  Horus.  The  Germanized  Menapii  and  Gepidae  were  the 
same  people. 

South-west  of  the  Apulians  the  Lucanians  were  situated 
These  were  the  Regemites,  another  branch  of  the  family  of 
Achuzam,  whose  descendant  Aharhel  was  honoured  in  Heraclea^ 
while  Joel  the  son  of  that  hero  was  the  eponym  of  Elea,  the 
seat  of  an  early  school  of  philosophy,  in  which  some  of  the  sublime 
teachings  of  Paseach  and  his  son  Job,  the  maternal  ancestors  of 
Joel,  were  revived.  These  Regemites  or  Lucanians  had  been 
completely  hellenized  by  the  Gekerites,  whose  Aciris,  Acheronia, 
Pyxus,  and  Pandosia,  repeat  the  geographical  nomenclature  of  the 
Epirotic  coast.  South  of  Lucania  again  was  Bruttium,  not 
named  after  Beeroth,  but,  by  the  change  of  I  to  r,  after  Pelet,  the 
brother  of  Regem.  The  Bruttians,  therefore,  were  the  Maacha- 
thites  of  Italy,  commemorating  Sheber  in  Sybaris,  Tirhanah,  in 
Terina  and  Tauriana,  and  Madmannah,  in  Medma.  The  hellenic 
descendants  of  Geker  and  Buz  and  Abihail  dwelt  among  them  as 
among  the  Lucanians  and  Japygians,  transforming  a  land  that 
might  have  been  a  western  Cathay  into  a  Magna  Graecia.  Of 
the  same  mixed  Hittite  and  Japhetic  race  were  the  Campanians 
to  the  west  of  the  Samnites,  as  their  Acerrae,  Herculaneum,  and 
Cumae  attest.  Through  all  of  these  regions  members  of  other 
Hittite  families  were  settled,  some  of  whom  like  the  Zocharites 
who  founded  Hipponium  in  Bruttium,  had  crossed  over  from  the 
African  coast.  Campania  and  Latium  contained  representatives 
of  almost  all  the  seven  Hittite  tribes,  many  of  which  had  not  been 
anciently  subjected  to  Japhetic  influences,  so  that  Hittite  or,  as  it 
may  be  called  in  Italy,  Etruscan  speech  long  survived  among 
them.  The  Romans  professed  to  be  the  descendants  of  the 
Dardanian  ^Eneas,  which  their  very  name  of  Roman  contradicts  ; 
yet  the  widespread  tradition  nmst  have  had  some  origin  in  fact. 
Tlie  fact  can  only  be  that  in  Latium  some  of  the  Dardanians  and 
Illyrians,  whom  we  found  on  the  east  of  the  Adriatic,  had  made 
settleinents  prior  to  those  of  the  Romans  or  coincident  with  them. 
Alba  Longa,  the  original  seat  of  Roman  authority,  l)ears  a 
Temenite  name,  unless  we  su})pose  it  to  \n'.  a  form  (»t"  Ai-ha,  for  tlie 


292  *       THE   HITTITES. 

father  of  the  mythic  ^neas  as  Anchises  represents  Anak  the  son 
of  Arba,  a  true  Dardanian.  The  Zerethites  are  best  represented 
in  Italy  by  the  Frentaui  in  Ortona  and  Anxanum,  the  Frentanian 
name  being,  like  the  Persian  Feridun,  a  form  of  Ardon.  The 
names  of  the  kings  of  Alba  Longa  belong  to  many  different 
Hittite  families,  and  do  not  exhibit  the  prominence  of  any  one 
stock  in  Latium.  But  Kome,  with  its  mythic  Romulus  and 
Remus,  declares  plainly  that  its  founders  were  of  the  race 
of  Jerahmeel  and  Ram,  and  shews  that,  at  an  early  period  of 
Italian  colonization,  the  Aryan  asserted  his  supremacy  as  the 
Brahman  of  the  western  world. 

Little  can  be  said  of"  the  Sabine  cantons  or,  speaking  more 
correctly,  of  those  east  of  Sabinum.  The  Marsi  were  no  doubt 
MaReshethites,  but  their  Marrubium  really  belonged  to  the 
Beerothite  family  as  a  disguised  Mercaboth.  The  Peligni  were 
really  Samnite,  like  the  Pelagones  and  Paphlagonians,  so  that  they 
had  no  right  to  Imaeus,  an  Italian  Hamath,  to  Sulmo,  a  related 
Salma  of  Beth-Lechem,  or  to  Corfinium  which,  like  Cerfennia  on 
Lake  Fucinus,  was  a  European  Saravene  or  Beth  Zur  that  the 
Marsi  must  have  introduced.  More  important  is  Etruria.  The 
majority  of  authorities  is  in  favour  of  the  descent  of  the  Etrurians 
from  the  Lydians,  and  there  is  nothing  to  disprove  this  testimony. 
Their  ancient  name  is  said  to  have  been  Rasena,  which  must  be 
the  Ras  of  the  Assyrian  inscriptions  and  of  the  Hittite  one  of 
Merash  with  the  sign  of  the  old  Hittite  plural  en.  When,  how- 
ever, the  nomenclature  of  the  twelve  Etruscan  States  and  their 
dependencies  is  analyzed,  it  becomes  evident  that  many  Hittite 
tribes  besides  the  Ras  contributed  to  their  population.  The 
Umbrian  Eugubine  Tables  classify  the  Etruscans  as  the  Tuscer, 
Naharcer,  and  Japuscer,  among  whom  we  do  not  find  the  Ras,  for 
the  Naharcer  and  Japuscer  are  both  Nairi  tribes,  answering  to 
the  Navarrese  and  Guipuscoans  of  the  Pyrenees,  while  the  Tuscer 
may  represent  the  widespread  name  of  Zocheth  in  its  Persian 
Zohak  form.  The  replacement  of  final  t  or  th  by  k  is  a  very 
common  process  even  at  the  present  day.  The  uneducated  French 
Canadian  errs  in  tliis  way  continually,  turning  p«f«^e  \uio  pafak 
and  ovielette  into  omelah'.  How  the  Ras  failed  to  be  noticed  by 
the    Umbrian  Herti  is  not  eas}-  to  say,  for  they  did  constitute  an 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF  THE   HITTITES.  293 

important,  and  probably  the  original,  element  in  Etruria.  In 
north-eastern  Etruria  there  were  three  cities  called  Arretium, 
in  Etruscan,  Aretiag.  So  in  Chaldea  the  name  Ras  was 
modified  to  Rat,  and  their  identity  established  by  Rat  being 
made  one  of  the  abodes  of  the  god  Lagudah,  who  is 
Lagadah,  the  father  of  Ma  Reshah.  The  same  nomenclature 
appears  in  northern  Venetia,  where  Artegnia  was  a  faithful 
colony  of  Arretium,  and  in  Rhaetia,  which  Livy  and  other  writers 
have  connected  with  the  Etruscans,  where  the  chief  of  Arteba- 
nesa  or  the  house  of  the  Ras,  proved  unfaithful.^^  The  termination 
van,  the  Circassian  vuna,  a  dwelling,  answering  to  the  Hebrew 
beth,  has  so  far  appeared  in  connection  with  Zur  the  descendant 
of  MaReshah,  as  Zervan  and  Saravene.  In  Phrygia,  however,  it 
is  joined  to  Ras  as  Ardaban,  and  among  the  Narisci  of  southern 
Germany  it  appears  as  Ratispona  or  Ratisbon.  The  Assyrian 
month  Marches  van  seems  to  have  been  compounded  of  the  same 
elements.  The  ruling  family  in  Arretium  was  that  of  the  Cilnii. 
This  is  a  thoroughly  Shuhite  word  derived  from  Shelah  the  son  of 
Shuah  and  father  of  Laadah.  In  Chaldea  it  appears  as  Bit 
Silani,  and  in  Greek  it  became  Silenus.^^  Marsyas  was  a  Silenus, 
not  an  object  of  contempt  but,  a  being  endowed  with  superior 
wisdom.  The  chief  of  the  Cilnii  was  Maecenas,  and  his  name  was 
probably  that  of  Maon,  pronounced  with  regard  to  the  power  of  the 
medial  ay  in  as  Magon.  It  was  the  fate  of  the  Ras  to  be  ger- 
manized  on  their  way  northward.  After  they  left  Rhaetia  and 
Noricum  they  met  the  Gothic  wave  from  the  east  and  became 
Narisci  and  Marsacii,  losing  their  old  language  but  carrying  their 
glorious  Hittite  traditions  into  the  heart  of  Germany  to  enrich 
its  folk-lore  with  niilhrchen  for  many  a  Grimm. 

Liguria  is  a  remarkable  region  viewed  ethnologically.  One 
of  the  best  guides  to  it  is  the  Eugubine  Tables,  for  much  of  their 
story  concerns  Liguria.  Its  name  is  the  old  Locrian  one  that 
has  appeared  in  Greece  and  in  Bruttium,  and  must  have  come 
from  the  Japhetic  lords  of  the  Hittites  who  constituted  its  chief 
population.  These  Japhetic  lords  must  have  dwelt  at  Genoa, 
whicli  was  named  after  the  Gekerite  Guni."^      In  the  region  of 

'"   Livy,  V.  •^^^. 

"<    K'-conls  of  til.-  Past,  vii.  27. 

''■*    1  CljiMii.  V.  15 


294  THE   HITTITES. 

the  Apulian  Pediculi,  who  are  the  Abdigelites  that  came  of  the 
same  family  as  Abihail,  throut^h  Abdiel  or  Abdigel  the  son  of 
Guni,  we  find  Cannae  and  Canusium,  Vergellus,  and  Barduli.  Genoa 
was  inimical  to  the  Umbrians  and  Etruscans  at  the  time  when 
their  armies  united  to  subdue  their  revolting  colonies  in  Liguria, 
Venetia,  and  Cisalpine  Gaul.  The  cause  of  the  Umbrian  revolt 
was  the  election  of  a  generalissimo  over  the  Perscler,  as  the 
Umbrian  tables  call  them,  who  were  the  Umbrian  army  of 
occupation  in  the  regions  indicated.  It  being  the  turn  of  the 
Venetian  tribe  of  the  Asseriates  to  elect  the  general,  they  chose 
one  Parfa,  who  was  distasteful  to  the  other  tribes.  These  tribes 
accordingly  seceded  under  their  former  commander  Appei  and 
ravaged  a  great  part  of  Venetia  and  Cisalpine  Gaul.  The 
Perscler  or  Perscli  were,  so  far  as  can  be  judged,  a  very  ancient  war- 
like community  or  force,  first  embodied  from  among  the  Jerachme- 
elite  or  Philistine  tribes  byBarachel  the  Buzite  for  service  in  Egypt. 
This  was  prior  to  the  time  of  Job,  for  Elihu  the  son  of  this 
Barachel  was  the  patriarch's  friend.  Comparative  geography 
shows  that  Achi  the  son  of  Abdiel,  the  son  of  Guni,  belonged 
to  the  line  of  Barachel.  These  warriors  followed  the  fortunes 
of  the  Hittites,  who  excelled  them  in  civilization  and  the  arts  of 
life,  but  who  were  well  satisfied  to  live  under  the  protection  of 
the  strong  and  valorous  .sons  of  Japheth.  In  India  they  existed 
in  the  fifth  century  under  the  name  of  Abdiel  being  the  White 
Hnns,  Abtelites  or  Enthalites  who  then  occupied  the  Punjab.-'^ 
In  Asia  Minor,  Barachel  was  commemorated  by  the  city  Bargylia. 
From  this  point,  therefore,  the  Bargylians  or  Barachelites  must 
have  set  out  as  mercenary  warriors  into  Europe,  to  sell  their 
services  to  any  monarchs  wealthy  enough  to  pay  for  them.  They 
had  many  settlements  in  Italy,  one  of  the  chief  being  Fregellae 
in  Latium,  where  they  were  allied  with  the  Volsci  of  kindred 
blood,  and  with  the  iEqui  who  were  probably  the  posterity  of 
Achi  son  of  Abdiel.  In  Cisalpine  Gaul  they  possessed  lirixellum 
south  of  the  Po,  and  Vercellae  to  the  north  of  that  river,  above 
Liguria.  These  cities  were  probably  camps,  for  the  Eugubine 
Tables,  in  enumerating  the  Perscler,  associate  them  with  the 
Hittite    and    Celtic    tribes    within    whose    territory    they    were 

'-''^   Cnsmas  Indicopleuste.s. 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION    OF   THE   HITTITES.  295 

quartered.  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth  knew  the  history  of  these 
warriors,  which  he  tells  after  a  strange  fashion.  He  says  that 
Gurcjiunt  Brabtruc  King  of  Britain  and  son  of  Belinus,  after  he 
had  conquered  the  Dacians,  met  the  Barclenses  under  their  leader 
Partholoim  seeking  for  a  habitation,  and  that  he  sent  guides  who 
led  the  wanderers  to  Ireland,  an  uninhabited  country  which  they 
occupied.-^  The  Irish  historians  agree  that  the  Partholanians  were 
the  tirst  inhabitants  of  Ireland,  but  give  no  trustworthy  account 
of  them,  save  that  one  of  the  chief  descendants  of  Partholan  was 
Adhla,  probably  Abdiel,  and  that  they  were  akin  to  the  Nemed- 
ians  or  Midianites.  They  are  apparently  the  same  as  the  Firgail- 
ians,  who  were  always  under  arms  to  protect  the  Fir-Bolg  and 
the  Fir-Dhomhnoin  at  their  work.-^  This  agrees  with  the  con- 
nection of  Fregellae  and  the  Volsci.  That  the  Japhetic  Perscler 
or  Barachelites  did  establish  themselves  in  Britain,  occupying 
Bute  and  other  western  Scottish  isles  as  a  prelude  to  their  rule 
on  the  mainland,  cannot  be  denied.  We  need  not,  therefore,  look 
elsewhere  for  the  Teutonic  Britons  who  changed  the  language  of 
Celt  and  Pict. 

Apart  from  Genoa  and  the  Perscler,  the  population  of 
Liguria  was  almost  entirely  Hittite,  and  more  Albanian  than 
Iberian.  The  Epanterii,  whose  capital  the  Eugubine  Tables  make 
Bobium,  answer  to  the  Pentri  of  Samnium  with  their  Bovianum 
and  reappear  in  Ireland  as  the  Vinderius  and  Buvinda  rivers  in 
the  country  of  the  Daiiuiii,  who  in  Scotland  were  Damnii  Albani 
or  Temenites  of  Eliphaz.  Tlie  four  Albas  of  Liguria  are  not  all 
connected  with  the  Temenites,  for  that  of  the  Ingauni  probably 
belonged  to  the  Paseachite  family  of  Hanoch,  and  that  called 
Docilia  to  the  Zocharites,  who  named  the  Apennines  as  well  as  the 
Aventine,  and  Tirjulia,  which  tlie  Euofubine  Tables  call  Tunnoo;ura. 
The  latter  were  Tungri  on  their  way  to  northern  Gaul,  Hittites 
bereft  of  their  language  and  nationality.  The  Ethnanitcs  were 
represented  Ijy  Libarna,  answering  to  Liburnus  in  Samnium  and 
to  Laberus  in  Ireland  on  the  Buvinda  or  Boyno.  But  the  Sihitir 
and  Ansihitir  of  the  Umbrian  Tables,  whom  the  classical 
geoL,a"aphers  give  only  as  the  Statielli,  were  tribes  named  after 


•^1    (Jc.ffn-y'rt  J'.iitiMh  History,  iii.  12. 
■■•    Kfutiiig. 


296  THE   HITTITES. 

Zoheth  and  Ben  Zoheth,  the  grandsons  of  Leophrah.  Two  other 
tribes  mentioned  by  the  Umbrian  Herti  are  the  Hostatir  and 
Anostatir.  The  first  denotes  the  people  of  Asta,  who  are  the 
Jahdaites,  but  in  America  the  Aztecs ;  the  Anostatir  are  some 
members  of  the  same  family  holding  a  similar  relation  to  the  senior 
line  to  that  which  the  Ansihitir  sustain  to  the  Sihitir.  There  are 
traces  of  the  Jachdai-arri  or  sons  of  Jachdai  in  the  east.  The  only 
Celtic  tribe  of  note  in  Liguria  was  that  of  the  Vedianti  or 
Vedicanti,  whose  capital  Pedona  carried  the  memory  of  Bedan 
into  the  west.  Cisalpine  Gaul  contained  mixed  Celtic  and  Hittite 
populations,  and  the  same  was  the  case  with  Venetia.  Of  the 
latter  the  Brixentes,  first  of  Brixia  or  Brescia  and  afterwards  of 
Rhaetia,  are  noteworthy,  seeing  that  they  were  Phrygians  of 
Iberic  descent,  soon  to  become  Brigantes  in  Vindelicia,  thence  to 
pass  into  England  and  Ireland  under  the  same  name,  and  to  occupy 
in  the  former  country  one  of  the  most  prominent  positions  taken 
by  an  ancient  British  race.  About  the  mouths  of  the  Po  the 
Fossiones  Philistinae  shew  that  the  men  of  Gath  had  found  their 
way  to  Italy.  To  the  north  of  these  Adria  testified  to  the 
presence  of  the  Beerothites,  Bharatas,  or  Britons,  whom  king 
Herti  calls  Peret-om.  This  is  not  the  place  to  which  an  ancient 
writer  takes  them,  for  he  says  that  when  Tsintsan  Hadadezer 
fled  from  David  of  Israel  he  took  refuge  in  Italy  and  built  Pazzuolo 
or  Sorento  in  Campania. -^  The  name  Tsintsan  presents  curious 
analogies  with  the  Chushan  of  Chushan  Rishathaim,  and  the 
Dastan  that  is  appended  to  the  name  of  the  Persian  Rustam.  The 
old  reign  of  Sumir  and  Akkad  must  have  lasted  for  two  or  three 
centuries  in  northern  Italy  ;  but  not  only  from  external  Rome, 
from  among  these  peoples  themselves  in  the  persons  of  the 
Japhetic  Perscler,  the  Genoese,  the  Philistines  of  the  trenches, 
arose  elements  that  speedily  changed  the  ancient  state  of  things 
and  inaugurated  the  Germanic  as  well  as  the  Latin  Aryanism 
that  now  prevail. 

The  alliance  of  the  Celts  with  the  Japhetic  pioneers  known  as 
the  Perscler  is  significant,  for  in  ancient  times  these  Philistines 
had  been  the  friends  of  the  Hittite  and  the  enemies  of  the  Celt. 
The  first  indication  that  history  gives  of  the  union  of  the  Aryan 

^''   Early  Travels  in  Palestine,  Bohn,  69. 


THE  WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF  THE  HITTITES.  297 

with  the  hybrid  Midianite  is  that  which  announced  the  rise  of 
Median  empire.  Until  then  the  Hittite  had  been  looked  up  to  as 
a  king  among  men  ;  he  had  been  tried  in  the  balance  and  been 
found  wanting.  The  Median  and  Persian  periods  were  periods 
of  Celtic  supremacy  under  Aryan  leadership.  The  only  Hittite 
empire  contemporary  with  them  was  the  Lydian,  and  that  did  not 
long  survive  the  establishment  of  Persian  royalty.  The  seat  of 
Hittite  authority  was  then  transferred  to  Etruria,  where  a  power- 
ful confederacy  maintained  itself  for  a  time,  not  in  undisputed 
empire  but  side  by  side  with  a  more  extensive  Celtic  dominion, 
that  of  Umbria,  and  threatened  on  the  south  with  an  extinction 
that  came  at  last  from  the  rising  power  of  Aryan  Rome.  In 
Illyria  a  mingled  Hittite  and  Celtic  population  lived  independent 
of  foreign  jurisdiction,  much  after  the  manner  of  the  Caucasian 
tribes.  About  230,  B.C.,  these  Illyrians  measured  their  strength 
with  Rome  under  their  queen  Teuta,  but  were  defeated,  owing  to 
the  treachery  of  their  Greek  allies.  Nevertheless  a  century 
passed  before  the  Romans  made  Illyria  one  of  their  provinces. 
Many  Hittite  states,  apparently  without  political  cohesion, 
existed  in  southern  Gaul,  from  the  Maritime  Alps  to  the  Atlantic 
coast ;  and  in  Spain  there  seem  to  have  been  several  confedera- 
tions of  Hittite  and  Celto-Hittite  cities  for  the  conquest  of  which 
the  Carthaginians  and  Romans  contended  from  235,  B.C.  The 
name  given  to  the  Spanish  Hittites  is  the  Iberic.  They  were, 
therefore,  the  descendants  of  those  Zerethites  whose  ancestor 
Asher  had  imposed  upon  Assyria  its  name,  and  bore  the  name  of 
his  grandson  Heber,  the  Apil-Sin  of  the  lists  and  monuments. 
"While  some  of  the  Iberians  had  taken  refuge  in  the  Caucasus, 
their  main  body  had  occupied  Phrygia,  replacing  the  name  of 
Heber  with  that  of  his  father  Berigah.  If,  as  is  most  likely,  they 
came  to  Spain  from  the  lllyrian  coast,  they  must  have  been 
expelled  from  tliat  coast  by  their  brethren  of  the  junior  line  of 
Asareel  who  named  Dalinatia,  and  who,  in  Asia  Minoi",  had  dwelt 
at  their  back  as  tbc  Isaurians  about  lakes  Caralitis  and  Trogitis. 
In  other  parts  of  Europe  the  Il)erians  were  known  as  the 
Brigaiitcs,  always  licing  accom})ani(Ml,  liowever,  by  Iberic  tei'iiis, 
as  in  Britain  where  Eboracum  or  York  was  their  capital.  The 
traces  of  Iberic  or  Hittite  peoples  are  found  in  geogi-a])hical  and 


298  THE   HITTITES. 

tribal  nomenclature  and  in  archaeological  remains  throughout 
Gaul,  but  in  the  north  the  Celt  preponderated,  and  the  Hittite 
was  compelled  to  amalgamate  or  was  driven  across  the  sea  to  the 
British  islands  or  into  the  north-east  to  join  the  Ugrians  of  the 
Baltic  coast. 

On  the  borders  of  the  lakes  of  northern  Italy  and  of  Switzer- 
land, as  well  as  in  those  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  the  remains  of 
water  dwellings,  similar  to  those  of  Prasias  in  Thrace  and  of  the 
Gambulians  in  Chaldea,  have  been  discovered.  The  Mexicans 
built  such  wooden  cities  on  pile  foundations  in  their  lakes  ;  and 
on  the  Orinoco  in  South  America  they  may  be  found  to  this  day. 
An  antiquity  has  been  accorded  to  the  Swiss  lake  dwellers  of 
two  thousand  years  before  the  Christian  era,  which  suffices  to 
show  how  unsafe  it  is  to  place  credence  in  what  is  called 
archgeolocfical  science."^*  An  examination  of  Lake  Prasias,  where 
the  water-loving  Thracians  were  under  the  eye  of  Herodotus, 
and  of  the  Gambulian  marshes  whence,  three  centuries  before, 
Assurbanipal  had  dragged  the  men  of  Sapibel,  would  reveal 
evidences  of  antiquity  as  great  as  those  exhibited  in  Switzerland 
anrl  Italy.  The  poems  of  the  British  Merddin  or  Merlin  clearly 
indicate  that  the  practice  of  building  houses  in  the  water  arose 
out  of  the  desire  to  escape  from  the  superintendence  of  reform- 
ing rulers,  who  sought  to  abolish  human  sacrifices  ;  and,  under 
the  names  of  Gwenddoleu,  Alban,  and  Cymro,  he  makes  the 
Samlaites,  Temenites  of  Eliphaz,  and  the  Zimrites  the  upholders 
of  the  proscribed  creed.  There  is  no  evidence  that  the  Cymri  or 
any  other  Celtic  people  took  to  pile  villages ;  when  they  desired 
to  become  builders,  their  structures,  however  rude,  were  of  stone 
not  of  wood,  and  their  foundation  was  necessarily  the  solid  earth. 
The  Greek  stories  of  the  Harpies  and  the  Stymphalides,  and  the 
Persian  one  of  the  Simurgh,  still  further  link  the  Samlaites, 
descended  from  Papha,  wnth  the  water  dwellings,  and  the  Gambul- 
ians of  Chaldea  may  thus  be  justly  regarded  as  the  representatives 
of  that  people.  The  Samlaites  must  have  dwelt  near  lake 
Prasias,  for  the  Sithones  were  there,  to  whose  race  Orpheus  or 


"■*  The  baskets  of  the  Swiss  Lake  Dwellers  are  said  to  have  resembled  the  Egyptian, 
their  arrows  to  have  been  like  those  of  the  Mississippi  Mounds,  Smithsonian  Re[)ort, 
18(10,  p.  351. 


THE  WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF   THE   HITTITES.  299 

Kapha  belonged,  but  they  are  not  connected  with  the  lake 
dwellers.  The  name  Prasias  indicates  nothing,  but  another  name 
of  the  lake,  Cercinitis,  and  its  position  among  the  Odomantians, 
show  that  the  Temenites  in  the  line  of  Zerach  had  adopted  the 
practice  of  the  family  with  which  they  were  anciently  associated 
in  Gebalene  in  the  days  of  Samlah  of  Masrekah  and  Saul  of 
Rehoboth.  In  Switzerland,  lake  Zurich  preserved  the  Temenite 
Zerach,  and  the  very  name  Helvetia  is  that  of  Eliphaz.  This  is 
proved  by  a  statement  of  Plutarch  thattheLigurianAlpini  or  Ilvates 
meeting  the  Helvetians  in  battle,  they  were  mutually  astonished 
to  find  their  opponents  using  the  same  war-cry.--^  The  men  of 
Urba  and  the  Tugeni,  representing  Rapha  and  Techinnah,  dwelt 
beside  these  Temenites,  and  some  Zocharites  or  Tigurini  with  a 
capital  Aventicum.  The  lake  dwellers  on  the  Orinoco  belong  also 
to  the  Tamanac  family,  whose  word  for  king  is  the  same  as  the 
Libyan,  Battus,  and  whose  account  of  the  creation  of  men  and 
women  by  the  fii-st  pair  throwing  stones  behind  them  is  iden- 
tical with  the  story  of  Deucalion.  In  Ireland  the  water  dwellers 
were  the  Damnii,  and  in  Scotland  the  Damnii  Albani,  who  were 
little  known  to  the  ancients,  dwelling  among  lakes  and 
mountains.-^ 

The  British  Islands  were  largely  occupied  by  Hittites,  who 
were  accompanied  in  their  migration  to  the  shores  of  England 
and  Ireland  by  Celts,  and  by  the  Japhetic  descendants  of  Geker 
whose  languafje  was  Gothic.  There  was,  therefore,  no  necessity 
for  introducing  a  fictitious  Hengist  and  Horsa  to  account  for  the 
gernianizing  of  their  pojiulation.  That  the  Pints  were  Iberic 
has  long  been  suspected,  and  the  same  origin  has  been  assigned 
to  the  Silures  of  South  Wales.  The  Silures  were  northern 
Illyrians,  whose  settlements  in  Etruria  and  Liguria  the  Romans 
called  Solaria.  Alongside  of  these  dwelt  the  men  of  Dyved  or 
Demetia,  a  Welsh  Tibhath,  where  the  Brython  or  Briton,  a 
northern  Beerothito,  made  his  appearance  us  the  enemy  of  the 
Cymri.  The  Damnonii  of  Cornwall  and  Devon,  e([ually  with 
the  Damnii  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  were  Temenites  ;  and  the 
l-Jiiifantes,    who    occupied  a   large   region   in   the    centre  of   the 

'•'   I'hitarcfi,  Vita  Marii. 
2*    Richani  nf  Circiicster. 


300  THE    HITTITES. 

island,  were  Iberian  Zerethites.  The  name  Pict  is  harder  to 
locate.  It  is  true  that  the  British  Hi ttites  painted  and  punctured 
their  bodies,  as  did  the  Thracians,  Illyrians,  and  Iberians  of 
Spain,  but  the  word  Pict  has  nothing  to  do  with  that  practice. 
It  occurs  all  through  the  Hittite  area,  from  the  Pactyans  of  the 
Punjab  to  Pictavum  in  Gaul.  At  times  it  appears  to  denote  the 
Iberian  Pasachites,  when  it  is  generally  accompanied  by  Bimhal 
and  Ashvath,  names  of  the  brothers  of  Pasach,  and  by  Japhlet, 
that  of  their  father.  At  other  times  it  takes  the  place  of  the 
Basque  name,  which  is  generally  restricted  to  the  descendants  of 
Paseach,  the  son  of  Eshton  and  brother  of  Rapha ;  although  the 
posterity  of  that  ancient  reformer  are  better  known  by  such  names 
as  Khupusci,  Schapsuch,  Guipusci,  Seepohskah.  The  statement 
of  Ammianus  Marcellinus  that  the  Picts  were  divided  into 
Dicaledones  and  Vecturiones  is  a  very  doubtful  one,  as  the 
Caledonian  name  is  either  Celtic  or  Japhetic,  in  the  latter  case 
belonging  to  the  family  of  Buz.^^  Most  of  the  original  tribes  of 
Scotland  and  Ireland  were  Hittite.  The  renowned  Milesians  of 
Irish  history  were  MaReshethites,  and  from  them  Ross  in  Scotland 
obtained  its  name.  The  Voluntii  of  both  countries  were  Peltites. 
The  Ottadeni  or  Gododin  between  England  and  Scotland  were, 
as  Aneurin  shows,  Hadadites  of  the  Beerothite  family.  And 
Camelon,  the  Pictish  capital,  bore  the  name  of  Samlah,  the 
Jumala  of  the  Lapps  and  Finns.  The  Arthurian  legends  prove 
that  the  Hamathites  had  extensive  settlements  in  England  ; 
Scottish  history  is  full  of  the  Zocharite  line  of  Jephunneh  ;  and 
the  Irish  stories  of  Labradh  and  the  Tuatha  de  Danans  assert  the 
prominence  in  the  Green  Isle  of  the  Ethnanites.. 

When  we  ask  for  the  monuments  of  these  wide-spread  Hittites, 
the  answer  is  disappointing.  The  traditions  of  the  race  this  work 
has  sought  to  collect  in  small  measure,  and  to  compare  with 
geographical  and  tribal  nomenclature,  and  with  national  or  tribal 
customs.  In  Asia  Minor  a  very  few  Phrygian  and  Lycian 
inscriptions  have  been  found,  besides  the  famous  one  of  Merash. 
These  are  engi-aved  not  in  the  old  Hittite  hieroglyphics,  but  with 
conventional  characters  having-  an  origin  similar  to,  perhaps 
identical  with  that  of  the  square  Hebrew  and  European  alphabets, 

-''   AinTiiianus  xxvii.  8. 


THE    WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF   THE   HITTITES.  301 

but  possessing  totally  different  phonetic  values,  syllabic  in 
character.  The  attempt  that  has  been  made  to  read  them  as 
Indo-European  alphabetic  characters  has  signally  failed,  but  the 
work  of  translating  them  by  the  Hittite  syllabary  is  not  yet 
complete.  Enough  has  been  read,  however,  to  shew  that  they  are 
Basque  of  an  archaic  kind,  and  that  the  Phrygian  pertain  to  the 
Persian  period,  while  the  Lycian  are  recent  and  of  the  time 
of  Grecian  supremacy.-*^  Nothing  meets  the  eye  except  the 
peculiar  language  of  Albania  on  the  Adriatic  until  Italy  is  reached. 
Of  its  many  non-Italian  inscriptions,  the  Etruscan  and  Umbrian 
only  have  been  read.  The  former  are  in  current  characters 
similar  to  the  Phrygian,  and  display  a  more  elaborate  form  of  the 
Basque  language,  not  differing  so  widely  from  that  now  in  use  in 
the  Pyrenees  as  to  present  any  serious  difficulties  to  the  interpreter. 
The  only  historically  important  document  is  that  contained  in  the 
Eugubine  Tables,  which  are  partly  Etruscan  and  partly  Umbrian, 
being  the  joint  record  of  Herti  King  of  Umbria  and  one  of  the 
Arretian  Cilnii  of  their  endeavour  to  suppress  a  rebellion  of  the 
colonies  of  both  States.  The  Umbrian  Tables  are  in  Roman 
characters, and  their  language  is  archaic  Irish,  which  it  is  a  mystery 
that  no  one  discovered  before  this  time.  There  is  also  a  book 
written  by  one  Inghirami  purporting  to  contain  fac-similes  of 
Etruscan  documents,  and  a  Latin  commentary,  which  he  found  on 
his  father's  estate,  having  l)een  buried  there  since  the  time  when 
Etrui'ia  fell  wholly  into  the  hands  of  the  Romans.  The  work  was 
retjariied  as  a  foro^erv  almost  from  the  beo-inninsf,  and  the 
commentary  has  an  undoubted  flavour  of  Livy,  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  there  are  indications,  taken  in  connection  with  the  recent 
discovery  through  the  Hittite  hieroglyphics  of  the  values  of  the 
Etruscan  charactei-s,  that  nobody  in  Inghirami's  time  possessed  the 
knowledge  necessary  to  forge  such  .i  work.  A  complete  re-ex- 
amination of  the  book  ami  an  indicarion  of  what  is  genuine  in  it 
may  soon  be  looked  for.  Till  that  appears,  it  is  premature  to 
mak<'  any  use  of  its  contents.  In  Spain  a  few  small  inscriptions 
called  Celt  Ihei'ian  ha\e  been  found  Itelonging  to  the  period  of 
Roman  occupatifMi  under  Scipio,    and    a   large   nund)er  of  coins 


'l"'\i'r,  .\sii'  .Miiifurc  ;  I'elloux,  Lycia. 


302  THE   HITTITES. 

inscribed  with  Celt  Iberian  characters.^^  Many  similar  coins  have 
been  found  in  the  south  of  France,  testifying  to  the  high 
civilization  of  the  Iberic  states  along  the  Mediterranean.  The 
Celt  Iberian  characters  differ  little  from  tlie  Etruscan,  and  are  very 
like  those  on  Parthian  coins.  Inscriptions  exist,  or  have  existed, 
in  the  Canary  Islands, but  these  the  writer  has  not  had  opportunity 
to  examine.  In  Britain  several  runic  inscriptions  have  come  to 
light,  which,  until  recently,  have  been  attributed  to  invading 
Norsemen.  Those  that  have  been  best  studied  are  the  monu- 
mental records  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  which,  in  ancient  days,  was  a 
great  centre  of  education.^o  The  letters  are  more  elons-ated  and 
rune-like  than  the  Etruscan  and  Celt  Iberian,  but  belong  to  the 
same  series,  and  yield  formulas  and  proper  names  thoroughly 
Hittite.  Their  age  cannot  be  determined  with  any  degree  of 
certainty,  owing  to  the  chaotic  state  of  the  British,  Scottish  and 
Irish  history  in  the  light  of  which  they  should  be  read,  but  some 
of  them  seem  to  antedate  the  Christian  era.^^  It  is  very  probable 
that  many  of  the  runic  inscriptions  of  Europe,  which  have  been 
translated  only  to  prove  them  historically  worthless  by  the  Norse 
staff,  are  not  Norse  but  Hittite,  and  that  important  historical 
discoveries  may  yet  be  made  by  means  of  them.  Even  the  famous 
Kingiktorsoak  stone  from  Greenland  may  be  found  to  honour 
the  Hittite  rather  than  his  Norse  masters.^^  There  is,  at  any 
rate,  abundant  evidence  that  the  Teuton  and  Scandinavian  adopted 
the  Hittite  characters,  and  that  these  formed  the  basis  of  all 
northern  alphabets  other  than  the  Roman  and  the  Greek.  Some 
writers  maintain  that  America  was  peopled  in  part  from  the  west 
of  Europe.  For  this  so  far  there  is  no  evidence,  but  the  deter- 
mination of  the  Greenland  stone  as  a  Hittite  monument  would 
do  much  to  prove  the  possibility,  even  the  likelihood,  of  such  a 
colonization.  Of  European  Hittites  retaining  their  ancient  speech 
the  Basques  form  one  division,  and  the  Ugrians  the  other.  The 
Akkadian  cuneiform  inscriptions  have  been  read  by  the  aid  of  the 
Ugrian  (Finn,  Lapp,  Mordvin,  Vogul,  Majyar),  but  the  purely 

29  M.  Henry  du  Boucher  of  Borda,   the  President  of  the  Societe  de  Landes  is 
applying  my  process  of  interpretation  to  these. 
•*   Buchanan,  Rer.  Scot.  Hist.  iv.  18. 
:ii   Trans.  Celtic  Society  of  Montreal,  1887. 
^2   Antiquitates  Americanse. 


THE   WESTERN   DISPERSION   OF   THE   HITTITES.  303 

Hittite  inscriptions  are  most  easily  rendered  through  the  Basque. 
The  tribes  of  the  Caucasus  have  preserved  this  Basque  Hittite 
fairly  well,  with  the  exception  of  the  aryanized  Ossetes.  The 
Albanians  of  Illyria  have  only  retained  enough  of  the  old  tongue 
to  shew  that  the  Hittite  was  once  in  the  land  they  occupy.  All 
other  European  Hittites  have  been  linguistically  submerged. 


304 


CHAPTER  XXI. 

The  Eastern  Migration  in  Asia. 

Cyrus  created  a  Persian  empire  Aryan  in  character,  but  in 
which  there  was  not  a  single  Aryan  province.  Its  name  was 
derived  from  the  Pereshites,  Parsi,  or  Parisii,  a  branch  of  the 
Celtic  Zimri  or  Cymri,  and  its  constituents  were  Celtic  and 
Hittite,  with  a  large  unhistorical  Semitic  substratum.  By  the 
time  that  Persian  domination  came  to  an  end  with  tlie  conquests 
of  Alexander  of  Macedon,  the  Persian  languaoe  and  institutions 
had  been  carried  from  Asia  Minor  to  Bokhara,  but  the  people  had 
not  been  unified.  Alexander  came  and  went ;  the  Seleucidae 
followed  him  as  lords  over  the  former  empire  of  the  Persians  ; 
and  then,  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century  B.C.,  and  in  the  reign 
of  the  degenerate  Antiochus  Theos,  a  double  rent  took  place,  and 
the  Bactrian  and  Parthian  kingdoms  came  into  existence.  The 
first  of  these  was  Hellenic  in  character,  although  the  people  over 
whom  its  Diodoti  ruled  were  Bakhdhi,  Pukudu,  or  Pactyan 
Hittites.  Till  about  eighty  years  before  Christ  the  Greek  rulers 
struggled  in  the  east,  and  then  the  Hittites  swept  them  away. 
But  the  Parthian  kincrdom  had  nothincr  to  do  with  the  Greeks. 
The  Bharatan  race,  that  had  contended  for  the  throne  of  Egypt 
and  given  it  three  Osortasens  and  the  vice-regal  Hadar  and  Shimon, 
that  had  placed  Hadad  and  Saul  and  Hadar  on  the  throne  of 
Gebalene,  that  had  reigned  with  Ismidagan  in  Babylonia,  and 
with  Chushan  Rishathaim  in  Mesopotamia,  and  whose  Hadadezers 
had  lorded  it  over  Zobah  and  Damascus  down  to  the  time  when 
the  second  Tiglath  Pileser  began  to  destroy  the  Hittite  kingdoms, 
reasserted  itself  after  five  centuries  of  obscurity.  The  Hittite  was 
not  dead,  nor  was  he  aryanized  sufficiently  to  hinder  his  being 
influenced  by  the  traditions  of  the  past.  The  Parthians  were  the 
most  numerous  and  warlike  of  the  Hittite  tribes  of  Persia,  but 
tlicy  were  not  the  only  revolters  against  Antiochus.  The  Dahae , 
Mardi,  and  Tochari,  with  many  others,  made  common  cause,  and 


THE    EASTERN    MIGRATION    IN    ASIA.  305 

the  leader  of  revolt  was  not  even  a  Parthian  but  a  Rassite  bearing 
the  ancestral  name  of  Arsaces,  like  the  Arish  under  whose  name 
the  Shah  Nameh  represents  Ma  Reshah.  The  next  kint(  was 
Teridates,  an  inverted  Hadadezer,  but  in  honour  of  his  predecessor 
he  kept  up  the  Arsacid  name.  The  Maspii  or  Mesabatae  must 
have  fallen  into  the  league,  for  Mithridates,  who3e  name  is  com- 
pounded with  that  of  Matred  the  daughter  of  Mezahab,  was  the 
sixth  of  the  Arsacidae.  The  Rassites  appear  again  in  Artabanus, 
the  house  of  Ras  ;  after  whom  many  Hittite  monarchs  sat  upon 
the  Parthian  throne  and  ruled  from  Asia  Minor  to  India  till  the 
year  226  A.D.,  when  Artaxerxes  the  son  of  Sassan  rose  in  revolt 
and  made  Persia  once  more  an  Aryan  empire.  The  Parthians, 
therefore,  were  the  last  upholders  of  Hittite  sovereignty  in  the 
west.  From  what  we  know  of  the  character  of  their  monarchy 
there  is  no  reason  to  lament  its  fall.  It  was  built  up  on  the  old 
state  system,  its  ruler  being,  like  those  of  ancient  Hittite  days,  a 
king  of  kings  ;  and  the  marvel  is  that  with  such  a  constitution  it 
should  have  maintained  itself  for  nearly  five  centuries.  The  over- 
throw of  the  Parthian  empire  must  have  set  loose  upon  Asia 
and  afterwards  upon  Europe  those  bands  of  roving  warriors 
known  as  Alans  and  Avars  and  Huns,  Lombards,  Heruli  and 
Vandals,  the  descendants  of  the  Temenite  Elon,  the  Zerethite 
Heber,  and  the  Zocharite  Jephunneh,  of  the  Ethnanite  Leophrah, 
the  Achuzamite  Aharhel,  and  the  Temenite  once  more  in  the  line 
of  Bozrah.  More  quietly,  the  Moschi  and  Ras  passed  into 
Sarmatia  and  imposed  their  names  of  Muscovite  and  Russian, 
while  horde  after  horde  dashed  itself  like  succeeding  waves  of  the 
sea  against  the  rising  power  of  the  Brahman  in  India,  and, 
breaking,  overflowed  into  the  northern  regions  of  Asia. 

Long  before  Alexander  visited  India  as  a  C()n(|ueror  the 
Hittite  and  Brahman  had  found  that  land  of  gold.  It  has  lieen 
shewn  how,  back  in  Median  days,  the  strife  of  the  Aiyati 
or<{anizei's  of  new  nationalities  led  to  eiin'o-ration  from  the  Persian 
empire.  It  is  not  likely  that  thcxse  who  then  passed  into  India 
wei-e  the  tii'st  colonists  of  that  countiy.  ('usliite  and  SJiemite 
liad  doubth'ss  found  refuge  thert;  long  ages  before,  but  kingly 
rule  ami  historic  (mipire  (jnly  began  when  the  Hittite  and  his 
.Japhetic  companions  made  it  ilic'ir  home.  There  is  no  trustworthy 
C-'O) 


306  THE    HITTITES. 

history  of  India,  for  the  Raja  Tarangini,  full  as  it  is  of  genuine 
historical  matter,  is  as  untrustworthy  as  regards  its  arrangement 
as  Geoffrey's  History  of  England  or  the  Psalter  of  Cashel.  There 
are  other  works  that  contain  historical  information,  such  as  the 
two  great  epics  so  often  alluded  to,  and  the  Puranas,  but  they 
deal  with  ancieht  things,  and  with  events  that  did  not  happen  on 
Indian  soil.  Valuable  for  the  history  of  the  race,  they  tell 
nothing  of  the  history  of  Hindustan.  Monuments  there  are  in 
India,  inscribed  with  strange  characters  shewing  analogy  to  those 
of  Parthia,  Asia  Minor,  and  Etruria,  but  of  a  more  ancient  type 
than  any  of  these.  Ignorance  of  their  Hittite  origin  has  caused 
them  to  be  re(;arded  as  ancient  forms  of  the  Devanao-ari  letters, 
which  probably  they  are,  and  to  be  read  with  similar  values,  the 
result  being  a  language  that  is  neither  Sanscrit,  Pali,  nor  anything 
else,  but,  like  the  ;so-ca]led  Pelasgic  tong-ue  of  the  Eugubine 
Tables,  whatever  the  decipherer  chooses  to  make  it.  It  is  no 
wonder  that  these  inscriptions  afford  no  historical  information, 
nor  that,  when  they  seem  to  do  so,  they  teem  with  absurdities 
and  contradictions,  necessarily  arising  out  of  readings  which, 
though  false,  have  the  merit  of  consistency.  The  work  of 
deciphering  these  inscriptions  as  Hittite  has  only  been  begun,  so 
that  sufficient  material  for  rewriting  tlie  history  of  India  has  yet 
to  be  procured.  The  kings  who  have  left  the  inscriptions 
frequently  call  themselves  kings  of  the  Kita.  Others  are  kings 
of  the  Saki  or  Shuchites,  of  Siberia,  of  the  Tsutemames,  Indian 
Zuzims  or  Chichimecs,  of  Aramaka,  of  Tsutaruki,  which  recalls 
the  Elamite  Sutruks,  of  Futa,  of  Mekisa,  of  Marwar  and 
Bushiyama.  The  oldest  inscription  deciphered  is  140  years  later 
than  the  nirvana  of  Buddha  or  403  B.C.  It  simply  states  that 
the  Kita  chose  Nebutaki  for  their  king.^  Twenty  years  later 
Tsumaki  of  the  Sakis  proclaims  his  accession  to  the  throne  ;  and, 
twenty  years  after  that,  Kabutaku  declares  that  in  his  person  the 
Andataka  line  was  superseded  by  that  of  the  Sakis.  There  are 
several  inscriptions  relating  to  the  Guptas  who  reigned  over  the 
Tsutarukis.  It  is  vain,  however,  to  attempt  at  present  to  give  a 
history  of  the  Hittites  in  India. 

1    Tliese  translations  have  not  yet  been  published,  but  the  values  of  many  of  the 
Lat  characters  are  set  forth  in  Etruria  Capta. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION    IN   ASIA.  307 

If  Gautama  Buddha  really  lived,  as  all  traditions  assert,  in 
India,  and  attained  nirvana,  or,  in  other  words,  died  in  543,  B.C., 
at  the  a^e  of  eighty,  it  is  evident  that  there  must  have  been  a 
Hittite  kingdom  of  Saki  or  Shuchite  origin  in  that  country  as 
early  as  the  end  of  the  seventh  century  B.C.,  or  about  the  time 
when  the  Assyrian  empire  fell  before  Nebuchadnezzar  and 
Cyaxares.  This  is  not  unlikely,  for  the  Shuchites,  to  whose  line 
Ma  Reshah  belonged,  were  a  warlike  people,  the  determined 
enemies  of  the  Egyptians  who  called  them  the  Shasu,  and  of  the 
Assyrian  monarchs  whose  early  records  are  full  of  contests  with 
and  victories  over  the  Sukhi.  Once  driven  out  of  Assyria  and 
Babylonia,  their  wanderings  eastward  became  continuous,  for  no 
track  intermediate  between  the  Tigris  and  the  Indus  a])pears  to 
have  borne  their  name.  They  and  the  Massagetae  are  always 
spoken  of  as  the  most  eastern  of  the  Scyths.-  Ancient  as  they 
were,  for  Gautama  was  of  their  race,  they  were  posterior  to 
another  tribe  or  family  called  Andataka,  to  which  probably 
Nebutaki  belonged,  seeing  that  he  was  twenty  years  before  the 
Sakis  in  Mathura.  This  Nebutaki  speaks  of  himself  as  the  choice 
of  the  Kita,  whicli  may  mark  him  as  a  member  of  the  leading  or 
Achuzamite  family.  After  its  expulsion  from  Carchemish  the 
chief  Achuzamite  line  held  sway  in  Hyrcania,  and  subse(]uently 
in  Chorasmia,  so  that  its  lineal  descendant,  the  kingdom  of  Oude 
with  a  capital  Lucknow,  must  have  been  more  recent,  unless  we 
suppose,  what  is  not  improbalile,  that  the  royal  Hittiti;  family, 
tired  of  the  Japhetic  rule  t)f  Sagaras  and  Pisiris,  betook  itself  to 
the  Ganges  there  to  exercise  independent  authority. 

Probaljly  th(!  oldest  kingdom  in  India  was  that  of  Magadha, 
which  seems  to  have  been  Bahar  to  the  east  of  (Jude  and  south 
of  Nepal.  Thert' can  be  no  universal  emperor  say  the  liiiulus 
but  in  Magadha  which  is  the  chief  of  the  kingdoms.'*  In  its  old 
capital  liajagriha,  to  the  south  and  a  little  to  the  ciist  of  I'atna, 
are  the  I'cmains  of  the  .Jarasaiidli  ka  IJaitliak  oi'  throne  of 
Jarasanillia.  On  that  tlu-one  in  the  time  ol'  lluddlia  reigned 
})imsai'a  oi-  Vimbasara  and  his  son  Ajasat  oi'  Asoka,  aecoi'dnig  to 
the  Buddhist  traditions.      The   i-rligious  i-ef"oi'mer,  li()\\<'\ cr,   who 

-    Hi-rodotus,  I'liriy,  Stralin,  Ariiaii. 
H.'ir.lv,  .Manual  ..f  r.n.l.lluMn. 


308  THE   HITTITES. 

became  the  first  Buddhist  king,  and  set  up  inscriptions  in  the 
old  Hittite  character  called  the  Lat  Indian,  terms  himself 
Tsurama,  and  indicates  that  Asoka  was  his  religious  name.  It 
is  likely  that  Asoka  is  the  Japanese  yasungi,  to  preserve  peace. 
He  and  Gorami,  who  may  have  been  his  brother  reigned  240 
years  after  Buddha,  and  belonged  to  the  line  of  Tsumeki  which 
commenced  160  years  after  the  death  of  the  Indian  sage.  No 
reliance,  therefore,  can  be  placed  upon  the  statements  of  the 
Buddhist  histories.  The  Indians  anticipated  by  many  centuries 
the  falsehood  of  some  modern  philosophies,  which  has  given  rise 
to  all  sorts  of  mythic  theories,  that  the  idea  is  everything  and  the 
fact  of  no  importance.  The  original  kingdom  of  Magadha  was 
one  that  had  been  transferred  from  Megiddo  on  the  Kishon  in 
Palestine  to  Maachah  north-east  of  Lake  Merom,  thence  to  a 
Massagetic  region  in  northern  AfFghanistan,  and  finally  to  the 
banks  of  the  Ganores.  Here  then  we  find  the  Massagetae  with  the 
Sacae.  The  Kenite  genealogy  makes  Pelet  son  of  Jachdai  the 
founder  of  this  kingdom  which  bore  the  name  of  his  son  Maachah; 
the  sons  of  Maachah  given  are  Sheber,  Tirhanah,  Shaaph,  and 
Sheva  ;  and  from  the  two  latter  came  Madmannah  and  Mach- 
benah.  There  is  apuzzling  statement  of  the  Kenite  scribe  or  his 
interpreter  to  the  effect  that  Maachah  was  the  father  of  Abi 
Gibeah,  or  that  Sheva  was,  or  that  Sheva,  besides  being  the 
father  of  Machbenah,  was  also  the  father  of  Gibeah  or  Gibegah. 
This  Gibeah  is  the  same  as  Gibeon  whose  wife  was  Maachah, 
and  from  whom  the  family  of  Saul  was  derived.*  Tsumeki,  the 
ancestor  of  Tsurama  or  Asoka,  calls  himself  a  Saki.  He  must, 
therefore,  have  dethroned  the  rightful  kings  of  Magadha,  who, 
taking  the  name  of  Sheber  the  eldest  born  of  Maachah,  called 
themselves  kings  of  Sibir  and  Kita.  Such  an  one  was  Pala 
Humara  the  son  of  Hoshrori :  his  descendants  named  Siberia. 
Returnino-  to  Tsumeki,  he  is  the  Susunas'o  of  the  Mahavansa  or 
History  of  Ceylon,  the  only  ancient  history,  besides  the  Raja 
Tarangini,  that  India  possesses.-''  He  is  said  to  have  headed  his 
dynasty  seventy-two  years  after  Buddha,  which  is  eiglity-eighb 
years   too   early.     But   between   liim   and    Asoka  the    usurping 


*    1  Chron.  ii.  4i)  ;  comp.  viii.  29.     Tins  complicates  the  genealogy  of  Saul. 
^    ,M:ihavaiisa,  Intrnd,  xlvii.  " 


THE    EASTERN    MIGRATION    IN    ASIA.  309 

Nandas  are  placed,  and  these  may  be  the  Andataki  kings  of  the 
inscriptions,  who  for  a  time  displaced  the  Sakis,  as  the  Sakis  had 
displaced  the  true  Magadhas.  The  Mahavansa,  however,  places 
Asoka  224  years  after  Buddha,  which  differs  by  nineteen  only 
from  the  statement  of  his  inscriptions.  The  Vishnu  Purana 
makes  the  kings  of  Magadha  begin  with  Pradyota,  who  is  the 
ancestral  Pelet  from  the  borders  of  Egypt  and  Palestine,  in 
2100  B.C.  Then  after  138  years  came  the  Sisunagas  for  360,  the 
Nandas  for  100,  and  the  Mauryas  for  137.^  As  the  first  of  these 
Mauryas  is  Chandragupta,  and  the  third  Asoka,  the  chronologi- 
cal value  of  this  history  is  evident.  In  a  somewhat  mutilated 
inscription  from  Mathura  in  Agra,  Tsurama  calls  himself  the 
lord  of  the  world  and  king  of  Tsuteraame,  Futatami,  Marwar,  and 
Bushiyama,  dating  his  document  240  years  after  Buddha. 
Here  then  is  a  Hittite  monarch  whose  sway  extended  over  the 
greater  part  of  northern  India,  from  beyond  Patna  in  the  east  to 
the  Indus  on  the  west,  und  if  543  B.C.  be  Buddha's  true  date, 
contemporary  with  Seleucus  Nicator. 

The  Indian  king  whom  the  Greek  writers  place  in  the  time 
of  Seleucus  is  Sandracottus  who  reigned  in  Palibothra.  In  defi- 
ance of  Ptolemy's  measurements,  which  set  Palibothra  much 
farther  west,  it  has  been  regarded  as  an  ancient  Patna.  Moreover 
Sandrabates,  which  as  a  tribal  name  may  be  supposed  to  connect 
with  a  Sandracottus,  is  placed  above  Methora  or  Mathura  and 
thus  to  the  west  of  the  Jumna.  Alexander  the  Great  did  not 
advance  farther  than  the  extremity  of  the  Punjab,  so  that  he  had 
no  opportunity  of  meeting  Tsurama's  predecessor.  That  prede- 
cessor is  called  Fune  on  the  monuments,  one  of  his  dates  being 
242  after  Buddha,  so  that  Tsurama,  Gorami,  and  he,  must  have 
Vjcen  contemporaries.'^  General  Cunningham  mentions  this  king, 
calling  him  Wem  or  Wen,  which  are  renderings  of  Vun  in  Yun- 
kao-ching,  the  niune  given  by  the  (Jhinese  to. the  great  Scytliic 


''    Vishnu  Puraiiii. 

■^  All  tlie  iiiscriptii)iis  here  f^ivcn  arc  fi-Diii  vol.  iii.  of  the  An'im'olo^ical  Survey  of 
India  or  from  a  i)a|)cr  by  Professor  I  )o\v.son  in  tlu'  Journai  of  th(;  Iloyal  Asiatic  Society, 
New  Sfrii's.  vol.  V.  In  the  former  Tsunieki's  is  No.  11  Plate  \iv.  Nehutaki's  No.  14 
Plate  xiv.  and  Kahutaki's  No.  18  Plate  \iv.  Tiie  iiis(Ti|ition  of  'J'surania  mentioned 
ahove  is  No.  10  in  the  same  plate. 

X    .Vrch.  Sur.  India,  vol.  iii.  Plate  xv.  .No.  IS. 


310  THE   HITTITES. 

conqueror  of  India  who  extended  his  empire  far  into  the  east 
and  the  south.^  The  Chinese  historians  say  that  the  king  of 
Sogdiana  in  the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century  A.D.  traced  his 
descent  from  Shaovu  Wen  of  the  Yuechi  horde,  as  did  ten  other 
princes.  His  coins  also  have  been  found  in  large  numbers 
inscribed  in  Greek  characters  OOHMO  or  Wemo.  This  Wen  or 
Fune  calls  himself  a  descendant  of  Tsuraeki,  but  Gorami  who 
claims  to  follow  Fune,  says  that  that  monarch  was  the  son  of 
Varma  and  the  grandson  of  Kufuri.^''  Now  the  Raja  Tarangini 
makes  the  wise  king  Avanti-Varma  the  son  of  Sukha  Varma, 
and  the  grandson  of  Utpala.^^  Neither  Utpala  nor  his  son 
Sukha  Varma  actually  reigned  in  Cashmere,  although  they,  as 
regents,  exercised  almost  absolute  authority,  but  Avanti  was 
raised  to  the  throne.  Yet  the  Raja  Tarangini  mentions  neither 
Tsurama  nor  Tchandragupta  or  Sandracottus.  Several  inscrip- 
tions mention  a  line  of  kings  called  Tsutaruki  or  Sutruk,  which 
the  Greek  would  naturally  change  to  Sandruk  as  he  changed 
Zoheth  to  Sundes  and  Gedor  to  Centaur  and  Gandar.  In  an 
imperfect  inscription  from  Mathura  the  line  of  the  Tsutaruk 
kino's  is  Qfiven.^^  Fune  or  Wen  is  mentioned  amonof  them  as  a 
recantino'  kingf,  which  must  mean  that  he  recanted  his  idolatry 
and  became  a  Buddhist,  for  this,  and  another  inscription  also 
from  Mathura,  state  that  Fune's  father  Viripa,  which  must  be  a 
surname  of  Varma,  and  his  son  Watsureba,  a  surname  of  Goi-ami, 
were  idolators.^^  The  first  inscription  is  of  late  date,  for  it  ends 
with  the  statement  that  Vicrara  broke  in  pieces  the  authority  of 
the  Varmas  over  the  Kitan.  There  is  a  dated  inscription  of 
Vicram,  the  Vicramaditya  of  history,  in  which  he  states  that  he 
ruled  in  the  city  of  Mathura,  that  he  called  his  people  to  exter- 
minate the  Tsutaka  Sakis,  and  to  serve  his  heir  Yofumi  in  the 
480th  year  after  Buddha,  that  is  to  say  in  the  year  63  B.C.^*  The 
Tsutaruki  inscription  calls  Yofumi  by  the  name  Gupta,  as 
Yofumi  Gupta,  and  places  him  226  years  after  the  great  chief 


^  Arch.  Sur.  \,.  44. 

1"  Arch.  Sur.  PI.  xvi.  No.  21. 

"  R.  T.  iv.  fil.  714. 

1-'  Arch.  .Sur.  India,  iii.  PI.  xvi.  Xo.  22. 

13  Arch.  Sur.  India,  No.  24. 

'<  Arch.  Sur.  India,  Pi.  xiv.  No.  12. 


THE    EASTERN    MIGRATION    IN    ASIA.  311 

Tsutaru,  which  would  set  Tsutaru  289  j'ears  before  Christ  and 
make  him  posterior  to  Tsurama.^^  The  Varinas  were  apparently 
usurpers  over  the  Tsutarukis,  while  the  Guptas  were  their  law- 
ful kings.  An  inscription  of  Takadova  Gupta  states  that  he  was 
king  of  the  Tsutarukis  and  successor  of  Yofumi  Gupta.^** 

A  synchronism  is  vainly  sought  for  in  the  son  of  Gorami 
named  Varma  Bikko  or  the  lame.  He  was  not  king,  his  authority 
coming  through  his  consort  Sena,  the  daughter  of  Basara  or 
Bagsara  of  Futa,  so  that  he  was  gomvari  or  regent  for  their  son 
Parta.  No  dated  monument  of  Bikko  or  of  Parta  has  been  read 
so  far,  but  as  Gorami,  the  father  of  the  first  and  grandfather  of 
the  second,  was  contemporary  with  Tsurama  about  800,  B.C.,  their 
history  must  lie  within  the  third  pre-Christian  century.  The 
Raja  Tarangini  places  Nirjita-Yarma  or  Pangu,  the  lame,  and  his 
son  Partha  in  the  year  908,  A.D.  Japanese  history  reduces  this 
somewhat,  making  Bourets,  who  is  the  same  Parta  or  Partha, 
ascend  the  throne  in  499  A.D.^'  The  agreement  between  the 
tales  of  infamous  cruelty  told  of  these  monarchs  in  the  Indian 
and  Japanese  histories  has  already  been  referred  to.  From  the 
few  inscriptions  available,  it  appears  that  Parta,  son  of  Varma 
Bikko  and  Sena,  called  himself  king  of  Futa,  which  was  the 
kingdom  of  his  maternal  grandfather  Basara  or  Bagsara,  a  claim 
which  was  contested  b}"  Bagori,  probably  a  son  of  Bagsara.  An 
inscription  from  Sravasti  .says  that  Parta  treacherously  attacked 
the  peaceful  Bagori  king  of  Futa,  whereupon  Rataha  Varma  who 
seems  at  that  time  to  have  been  the  Indian  suzerain,  sent  liis 
generals  Kumiri  and  Metori  against  Parta  and  his  father.  A 
second  Sravasti  inscription  .says:  "Rataha,  the  powerful  king: 
Kumiri  and  Metori  conquered  Varma  Bikko  the  father  of  Parta. "^'^ 
The  first  inscription  from  Sravasti  reads,  "  Metori  a{)p()ints 
Satakwata  :  having  treacherously  attacked  Bagori  the  jieaecful 
ruler  of  Futa,  as  an  offset  to  this  victoiy  the  rule  ovt'r  the 
Tsutaruki  is  taken  from  Parta."  The  Japanese  history  mentions 
Matori  as  ona  who  had  gov*Tned  the  empire  before  the  tiiiic  of 
Bourets,  and  who  after  his  accession   relicUed   but  was  coiiiiut'i-f(l 

'■■  -Vrch.  Sur.  India,  I'l.  xvi.  No.  22. 

"■  -Arcli.  .Sur.  India,  I'l.  xvi.  .\.,.  2;i. 

'•"  Tit^inK^>,    -Vnn.'il.s. 

'"  Thi'.-^f  Srava>ti  in-^criptiiais  ap'-  in  I'mffssnr  howsi.n's  paixT. 


312  THE   HITTITES. 

and  put  to  death.  The  Raja  Tarangini  makes  no  mention  of 
Metori  in  connection  with  Partha  and  his  father,  but  places  him, 
under  the  name  Matri  Gupta,  in  the  year  118,  A.D.,  as  the 
lieutenant  of  the  universal  monarch  Harcha  or  Vicramaditya  over 
Cashmere  to  succeed  the  brothers  Hiranya  and  Toramana.  Harcha 
himself  is  said  to  have  held  his  court  at  Ujein  in  Malwa,  but  it  is 
hard  to  reconcile  him  with  Rataha  or  Artaha  Varma.  A  long  but 
defective  inscription  of  Rataha  Varma  says  that  he  took  Pala 
Humara,  the  king  of  Sibir  and  Kita,  prisoner,  and  describes 
Rataha  himself  as  the  king  of  the  Tsutemame  or  Achuzamites. 
It  also  mentions  the  death  in  his  time  of  Sagara  king  of 
Aramaka,  and  refers  to  Cashmere,  but  a  break  in  the  inscription 
makes  it  impossible  to  say  in  what  connection.  Its  date  seems  to 
be  312  after  Buddha  or  231  B.C.'^  The  conquest  of  Sibir  and 
Kita  was  made  in  retaliation  for  the  act  of  Hoshrori,  king  of  these 
regions  or  peoples,  who  had,  as  we  learn  from  another  inscription, 
conquered  the  Tsutemame.  Hoshrori  was  the  father  of  Pala 
Humara.-*^  Rataha  called  himself  king  of  Sibir  after  his  conquest, 
for  a  third  Sravasti  inscription  reads :  "  Sataswata  saluting 
Rataha,  desires  to  inform  him  of  the  death  of  Satakara  the  father 
of  his  servant :  Sataswata,  the  successor  ot  Satakara  of  Aramaka, 
the  subject  of  the  father  king  of  Sibir."  Sataswata  is  not  the 
same  person  as  Satakwata,  whom  Metori  placed  over  Futa  instead 
of  Parta,  for  a  Mathura  inscription  makes  the  latter  the  son  of 
Kumiri  the  companion  in  arms  of  Metori.-^ 

These  excerpta  from  the  inscriptions  suffice  to  indicate  that 
Hittite  monarchy  began  in  India  in  the  seventh  century  before 
Christ,  and  that,  down  to  the  Christian  era  when  the  Guptas  were 
reigning,  the  monarchy  was  still  Hittite.  An  inscription  of  Rataha 
Varma's  makes  an  enigmatic  statement  regarding  the  relation 
between  the  cycle  or  era  of  the  Saki  and  the  age  of  Buddha, 
causing  them  to  differ  by  61  years.  Grammatically  it  reads  "  the 
age  of  Gautama  is  61  years  more  than  the  era  of  the  Saki,"  but  as 
Gautama  was  himself  a  Sakya  or  Saki,  these  61  years  should 
rather  be  added  to  his  543  and  make  the  Saki   rule   begin    in 


li*   Arch.  .Sur.  India,  iii.  PI.  xiii.  No.  6. 

-"   Arcli.  Sur.  India,  No.  4. 

-'    Arch.  Sur.  India.  I'l.  xiv.  15. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  313 

604,  B  C.2-  The  Sakis  were  plainly  usurpers  on  the  throne  of 
Magadha,  which,  equally  with  that  of  Oude  and  of  Sangala  of  the 
Cathaei  in  the  Punjab,  pertained  to  the  Achuzamites,  who  in  the 
inscriptions  are  called  Tsutemames  and  made  the  chief  people  of 
northern  India.  The  Egyptians  had  called  them  Hyksos  and 
Gagama,  the  Israelites,  Zuzim  and  Zamzummim,  and  the 
Assyrians,  Gamgumi.  In  Mexico  they  became  the  Chichi  mecs,  and 
are  now  represented  by  the  Shoshones  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
Their  Japanese  name  was  Tsuchigumi  or  earth-spiders,  and  they 
are  set  forth  in  history  as  enemies  of  the  early  monarchs  of 
Japan. -^  The  Sakis,  whose  royal  line  was  that  of  the  Varmas, 
called  themselves  kings  of  the  Tsutemames,  and  fought  against 
the  kings  of  Sibir  and  Kita,  whose  name  Sibir  declares  that  they 
were  the  rightful'  lords  of  Magadha.  Having  conquered  these, 
the  Saki  kings  reigned  over  northern  India  till  the  time  of  Vicram 
or  Vicramaditya  in  the  first  century  B.C.  He  brought  the  Saki 
and  Varma  rule  to  an  end,  and  established  that  of  the  Guptas. 
The  Gupta  line  is  one  that  presents  difficulties.  In  itself  the  word 
Gupta  at  once  recalls  the  Persian  Kobad,  the  Cappadocian  name, 
and  Jabez  or  Igabets  the  original  term  from  which  they  were 
derived.  The  Etruscan  Kupido,  a  masculine  proper  name  occur- 
ring on  many  monuments, and  that  of  a  god  impropeily  represented 
by  the  Latin  Cupid,  is  the  same.  Madhava  Gupta  and  Matri 
Gupta  are  names  that  explain  themselves  by  Mezahab  and 
Matred,  who  belonged  to  the  family  of  Jabez.  But  the  inscriptions 
agree  with  history  in  jnaking  the  head  of  the  Gupta  line  in  India 
a  certain  Tsutaru  or  Tchandra,  who  is  also  the  chief  of  a  people 
called  Tsutaruki.  Some  Susian  texts  contain  the  name  Sutruk 
or  Suti'uk-Nakhunte,  son  of  Halludus  and  kinjxof  the  Susians  in 
the  time  of  the  Assyrian  Sargon.  His  son  was  Kudur-Nakhniite 
who  worshipped  Lagamar  or  Laoiner,  so  that  the  name  Sutruk 
appears  to  lielong  to  the  Hepherites  of  Beth  Leciiem.'-'*  No  ancient 
alliance  makes  phiin  the  association  of  the  words  Tsutai'uki  and 
Gupta.  Sandracottus  or  Tcliandra  (ilu])ta  was  the  eoiitcnqtorary 
of  Seleucus  Xicator.     The  date   tlHl)   ij.C,  which   is  given  in   the 


■-"-    Arch.  Sur.  Iii'li.i,  PI.  .xiii.  No.  (>,  >,'rou|)  to  the.  ri^ht. 

-"'   TitHiiiifli,  .\niialis. 

-*    Ri-cords  of  the  I'list,  vii.  81. 


314  THE   HITTITES. 

inscription  containing  a  list  of  the  Tsutarukis,  must,  therefore, 
refer  to  the  year  of  his  death,  for  Seleucus  died  280  B.C.,  and  his 
contest  with  Sandracottus  was  in  310.  The  mysterious  Tsurama 
also  called  Asoka  may  have  been  contemporary  with  Sandracottus, 
although  his  inscriptions  contain  the  dates  803  and  300  B.C.  It 
is  unlikely  that  two  great  kings  ruled  at  the  same  time  in  northern 
India,  and  monumental  evidence  shews  that  the  Guptas  became 
vassals  of  the  Saki  Varmas  and  remained  such  till  the  time  of 
Vicram;  while  it  also  declares  that  Tsurama  ruled  from  Magadha 
to  the  Indus  and,  therefore,  over  the  kingdom  of  Sandracottus, 
which  lay  about  the  Jumna  and  other  western  tributaries  of  the 
Ganges. 

The  information  furnished  by  the  Greek  historians  concern- 
ing India  is  scanty  in  the  extreme.  The  recorders  of  Alexander's 
expedition  make  Taxila  the  first  city  of  any  note  which  he 
encountered.-''  This  oriental  Thessaly  was  an  outpost  of  the 
Zocharites  or  Tochari,  indicating  that  they  were  late  arrivals  in 
India.  While  in  the  friendly  Taxila,  an  embassy  from  the 
Abissares  or  Abiezrites,  who  dwelt  in  Abhisara,  which  the  Raja 
Tarangini  places  south  of  Cashmere,  visited  the  conqueror  and 
tendered  the  submission  of  that  people.  But  Porus,  king  of  an 
unnamed  country  Ij'ing  about  the  Hydaspes  or  Jhelum,  opposed 
the  progress  of  the  Greek,  and  was  overthrown.  It  is  there  that 
Ptolemy  places  the  Caspiri  and  the  Indian  writers,  the  Sauviras. 
This,  therefore,  must  have  been  the  region  of  Sibir  and  Kita,  over 
which  Pala  or  Para  Humara  afterwards  ruled,  and  the  Porus  of 
Alexander  shows  that  Para  was  a  hereditary  title.  The  Palas  or 
Paras  retook  Magadha,  their  ancient  home,  long  afterwards  in  the 
Christian  centuries.  Between  the  Hydraotes  and  the  Hyphasis, 
or  the  Ravi  and  the  Beas,  the  Cathaei  of  Sangala  made  a  stand, 
and  with  them  the  Oxydracae  and  the  Malli.  The  first  named 
were  Hittites  under  the  Japhetic  sway  of  the  Gekers  who  had  a 
city  of  their  own  in  the  north-west  called  Peucela  or  Abichail. 
The  Malli  were  perhaps  the  Mahalaites  related  to  the  Abiezrites 
or  Abissares  ;  and  the  Oxydracae  seem  to  be  the  same  as  the 
mystei'ious  Tsutaruki  or  Sutruks.  Alexander  took  Sangala,  and 
afterwards  followed  up  the  Oxydracae  and    Malli,  but  did  not 

•a   Arriaii,  Curtius,  etc. 


THE   EASTERN    MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  315 

extend  his  conquests  beyond  the  Punjab  although  he  had  heard 
of  powerful  monarchs  in  the  east.  Justin  says  that  he  was  about 
to  proceed  against  the  Cuphites,  probably  the  Guptas,  when  his 
army,  tired  of  marching  and  fighting,  declined  to  go  any  farther.-*^ 
Other  authorities  state  that  the  Indians  reported  the  existence  of 
a  great  kingdom  on  the  Ganges  bej^ond  a  desert  of  twelve  days' 
journey,  which  could  send  to  the  field  two  thousand  war  chariots, 
four  thousand  armed  elephants,  twenty  thousand  cavalry,  and 
two  hundred  thousand  infantry,  the  king  of  which  is  variously 
called  Xambranes  and  Agrammes.-^  The  latter  name  would  suit 
Tsurama.  While  Megasthenes  resided  at  the  court  of  Sandracottus 
as  the  ambassador  of  Seleucus,  there  obtaining  the  information 
which  the  Greeks  possessed  concerning  India,  the  king  of  Palibothra 
told  him  that  if  Alexander  had  pushed  on  to  the  Ganges  he  would 
probably  have  defeated  Agrammes,  wdio  was  a  barber's  son 
indebted  to  his  good  looks  for  his  union  with  the  reigning  queen, 
■whom  after  his  marriage  he  basely  put  to  death,  on  account  of 
which  and  other  acts  of  tyranical  cruelty,  his  army  was  in  a  state 
of  general  disafiection.  The  barber  part  of  the  story  is  told 
against  Sandracottus  or  Tchandragupta  himself  by  Indian  writers. 
Their  account  is  that  the  last  of  the  Nanda  kings  had  by  his 
legitimate  wife  Ratnavati  nine  sons,  Nandas  like  himself,  and,  by 
a  Sudra  woman  called  Mura,  Chandra  Gupta  and  his  brothers. 
The  latter  were  called  Mauryas  after  their  mother  :  but  a  Maurya 
is  the  son  of  a  barber  and  a  female  slave.  After  his  father's 
death  Chandra  Gupta  contended  with  his  half-brothers,  the 
Nandas,  and  received  assistance  from  a  Brahman  named  Janakya 
or  Kutalya,  who  longed  to  requite  the  Nandas  for  an  insult  of 
which  they  had  been  guilty  towards  him.  The  Brahman  over- 
threw the  Nandas,  and  placed  Chandra  Gupta  on  the  vacant 
throne.  That  the  lazy  Brahmans  w^ere  in  India  at  the  time  of 
Alexander  and  Seleucus  is  witnessed  by  Megastlienes,  who  tells 
how  these  revered  sophists  exercised  priestly  functions  and 
walked  among  the  p(M)ple  in  naked  dignity,  frc'e  fi'om  all 
obligations,  living  gratuitously  on  the  fat  of  tin;  land.  Janakya 
seeins  to  be  the  same  person   as  Sisunaga  or  Susunago,  and  the 

-■'■   Justin  xii.  H,  10. 

-'"    l)io(i.  Sic:    CuitiuH. 


316  THE   HITTITES. 

Tsuraeki  of  the  inscriptions.  After  Megasthenes,  another  envoy 
was  sent  to  Allitroehidas  the  son  of  Sandracottns,  named  Diaina- 
chus,  and  then  nothing  more  is  heard  of  India  till  the  time  of 
Antiochus  the  Great,  who  made  peace  with  king  Sophagasenus 
about  the  year  210  B.C. 

The  other  Hittite  kingdoms  mentioned  in  the  inscriptions 
are  those  of  Futa,  Aramaka,  Marwar,  Mathura,  Bushiyama,  and 
Makisa.  Most  of  these  countries,  perhaps  all  of  them,  were 
under  the  sway  of  Tsurama,  and  afterwards  of  Rataha  Varma, 
but  Vicram  is  the  first  to  call  himself  king  of  Mathura.  The 
name  of  Mathura  is  very  old,  for  it  denotes  a  city  occupied  for  a 
time  by  Krishna,  who  was  driven  out  of  it  and  compelled  to  take 
refuge  in  Dwaraca."^**  The  only  ancient  name  that  answers  to 
Mathura  is  Hamath  Dor.  In  the  classical  scheme  of  geography, 
Methora  on  the  Jomanes  lay  to  the  north  of  Agra  also  called 
Adis-dara  ;  to  the  south  of  it  flowed  the  river  Samtus,  and  below 
it  dwelt  the  Mathae.  These  seem  to  be  oriental  Hamathites, 
whose  name  is  given  in  Samtus,  Mathae,  and  Methora,  while 
Agra  sets  forth  Ezer,  and  Adisdara,  the  Rechabite  Hadadezer. 
The  Bharatas  were  the  great  Indian  race,  so  honoured  by  the 
Hindus  that  they  call  the  whole  of  their  country  Bharata  Varsha; 
nevertheless  the  Bharatan  name  does  not  appear  in  any  of  the 
incriptions  read.  Parta  or  Pharta,  however,  was  the  grandson  of 
a  king  of  Futa,  where  dwelt  the  Futamame  or  Futa  people,  and 
himself  assumed  sovereignty  in  that  country.  The  Vindhya 
mountains  to  the  north  of  which  Ozene,  the  present  Oojein,  is 
placed  in  the  country  of  the  Mathae,  bears  the  Futa  or  Pandu 
name  first  borne  by  Bedad  the  father  of  Hadad.  Oojein  itself  is 
probably  a  memorial  of  Achian  the  son  of  Shemidag  or  Ismida- 
gan,  the  last  Beerothite  monarch  mentioned  in  the  Kenite  list. 
Vicramaditya  reigned  in  that  city,  and  the  Palibothrian  region 
connected  with  Sandracottns  and  the  Guptas  was  somewhere 
between  it  and  Mathura.  Bushiyama  is  harder  to  locate.  It 
should  stand  in  intimate  relation  with  Futa  and  Mathura,  as 
these  contained  the  people  with  whom  Japanese  ancient  history 
deals,  and  as  Bushiyama  appears  in  Japan  as  Fusi  no  yama,  the 
highest  of  its  mountains.     It  is  a  great  pyramid  in  the  island  of 

-*'    Mahabharata. 


THE    EASTERN    MIGRATION    IX    ASIA.  317 

Niphon  on  the  borders  of  the  provinces  of  Suruga  and  Kai,  the 
summit  of  which  is  covered  with  perpetual  snow,  and  which  is  at 
the  same  time  the  most  active  of  the  Japanese  volcanoes.  In  India 
Bushiyama  was  probably  a  Himalayan  country.  The  word 
yama  means  a  mountain,  and  the  very  names  Imaus  and  Emodi, 
by  which  the  Himalayas  w'ere  known  to  the  Greeks,  were  forms 
of  Yama  and  Yamato,  the  mountain  and  the  mountain  door. 
The  name  Bushi  probably  appears  in  Becius,  the  Greek  name  of 
a  range  in  the  north  of  Gedrosia,  named  by  the  Hamathite  Gedors 
in  eastward  migration.  Marwar  still  retains  its  name,  being  part 
of  Ajmere.  It  is  inhabited  bv  the  Rathore  Mahrattas,  the  Rudras 
of  Sanscrit  mythology,  and  the  lineal  descendants  of  the  British 
Arthur  or  Jered  the  father  of  Gedor.  They  regard  themselves 
as  the  descendants  of  the  Persian  Nushirvan  or  Nauzer,  who  is 
no  doubt  their  ancestor  Ezer.  The  rajah  of  the  connected 
Meywar  has  the  kesJikeh  or  symbol  of  royalty  drawn  on  his  fore- 
head with  human  blood,  a  practice  repugnant  to  the  Hindu  and 
characteristic  of  the  Hittite.  Mekisa  the  kingdom  of  Gorami 
cannot  yet  be  determined.  Aramaka  was  under  Satakara  and 
Sataswata,  names  that  belong  to  the  Andhra  kings  of  India, 
among  whom  appear  Satakarni  and  Skandhaswati.^'-*  Pliny 
mentions  a  powerful  nation  of  the  Andarae  upon  the  Ganges. 
The  Andhras  became  the  rulers  of  Magadha  shortly  before  the 
Christian  era.  Krishna  is  said  to  have  been  the  second  king  of 
the  Andhra  line  ;  and  Sakrisma  occurs  in  an  inscription  of  Rataha 
as  a  king  of  Aramaka. ■'''  Now  the  kingdcjm  of  Oude  has  not 
appeared  in  the  inscriptions,  which  is  hardly  consistent  with  its 
fame  in  Indian  story.  Rama  was  its  great  hero,  and  lie  has  been 
identified  with  Harum  the  son  of  Regern,  who  as  Loknian  or 
Lakshman  is  the  eponym  of  Lucknow,  and  at  the  saiac  time 
the  ancient  Krishna.  Raniiiagui- opjxisite  Beiiaix's,andmanyneigh- 
bouring  places  similarly  named,  sugLjcst  that  ( )u<l(\  stretched  some- 
what be3'<)nd  its  present  proportions,  was  the  ancitMit  Araina  of  the 
Aramaka  or  Aivuiiak,  thus  re])resenting  the  seiiioi-  line  of  the 
Tsutemames  or  Zuzim. 

From  the  time  of  Tsuraiiia,  and  even  prior  to  it,  since  1^'une  or 

v;i    Fcrj,'-us..ii's  I'lssay  an  Imiiaii  ('AivinnAni^y. 
■■"    Hiival   Asiitlic  Siicv'.-,  .Iiiuiiial. 


318  THE  HITTITES. 

Wen  is  represented  as  having  professed  a  faith  which  his  father 
and  son  alike  abjured,  Buddhism  began  to  contend  with 
Brahmanism.  Although  there  is  no  reason  to  call  in  question  the 
existence  of  prince  Sidhartta  son  of  Sudho-dana  king  of  Kapila 
and  his  queen  Mahamaya,  who  gave  up  rank  and  fortune  to 
become  the  apostle  of  peace  and  self-abnegation  early  in  the  sixth 
century  before  Christ,  it  has  been  shown  that  he  preached  no  new 
doctrine,  but  the  same  that  descended  to  Pythagoras  in  the 
western  world  from  Paseach  the  son  of  Eshton,  an  ancient 
Sudhodana,  and  the  Pthah  Soccari  of  the  Egyptians.  Sidhartta 
if  a  Sakya  was  not  indeed  of  the  same  family  as  Paseach,  the 
Buddha  Sukra  of  the  east,  for  the  Sakyas  belong  to  Achashtari's 
Shuhite  horn,  and  Paseach  to  the  Chelubite,  but  he  was  like  him 
a  Kshattriya,  the  member  of  a  caste  scarcely  less  honourable  than 
that  of  the  Brahmans,  and  whose  one  occupation  was  war.  The 
traditions  of  ancient  days,  when  Pthah  of  the  handsome  face,  as 
the  Egyptians  called  him,  and  his  son,  the  princely  Job  of  Uz, 
followed  in  later  days  by  the  Beerothite  Saul  of  Rehoboth,  went 
forth  among  the  Hittite  tribes  proclaiming  human  brotherhood 
and  putting  down  with  a  strong  hand  the  bloody  sacrifices  that 
defiled  the  altars  of  the  ancestral  gods,  were  still  fresh  in  the 
memories  of  the  descendants  of  those  who  had  sympathized  with 
their  lofty  mission.  The  memory  of  these  reformers  came  to 
Sidhartta  while  reflecting  upon  the  uncertainty  of  earthly 
prosperity,  and  the  reality  of  old  age,  disease,  and  death.  He  did 
not  pretend  to  be  original,  but  allowed  that  there  had  been 
Buddhas  before  his  day,  far  back  in  the  past,  and  that  he  was 
going  to  walk  in  their  steps.  He  did  more  than  this,  for  he  had 
before  his  eyes  the  Brahman  priest,  proud  as  Lucifer  in  his 
stoicism,  ready  at  any  time  to  curse  and  destroy,  but  pi'iding 
himself  most  on  his  external  shew  of  humility,  and  acting  the 
mendicant  while  the  treasures  of  the  world  were  at  his  feet.  He 
would  out-Brahman  the  Brahman,  and  change  a  crown  for  an 
almsbowl,  and  live  in  all  cleanliness  and  decency  such  a  life  as 
would  shew  men  how  to  mortify  the  flesh  and  renounce  the  world. 
The  act  of  seli'-(lenial  is  always  respectable,  even  when  it  is 
(juixotic  and  productive  of  no  results.  With  Sidhartta  the  result 
was  the  attainment  of  merit,  whereby  he  would  raise    himself 


THE   EASTERN    MIGRATION    IN    ASIA.  319 

above  the  sphere  of  humanit}'  and  become  divine.  Brahmanism, 
which  was  at  first  mere  pagan  idolatry,  the  worship  of  many 
Hittite,  a  few  Horite  Egyptian,  and  some  Japhetic  Jerahmeelite 
ancestors,  who  had  been  men  of  power,  in  ancient  days  when  the 
world  was  young,  for  good  or  evil,  taught  Sidhartta  the  doctrine 
which  their  historical  theology  plainly  declared,  that  many  men 
of  the  past  were  the  gods  of  the  present.  The  Brahman  also 
taught  that  his  own  person  was  divine  with  its  own  inherent 
holiness  as  god-descended,  and  through  the  practice  of  the 
ostentatious  virtues  in  which  he  delighted.  The  young  prince 
had  come  somehow  to  the  heretical  conclusion  that  a  Kshattriya 
was  as  good  as  a  Brahman.  How  could  he  help  it;  were  not  full 
three -fourths  of  the  Brahman  deities  Hittites  like  himself,  and 
who  among  the  Hittites  was  greater  than  the  Kshattriya  ?  Out 
of  such  reasonings  and  questionings  arose  the  Buddhist  theology, 
which  is  virtually  a  declaration  that  there  is  no  theology,  because 
there  are  no  gods;  such  gods  as  there  are  any  man  may  become 
by  the  practice  of  virtue.  It  is  a  strange  thing  that  the  morality, 
the  humanity,  the  self-devotion  of  the  former  Buddhas  were  so 
well  remembered,  while  all  forgotten  was  the  great  God  of  Job, 
and  the  Lord  of  Heaven  to  whom  Saul  of  Rehoboth  lifted  his 
heart  and  h-mds.  The  purest  morality  next  to  that  of  tlie  Bible 
is  that  of  Buddha's  code,  spite  of  its  absurd  enactments  regarding 
all  sorts  of  life,  and  not  unlike  it  is  that  of  the  Golden  Verses  of 
the  Pythagoreans.  It  is  no  disparagement  of  the  men  who  could 
ajjpreciate  such  systems  to  tell  the  truth,  and  say  tliat  they 
came  down  from  distant  ages.  We  may  laugh  at  the  sanctity 
of  the  lives  of  animalculae,  at  the  transinigration  of  souls, 
and  other  absurdities:  may  reprosc  the  vii-tne  of  refined  self- 
love  which  dwe-lt  in  hearts  that  never  went  out  of  tlunuselves, 
but  ('ver  checkc'il  new  additions  to  the  pile  of  merit  as  a  cierk, 
with  book  in  hand,  might  iiote  the  goods  that  come  in  to  till 
his  shelves  :  we  may  shmldei-  at  the  thought  of  a  unive:-se  in 
which  men  oidv  i'(-ign.  call  them  Ihiddhas,  or  Pase  l->u<ldhas,  or 
whatevt-r  elst;  you  please  :  but  when  we  see  all  India  at  war,  men, 
like  demons,  burning,  ravaging,  desti'oying.  enslaving,  cutting 
each  other's  throats,  and  ])riding  thejuselves  on  the  ])yramids  of 
skulls  liefore  their  doors  and   the   bunches  oi'  scal])>  dangling   by 


320  THE   HITTITES. 

their  sides,  we  may  thank  God  for  Gautama  Buddha.  As  the 
apostle  of  peace,  young  Sidhartta  was  Paseach  and  Job  and  Saul 
repeated  after  a  thousand  years,  and  takes  rank  as  one  of  the 
world's  great  reformers. 

The  Hittite  elements  of  India's  population  were  favourable  to 
the  revival  of  the  ancient  systems,  being  largely  Achuzamite, 
Hepherite,  and  Achashtarite.  There  were,  however,  hostile 
elements  among  them,  but  these  were  of  small  account  compared 
with  the  hostility  of  the  Brahman.  Wherever  Buddhism  was 
preached  and  the  people  entered  the  path  of  merit,  the  Brahman's 
occupation  was  gone,  with  his  sanctity  and  his  living.  It  was  an 
appalling  thought  to  the  Brahman  that  he  would  have  to  work  for 
his  daily  bread,  that  his  lifelong  holiday  masquerading  was 
coming  to  an  end.  He  had  been  so  long  the  real  lord  of  the 
simple-minded  and  superstitious  Hittites  that  he  could  not 
realize  their  dispensing  with  his  valuable  services  ;  yet  here  was 
a  prince  of  the  warrior  caste  of  the  Kshattriyas  calling  upon  his 
countrymen  to  end  the  solemn  farce  which  they  and  the 
Brahmans  had  acted  for  ages  together.  From  Cashmere  to 
Gujerat,  and  from  the  Indus  to  the  Brahmaputra,  they  spread  the 
message  to  resist  Buddhism  to  the  death.  But  in  spite  of  their 
opposition  the  new  doctrines  found  their  way  among  the  Sakis. 
The  oldest  inscription  translated,  that  of  Nebutaki,  140  years 
after  Buddha  or  403  B.C.,  by  the  very  mention  of  the  sage's 
name  shows  that  this  king  had  adopted  the  creed  of  peace. 
Twenty  years  later  Tsumeki  of  the  Sakis  tells  the  same  story,  as 
does  Kabutaku  after  another  period  of  the  same  duration. 
Tsutaru  was  apparently  a  Buddhist,  but  Viripa  obeyed  the 
Brahmans  and  set  up  the  old  gods.  His  son  Fune  or  Wen  came 
back  into  the  Buddhist  fold,  but  Watsureba,  his  successor 
apostatized  like  his  grandfather,  and  bitter  were  the  wails  of 
the  Buddhist  priests,  now  grown  as  idle  and  worthless  as  their 
Brahman  predecessors  and  antagonists,  over  these  defections, 
that  lost  them  many  valuable  gifts.  Then  it  was  that  Tsurama, 
king  of  Magadha,  a  parricide,  a  great  warrior  who  had  subdued 
tlie  whole  of  northern  India,  caring  little  apparently  for 
Alexander  or  Scleucus,  repented  of  his  evil  deeds,  became  a 
patron  of  Buddhism  and  changed  his  name  to  Yasuka  or  Asoka, 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  321 

the  giver  of  peace.     He  set  up  inscriptions  all  over  the  land,  of 
one  of  which  the  following  is  a  tentative  translation.^" 

"  Hear,  I  pray,  the  desire  of  the  mighty  Asoka  ;  pardon  do  ye 

accept. 
See,    violence   has   divided   the  kingdom,   the   violence   of 

sti>ength  ;  within  cease  law  and  justice  ;  alike  are  lord 

and  king. 
Leave  the  assembly  of  the  doers  of  violence  ;  avoid  the  com- 
pany of  the  measurers  of  strength. 
Hear,  I  pray,  the  desire  of  the  new  king  named  Asoka  the 

mighty  :  to  you  pardon  is  ofFered.^^ 
The  violent  years  are  ended  :  let  the  unhappy  years  end 

now,  let  them  end  forevei'. 
The  violent  years,  O  the  violent  years,  blushing  I  despise 

them  ;  let  there  be  years  of  pleasantness. 
The  violent  years,  O  the  violent  years,  blushing  I  despise 

let  pleasant  years  and  years  of  peace  remain. 
As  the  house  lord  hearing  the  housebreaker  guards  the  door 

so  do  ye  lock  Buddha's  gate. 


Do  I  pray  what  the  amnesty  defines. 

Hear  the  desire  of   the  great  Asoka  of  which   the  writing 

efives  information. 
Cease  to  imitate  the  wicked  customs  of  the  unrighteous. 
Take    to  yourselves  individually  the  confession  which  the 

writing  has  given. 
Do    not  deliberate   (procrastinate)  I   pray :    accept    pardon 

beforehand. 
Let  all  repentant  ones  accept  universal  pardon  freely. 
Obey  the  amiable  lord  :  I  pray  you  listen  to  the  desire  of 

the  mighty  Asoka. 
See  that  ye  leave  the  false  gods  ;  for  pardon,  I  pray  you, 

obey  the  wish  of  the  great  Asoka. 
Leave  the  seductive  rites  of  evil,  despise  their  secret  sports. 
He  who  (juits  the  army  of  the  powerful  will  obtain  protection 

from  him  who   is  the  loi'd. 


■'■"    Royal  Asiatic  Kocy's  .(ounial. 
'■'    Tlir;  original  means  "  nicknanifd  "  Asoka. 
(21) 


322  THE   HITTITES. 

Hear  ye  who  delight  in  delusive  lust,  and  give  up  the  sweet 

rites  of  wickedness, 
O,  do  ye  forsake  these  evil  rites  :  Tsurami,  the  rightful  owner 
of  the  kingdom  of  the  Sakis." 

This  inscription  makes  it  plain  that  Tsurama  or  Tsurami  was 
in  earnest  on  behalf  of  peace,  purity,  and  humanity.  Sidhartta's 
teaching  bore  fruit  at  last  after  240  years,  and  very  lovely  fruit, 
had  there  only  been  a  God  behind  this  blessed  gospel  of  free 
pardon  to  every  blood  stained-wretch  and  degraded  votary  of 
worse  than  bestial  divinities.  The  gods  had  not  changed,  for 
Mexico  with  its  human  holocausts  is  yet  to  come.  The  iniquity 
of  Canaan  was  filled  up.  Now  India's  cup  is  brimming  over. 
Honour  to  the  royal  warrior  who,  repenting  his  own  evil  deeds, 
and  seeking  the  better  life,  stems  the  tide  of  iniquity,  giving 
to  his  wide-spread  subjects' the  Buddhist  gospel,  since  he  has  not 
the  Christian  to  bestow. 

From  the  time  of  Tsurama  Buddhism  became  the  religion  of 
all  northern  India,  and  found  its  way  into  Thibet,  China,  and 
distant  Ceylon.  According  to  Japanese  history,  it  was  introduced 
into  Japan  about  550  A.D.,  in  the  reign  of  Kinmei,  but  this  is  a 
mistake,  for  the  Japanese  were  in  India  and  received  the  new 
creed  before  the  reign  of  their  king  Bourets,  the  Parta  of  the 
monuments  and  the  Partha  of  the  Raja  Tarangini.^^  ^he 
struggles  of  Buddishm  with  Sintoism  or  pagan  idolatry  form 
important  chapters  of  Japanese  history  for  comparison  with  that 
of  Hittite  India.  The  kings  of  Saurashtra  or  Gujerat  are 
supposed  to  have  begun  their  reign  about  157  B.C.  by  some 
writers,  by  others,  a  hundred  years  later.  They  represent  the 
Zerethite  line  of  Jesher  which  must  have  accepted  Buddhism,  if 
indeed  Buddhism  was  accepted  by  it,  with  a  very  bad  grace.  The 
Zerethites  were  the  earliest  Hittites  expelled  from  India,  for  they 
are  found  in  the  Loo  Choo  archipelago,  in  Mexico  as  its  first  royal 
line,  that  of  the  Toltecs,  and  in  Peru,  as  the  Incas.  Everywhere 
they  appear  to  have  been  hostile  to  Buddhism,  as  they  were  in 
ancient  days  to  the  humane  creeds  of  Jabez  and  Saul  of  Rehoboth. 
The  Brahmans  during  these  dark  days  for  their  creed,  took  refuge 
in  the  south,  in  Gujerat,  and  with  the  Guptas  who  had  no  love  for 

^^   Titsingh. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  323 

Buddhism  as  a  rule,  although  some  of  their  petty  kings  adopted 
it.  The  Brahmans  also  drew  together  and  formed  a  nationality 
of  their  own,  losing  their  character  as  priests  and  a  Hittite  high 
caste.  War  was  waged  outside  of  India  proper  by  the  Sakis. 
Uniting  with  the  Parthians  in  warfare  against  the  Greek  Bactrian 
kingdom,  which  might  have  proved  a  refuge  for  the  Brahmans, 
and  a  formidable  rival  of  the  Magadhan  kingdom,  they  broke  it 
into  fragments  in  the  year  127  B.C.  One  principality  remained 
in  the  Hindu  Koosh  north-west  of  Cashmere  which,  in  the  time 
of  Menander  140  B.C.,  had  extended  its  sway  far  into  India. 
Against  this  the  Hittite  tribes  warred  incessantly,  and,  about  the 
time  of  Yicramaditya,  it  came  to  an  end,  and  the  Brahman  was 
isolated  from  his  Japhetic  brethren.  Meanwhile  the  Guptas  had 
been  nursing  their  wrath  against  the  Varma  dynasty  of  the  Sakis. 
Yicramaditya  or,  as  he  calls  himself,  Vicram  arose  in  Oojein  which 
properly  belonged  to  the  Futas  or  Bharatas.  He  is  called  a  Hindu 
or  Brahman  by  the  historians  of  India,  but,  in  his  proclamation 
at  Mathura  calling  for  the  extermination  of  the  Sakis,  he  names 
Yofumi  Gupta  as  his  successor  or  heir.  This  proclamation  is 
dated  the  480th  year  after  Buddha  or  68  B.C.,  at  the  time  when 
the  Parthians  were  contending  with  the  Armenians  and  the 
Bomans.  The  reign  of  the  Sakis  came  to  an  end,  and  for  a  time 
Brahmanism  was  re-established.  It  is,  therefore,  more  than  likely 
that  the  Brahmans  aided  the  Guptas  in  their  revolt,  and  that  the 
Saki  overthrow  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  Brahman  victory. 

This  victory  was  of  short  duration.  Vicramaditya  is  said  to 
have  been  assassinated,  and  there  is  no  independent  record  of  the 
reign  of  Yofumi  Gupta,  but  two  inscriptions  of  his  successor 
Tokadova  Gupta  contain  an  injunction  to  his  people  the 
T.sutarukis  to  enter  the  Buddhist  path.^'  A  period  of  upheaval 
now  set  in,  of  which  no  trustwoi'thy  particulars  have  come  down. 
Hittite  tribes  from  beyond  the  Indus  and  from  tlie  Ijanks  of  the 
Oxus  and  Jaxartes,  those  that  Buddhism  had  expelled  into 
Tartary,  those  that  had  become  discontented  with  vXnnenian  and 
Parthian  rule,  descended,  now  tliat  the  strong  hand  was  gone, 
that  union  was  lost  and  dissensions  had  weakened  the  governments, 
upon   the  civilization    that   had   (le\-eJoped   dufing   the  years   of 

'•-'■'  Arcli.  Sur.  of  India,  vol.  iii.  I'l.  xvi.  No.  23  ;   I'l.  xviii.  I). 


324  THE   HITTITES. 

peace  ;  and  these  successive  waves  of  Yuechis,  Tokhares,  and  other 
so  called  Scythic  tribes,  which  are  mentioned  as  if  they  were  the 
only  Scyths  that  India  had  known,  built  up  new  kingdoms  on  the 
ruins  of  the  old.  The  Yuechis,  to  judge  by  their  coins,  seem  to 
have  brought  with  them  a  degenerate  Mithriac  cult,  such  as  the 
Magi  had  instituted  in  Media.  The  American  Yuches  originally 
of  Georgia  claim  to  be  children  of  the  sun ;  their  most  ancient 
town  was  Kofita  and  their  name  for  one  of  their  race  is  Kawita.^* 
According  to  Chinese  history  the  Yuechis  or  Yuettis  were  in 
Cabul  a  century  B.C.,  and  a  Chinese  emperor  concluded  a  treaty 
of  peace  with  them.^^  Were  th^y  not  the  ancient  Jahdaites, 
represented  in  America  by  the  Utes  of  Utah  as  well  as  by  the 
Yuches  of  Georgia,  and  thus  the  genuine  Guptas  or  Jabezites, 
seeing  also  that  their  art  is  identical  in  character  with  that  of  the 
later  Guptas  ?  The  Brahmans,  although  active,  had  not  succeeded 
in  putting  an  end  to  Buddhism.  In  the  end  of  the  fourth  century 
A.D.  a  Chinese  Buddhist  monk  Fahian  visited  India,  the  holy 
place  of  his  religion.  He  found  almost  the  whole  country 
Buddhist,  with  Brahman  heretics  here  and  there,  who  were  no 
longer  priests  but  merchants,  writers,  seamen,  working  like  other 
people  for  their  living :  there  was  not  a  Brahman  kingdom  in  all 
the  land.^^  In  Java  and  the  adjoining  regions,  however,  the 
Brahmans  propagated  their  faith. ^''  Two  later  Chinese  pilgrims 
in  the  sixth  and  seventh  centuries  report  the  decline  of  Buddhism 
and  the  degeneracy  of  its  priesthood ;  yet  even  in  the  seventh 
century  the  Brahman  states  were  few  and  small.  The  monastic 
system  was  the  cause  of  the  overthrow  of  the  religion  of  peace- 
It  reproduced  the  worst  features  of  ancient  Brahmanism,  and, 
spite  of  the  gorgeous  ceremonial  of  the  religion,  lacked  the  dignity 
that  attached  to  the  Japhetic  recipients  of  charity.  The 
Brahmans  also,  having  betaken  themselves  to  work,  and  becoming 
engaged  in  the  activities  of  life,  forced  also  as  students  by  the 
success  of  Buddhism  to  remould  their  creed  and  create  new 
philosophical  systems  or  revise  the  old,  gained  by  these  means  a 
hold  upon  the  minds  of  the  intelligent  and  the  respect  at  least  of 

"*  Gatschet,  Migration  Legend. 

"•''  Foe  Koue  Ki  ap.  Trover,  Raja  Taiangini  ii.  447. 

"••  Fa  Hian,  Vjy  Beal  ;  Hwen  Thsang,  Julien  ;  Foe  Koue. 

'•'~  Crawford's  Indian  Archipelago,  ii.  207. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA  325 

those  who  could  not  appreciate  their  teachings,  but  who  could 
compare  them  with  the  stupid  owlish  creatures  that  ministered 
in  the  Buddhist  temples  and  whose  everlasting  alms-bowl  they 
knew  only  too  well.  They  did  not  trouble  themselves  with  the 
victories  of  Buddhism  in  the  past,  since  the  violent  years  to  blush 
for  were  no  more,  and  they  did  not  see  from  what  the  religion  of 
Gautama  had  delivered  them.  Contented  to  judge  the  tree  by  its 
present  crop,  they  saw  that  the  fruit  was  very  worthless,  and 
cared  not  how  soon  the  stem  that  bore  it  was  cut  down.  A 
religious  war  began  in  the  south  where  the  Brahmans  were 
strongest,  and  spread  to  the  north  where  the  Mahrattas,  recalling 
the  glory  of  their  ancestors  the  Maruts  of  the  Brahman  pantheon, 
took  up  arms  against  the  men  of  peace.  The  strife  continued 
until,  in  the  end  of  the  tenth  century,  the  Mahommedans  entered 
the  land,  soon  after  which  Indian  Buddhism  became  extinct.  The 
Brahman  triumphed  in  the  east  as  in  the  west,  imposing  his 
language  or  dialects  of  it  on  many  tribes  of  Hittitc  origin,  driving 
the  remnant,  that  would  not  leave  the  land  wliich  their  race  had 
held  for  a  thousand  years,  into  the  mountain  and  the  jungle, 
and  guarding  the  passes  of  the  Himalayas  against  the  return 
of  the  Hittite  host  that  had  shaken  the  dust  of  India  from 
their  feet  and  had  passed  into  the  north,  wanderers  upon  the  earth 
once  more. 

Independent  and  Chinese  Tartary  are  full  of  the  geographical 
records  of  the  Hittites,  but  their  history  in  these  regions  is  yet  to 
write  from  Chinese  and  Mongol  sources.  Khiva  tells  of  Ziphites 
in  the  north,  Aral  and  Karakal  of  the  line  of  Aharhel,  and  the 
Mongolian  Doerben  Oeroet  meet  us  on  the  way  as  Hittites  over 
whom  the  Mongol  even  triumphed  and  whom  he  reckoned  among 
the  triVjes  of  his  race.  No  certain  point  is  reached  until  we  arrive 
in  Siberia  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Yenisei,  where  a  miserable 
remnant  of  the  Khitts  still  dwells,  and  at  Sibir  and  Tni-uchausk 
that  commemorate  the  Shebcr  and  Tirchanah  wlio  founded  in 
distant  Palestine  the  original  Magadha  kingdom.  The  n>gion 
about  the  Yenisei  is  one  of  mouiuls  like  Eui-opean  Seythia  and  tiie 
valleys  of  the  Ohio  and  the  Mississippi.  The  Khitun  dead  were 
Vniried  there,  and  from  thcii*  tombs  many  objects  oi"  art  attesting 
an    ancient    art<l    peculiar    eivilizution,    havi!    heeii    taken.       ( )n 


326  THE  HITTITES. 

individual  stones  and  on  rocks  by  the  river  side  inscriptions  were 
made  by  the  scribes  and  artists  of  other  days,  that  resemble  more 
closely  the  Sinaitic  written  rocks  and  those  of  America  than  any- 
thing else.  Happily  they  are  not  only  mere  pictographs  of 
hunting  scenes  rudely  executed  ;  many  are  in  characters  coarser, 
freer  in  style,  yet  analogous  to  those  which  the  Hittite  has  left  in 
India.  They  are  brief  yet  intelligible,  and  their  language  is 
hardly  different  from  the  archaic  Japanese  of  the  Indian  inscrip- 
tions, nor  does  it  differ  materially  from  the  Japanese  written 
language  of  to-day.  But  they  are  Buddhist,  so  the  Kenite  must 
have  thrown  himself  into  the  Buddhist  movement,  devoting  his 
art,  as  a  royal  scribe,  to  the  service  of  the  servants  of  Gautama. 
How  great  a  wooden  civilization  reared  itself  upon  and  about  the 
mounds  we  cannot  tell,  nor  have  we  data  on  which  to  erect  a 
commencement  for  it.  The  historian  must  first  be  the  epigrapher 
and  tell  what  the  wandering  Hittite  has  to  say  about  himself. 

The  authors  of  the  inscriptions  in  the  Yenisei  mound  country 
were  the  Raba  Kita,  also  called  Kita  ga  Raba  and  Rabamame, 
which  mean  the  Raba  of  Kita  and  the  Raba  people.  The  inscrip- 
tions mention  as  a  hostile  people  the  Futamame,  using  to  denote 
them  the  same  term  that  appears  in  some  of  the  Lat  Indian 
inscriptions.  We  have  found  the  Futa  in  India  representing  the 
Bharatan  race  in  Oojein,  and  have  seen  the  Varma  Sakis  dethron- 
ing the  usurping  Parta,  whose  grandfather  Bagsara  had  been  king 
of  Futa.  They  may  in  migration  be  the  same  people  as  the  Pety 
of  the  Chinese  historians,  who  regarded  the  word  as  one  of  Chinese 
oriofin  meanincf  northern  barbarians.  It  included  as  a  designation 
the  Khitan,  the  Hi,  and  the  Mokho,  and  did  not  come  into  use 
till  the  seventh  century  A.D.^  But  the  Mongolian  and  Thibetan 
authors,  who  mention  the  Mongols  prior  to  the  time  of  Jenghiz 
Khan,  call  them  Bide  or  Bede,  and  do  not  seem  to  have  been 
indebted  to  the  Chinese  for  the  appellation.  It  is  said  that  a 
revolution  having  taken  place  in  Thibet  in  which  the  prime  min- 
ister put  the  reigning  prince  to  death  and  seated  himself  on  the 
throne,  the  three  sons  of  the  murdered  man  fled  to  other  lands. 
These  were  Borratschi,  Schivaghotchi,  and  Blirtii  Tschino. 
According  to  Japanese  story   the   dynasty   of   Nintok    became 

S'*  Klaproth  in  Titsingh,  Annales,  and  in  the  San  Kokf. 


THE   EASTERN  MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  327 

extinct  in  the  person  of  the  cruel  Bourets,  whom,  as  Parta  of 
Futa  in  India,  Rataha  Varma  dethroned.  Biirta  Tschino  the 
youngest  son  went  to  Govangbo,  but,  mistrusting  the  Govangbo 
people,  he  left  them,  crossed  the  sea  called  Tenggis,  and  came  at 
last  to  the  great  water  named  Baikal.  There  about  the  Borchan 
chalduna  mountains  he  met  the  Bida.  They  questioned  him  as 
to  his  origin  and  he  informed  them  of  his  direct  descent  from 
many  illustrious  lords  of  Enedkek  or  Hindustan  as  well  as  from 
the  Thibetan  Tuehl.  Thereupcm  the  Bida  people  consulted 
together,  and  at  last  said  :  "  This  youth  is  of  noble  birth  and  will 
make  a  beginning  for  us,  let  us  exalt  him  to  be  our  prince."  So 
they  made  him  their  prince  and  obeyed  his  behests. -^'-^  The  con- 
stant association  of  the  Beerothite  name  with  Futa  and  Bida,  and 
the  fact  that  the  name  of  Hadadezer  is  found  in  Japan  as  Zada 
Akira,  and  among  the  American  Iroquois  as  Atotarho,  evidencing 
a  Beerothite  element  in  the  Japanese  and  Iroquois  populations, 
tend  to  prove  that  Futa,  Pety,  and  Bida,  arc  the  same  word  as 
the  Kenite  Bedad  and  Sanscrit  Paiidu,  reproducing  in  Asia  the 
Betah  which  was  counted  with  Berothai  as  a  chief  city  of  the 
Hadadezers  of  Hamath  Zobah.  Their  appearance  in  Mongol  his- 
tory, in  which  also  the  Doerben  Oeroet  or  men  of  Arba  have  a 
place,  suggests  that  the  Mongols  were  a  hybrid  race,  consisting  of 
mingled  Hittite  and  Japhetic  (Jerahmeelite)  elements,  which  did 
not  become  physically'  fused  into  typical  Mongolism  until  after 
the  time  of  Kublai  Khan.  This,  however,  is  but  a  passing  sug- 
gestion. These  Futa-mame  are  represented  as  the  enemies  of  the 
Raba  Kita,  a  people  whose  violence  was  feared  by  the  worshippers 
of  Buddha,  who  protected  the  funeral  convoys  of  tlieir  chiefs  with 
armed  bands  when  passing  through  the  Futa  country  to  the  place 
of  sepulture.  The  Futa,  therefore,  nuist  have  renounced  the 
Buddhism  piofessed  by  their  ancestors  in  India. 

To  determine  the  Khitan  family  wlioiii  the  Ral)a  (jr  iVrba 
Kita  represented,  the  monuments  nuist  be  consulted.  One  of 
these  reads  as  follows  :  "  Tiie  temple  attendants  of  Buddha  ])r('- 
sent  a  petition,  to  lionour  Buddha  Anata,  to  king  Sakata.  The 
youthful  consort  (A'  Sakata  ha<l  destroyed  the  foundation  of  the 
round  house.  The  disci))I<'s  r)f  the;  law  desire  the  re-ci'cction  of 
■'■'•>   Kliiprotli,  Asi;i  l'..lygl.itt:i.  'J';!. 


328  THE   HITTITES. 

the  broken  ruin.  To  proclaim  Buddha  Anata,  the  righteous  king 
Sakata  convoked  the  poor  and  the  rich.  To  him  who  gives  three 
days  labour,  Buddha  promises  to  overlook  the  united  deeds  of 
three  hundred  years.  Sakata  acquires  discipleship  the  970th 
year  from  the  death  of  Buddha.  The  Baba  people  are  convinced 
by  reason  of  (the  doctrine  of)  peace."  This  important  document, 
which  belongs  apparently  to  the  early  days  of  Khitan  monarchy 
in  Siberia,  for  no  king  with  dated  record  older  that  of  Sakata 
has  been  found,  shows  that  Buddhism,  to  which  we  are  indebted 
for  these  monuments,  was  struggling  to  maintain  itself.  It  also 
indicates,  along  with  other  inscriptions,  that  it  was  the  practice 
of  the  Khitan  kings  of  Siberia,  as  of  those  in  India  and  Japan  to 
associate  with  themselves  in  royalty  the  taishi  or  heir  apparent 
who  became  a  Cajsar  to  the  monarch's  Augustus.  Such  a  taishi 
was  the  youthful  consort  who  had  destroyed  Buddha's  round 
house  and  him  Sakata  seems  to  have  survived.  In  another 
inscription  Sakata  is  said  to  have  lived  more  than  ninety  years 
and  to  have  been  succeeded  by  his  grandson  Matome,  whom 
Jidzuta  followed.  Makuba  is  given  as  the  name  of  Sakata's 
widow.  An  inscription  without  date  tells  of  warfare,  and  of 
Buddhist  priestcraft  in  making  use  of  the  widow  of  the  slain  king- 
to  obtain  contributions  for  the  support  of  the  disciples  of  the 
alms-bowl.  "  King  Kumida  overcame  and  destroyed  king 
Yosuno.  Attend  to  the  prayer  of  the  writing,  the  letters  which 
Matoriki,  the  wife  (widow)  of  the  lord  of  the  kingdom,  granted 
to  be  engraved.  Four  peaceful  years  (she  spends)  in  special 
retirement,  relying  on  the  promise  of  Buddha  that  she  will  meet 
her  lord.  The  writing  announces  loss  (a  calamity) :  a  high  wind 
has  destroyed  the  temple.  The  widow  desires  contributions  to 
repair  the  temple  of  Buddha.  Let  there  be  peace."  A  similar 
request  is  made  by  Batoba,  the  widow  of  the  warrior  Sasu  and 
mother  of  his  successor  Nobagu  with  the  usual  promise  of  an 
indulgence,  but  in  this  form,  that  he  who  gives  five  days  work 
will  be  regarded  as  having  offered  six  hundred  prayers.  We 
have  thus  the  fact  of  a  Raba  Khitan  dynasty  and  people  holding 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Yenisei  early  in  the  fifth  century  of  the 
Christian  era.  It  is  also  seen  that  Buddhism  prevailed  among 
them  and  that  they  were  the  enemies  of  the  non-Buddhist  Futa, 


THE    EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN    ASIA.  329 

to  whom,  although  it  is  not  stated,  Kumida  the  slayer  of  king 
Yosuno,  belonged.  He  may  have  been  a  Beerothite  Shemidah. 
The  Raba  royal  names  masculine  are  Sakata,  Matome,  Jidzuta, 
Yosuno,  Sasu,  and  Nobagu,  and  the  feminine,  Makuba,  Matoriki 
and  Batoba.**^  Sankata  is  the  name  of  a  king  of  Cashmere  who 
appears  among  the  Varmas,  and  Sangata  finds  a  place  in  the 
Maurya  line  which  was  headed  in  Magadha  by  Chandra  Gupta 
but  which  speedily  fell  under  the  power  of  the  Varma  Sakis.  On 
a  sandstone  rail  from  Buddha  Gaya  in  India  the  name  Sankuta 
appears  as  that  of  a  descendant  or  successor  of  Gorami.^^  No 
Raba  is  known  in  Hittite  history  as  a  Shuhite  ancestor,  but 
Kapha  belonged  to  the  allied  Achashtarite  line  of  Cheiub,  and  his 
son  Ishhod,  as  the  ancestor  of  the  people  of  Sughdha,  or  the 
Sogdians,  might  furnish  the  name  Sakata.  Buddha  is  called  a 
Sakya,  but  his  father  Sudhodana  bears  the  Chelubite  name 
Eshton.  It  is  likely,  therefore,  that  the  Shuhites,  being  the  most 
extensive  of  the  Achashtarite  tribes  in  the  east,  srave  their  name 
to  all  of  them,  and  that  the  comparatively  small  body  of  the 
Hammurabites  or  Khanirabi,  known  in  India  as  the  Kamarupas, 
was  thus  classed  with  the  Saki.  Their  original  abode  in  India 
seems  to  have  lain  between  Sogdiana  and  the  western  part  of 
Cashmere,  the  Darvabhisara  of  the  latter  country  representing 
the  Abiezrites  of  Rapha,  and  the  Sogdians  of  the  former,  the 
senior  lino  of  Islihod.  This  identification  of  the  Raba  or  Siber- 
ian Re|)]iaiiu  with  the  Sakis  of  India  is  in  harmony  with  the 
Buddhist  account  of  the  ancestral  monarchs  from  whom  Gautama 
descended,  which  includes  Chetiya,  Upachara,  and  Mucliala,  or 
Ishhod,  Abiezer,  and  Machalah,  the  sons  of  Samlali  and  grand- 
sons of  Rapha.  The  Varma  name,  for  wliicli  in  one  placu'  that 
of  Viripa  or  Virupa  is  substituted,  will  thus  be  akin  to  tlic 
Sanscrit  Ijribhu  as  a  name  of  Ribhu  or  Orpheus  :  and  the  Raba 
Khita  or  Raljamame  coi-rcspoiid  to  the  Esthoniaii  liajipigunda 
and  the  Hauimui-abi  of  tlie  cuneifonn  legends.  It  must  have 
been  a  gi'eat  mcjral  victoiy  that  ])rought  the  descendants  of   (he 

<'^'  Si)as.sky,  Journal  of  the  Iin|..Tiiil  Suci<-ty  ..f  (J-'uirriipliv.  St.  i'l^tiTsburK,  vol.  \ii. 
]>.  Ill,  scq.  :  Other  iiisc:ni.ti<iiiH  coll. •(■t<(l  l.y  M.  \'l.  ^'.luf.■l■o^  of  St.  INtrrsliui>;  for  tli.- 
autlior.  Tli>'.-''  W'Ti'  iinpci'fi'C'tly  ;iii(l  vrry  iiicorii'ctl\'  ti-;iiislat<'il  sDiur  yi-:iis  :ii,'o  li.'foi'c 
thi-  luitlior  had  stu'licil  tho  Indian  inscri]itioiis  which  h'ad  up  t"  tiicni. 

'■    Arch.  Sur.  of  Intiia,  iii.  I'l.  xwi. 


330  THE   HITTITES. 

man-devouring  Simurgh  and  Harpy  into  the  peaceful  path  of 
Buddhism, 

We  can  now  decide  with  tolerable  certainty  that  the  Raba 
Kita  were  driven  out  of  India  by  Vicramaditya  shortly  after  63 
B.C.,  when  that  monarch  issued  his  edict  for  the  extermination 
of  the  Sakis,  and  revived  the  empire  of  the  Guptas  of  which  the 
Saki  Varmas  had  deprived  them.  The  Futa  cannot  have  been 
long  in  following  the  worshippers  of  Buddha,  for  the  same  Vicram 
reigned  in  their  capital  Oojein.  Taking  refuge  in  Thibet  and 
Tartary,  new  exiles  from  India  gradually  drove  them  northward, 
until,  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century,  they  reached  Siberia 
and  there  established  a  civilization,  the  nearest  approaches  to 
which  are  the  Scythic  to  the  north  of  the  Black  Sea  and  that  of 
the  American  mound  builders.  How  long  this  Yeniseian  Raba 
kingdom  lasted  we  have  at  present  no  means  of  knowing.  They 
were  not  the  first  of  the  Khitan  in  northern  Asia :  the  Jephun- 
nites  or  Huns  had  preceded  them.  These  Jephunnites,  the 
Armenian  men  of  Van,  the  Aven  of  the  Bible,  were  known  to  the 
Indians  as  the  Yavanas,  being  recognized  as  a  tribe  of  Bharata 
Varsha  or  Hindustan.  In  some  lists  of  the  inhabitants  of  Bharata 
Varsha  the  Hunas  replace  the  Yavanas,  and  they  are  generally 
thought  to  be  the  same  people.  The  name  Yephunneh  became  on 
certain  lips  Vun,  on  others  Wun,  as  the  Chinese  Yun  represents  a 
more  ancient  Wen.  This  gradually,  through  the  Greek  Gun, 
assumed  the  form  of  Hun.  The  Huns  first  appear  prominently 
in  Europe  in  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century  A.D.,  when  they 
pressed  upon  the  Goths  from  the  east  and  compelled  them  at  last 
to  seek  shelter  within  the  bounds  of  the  Eastern  Empire.^-  But 
in  Chinese  history  the  Hiun-yu  are  mentioned  in  the  time  of  the 
Shang  dynasty,  which  is  said  to  have  reigned  between  1766  and 
1234  B.C.*'^  If  at  such  an  ancient  period  the  Chinese  came  into 
contact  with  Huns,  it  is  certain  that  they  were  not  then  natives 
of  what  is  now  China.  A  more  reasonable  date  is  found  for  the 
appearance  of  the  Hiong-nou,who  were  contemporary  with  theHan 
dynasty,  between  163  B.C.  and  196  or  220  A.D.  It  has  already 
been    intimated    that  part  of    this   dynasty,   called   that  of   the 

■*-  Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall. 
«  (Jutzlaff. 


THE  EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  331 

Eastern  Hans  between  the  years  25  and  220  A.D.,  exhibits 
evidence  of  having  been  itself  a  Hunnic  line  of  invading  princes, 
in  its  royal  names  Hoping,  Heping,  Hingping,  and  Yuni'pinfi-. 
When  expelled  from  China,  the  Hans  took  refuge  eastward  in 
Japan  and  westward  in  Armenia,  the  old  home  of  the  Vans.  The 
Japanese  annals  state  that  the  Hans  arrived  in  their  islands 
about  300  A.D."  It  is  incontestable  that  the  Jephunnites 
colonized  Japan :  the  very  name  Japan,  or  Niphon  its  nunnated 
form,  plainly  declares  the  fact.  But  before  entering  Japan  they 
almost  of  necessity  passed  through  Corea.  The  Coreans  were 
known  to  the  Japanese  and  neighbouring  peoples  as  the  Hans. 
Their  chief  tribe  or  nation  was  called  Kaokiuli,  and  derived  its 
name  from  Keilah  or  Kegilah  the  Garmite  son  of  Naham.^''  A 
little  confusion  arises  from  the  change  of  r  to  i  in  the  word  Hazor 
or  Chazor  which  became  the  property  of  the  Jephunnites  in 
northern  Palestine  at  the  time  when  Israel  conquered  the  country, 
for  as  Hazol  or  Chazol  it  is  not  unlike  Kegilah  and  may  compete 
with  it  for  identification  with  the  Indian  Kosol  and  Armenian 
Cozala.  In  the  west  the  Huns  were  called  the  Khazars,  and 
sometimes  the  Akatir.  In  Mexico  the  Corean  Kaokiuli  were 
known  as  the  Acolhua  Tepanecs.^**  In  Pontus  of  Asia  Elinor, 
however,  a  distinction  is  drawn  between  Gazioura  or  Chazor,  and 
Gazelonitis  or  the  district  of  Kegilah.*''  It  is  evident  that  the 
Jephunnites  preceded  the  Raba  Kita  of  the  Yenisei,  and  their 
conefeners,  the  Futa  or  Beerothites  of  Bedad  and  Betali  in  north- 
eastern  migration. 

Tiiere  were  other  tribes  of  Hittites  that  formed  an  earlier 
advance  into  the  east.  As  we  cannot  tell  wlien  the  Jephunnites, 
a  remnant  of  whom  Alexander  found  in  Taxila,  were  driven 
towards  China,  nor  what  was  the  cause  of  their  migration,  so  is 
it  to  a  large  extent  with  the  Zeretliites.  As  Toltces  they  are 
mentioned  in  Mexican  history  the  lirst  of  all  th(^  Hittites; 
Chichimecs,  Tepanecs,  Zacatecs,  Aztecs  being  later  arrivals  in 
Anahuac.  They  appear  again  in  tin?  Loo  Choo  islands  us  an 
out-post  of  the  Japanese  race.     In  India  the  Daradas  were  once  a 

"  TitKingh. 

<■■'  Han  Kokf,  etc. 

^*  I».  <](!  Bodrbiiurg 

"  Stnihn,  (■tc. 


332  THE  HITTITES. 

powerful  people.  They  named  the  Zaradrus  river  in  the  Punjab 
and  possessed  Lahora,  which  was  an  oriental  home  of  the  Illyrians. 
Dellii  was  their  foundation,  a  name  intimately  connected  with  the 
migrations  of  the  Zerethites  in  Thibet,  and  the  original  of  the 
Toltec  Tollan.  There  was  Kurukshetra  or  Thaneswar,  which 
reproduced  the  original  battle-field  between  the  Kurus  and  Pandus 
of  Gebalene.  The  Raja  Tarangini  tells  of  wars  waged  by  the 
kings  of  Cashmere  against  these  Zerethites,  and,  when  Indian 
history  dawns,  the  Futa  or  Pandus  are  found  in  occupation  of  a 
great  part  of  the  Kuru  country,  planting  their  Agra  in  the  very 
midst  of  it.  The  Zerethites  did  not  submit  to  Buddhism,  and 
must  thus  have  been  the  first  to  seek  an  abode  in  which  human 
life  was  not  valued,  where  they  could  carry  forward  the 
sanguinary  rites  of  their  forefathers.  In  Gujerat,  an  out  of  the 
way.  region,  they  left  a  remnant  of  their  race,  while  the  main 
body,  passing  through  Thibet  and  northern  China,  gained  Corea, 
Japan,  and  the  Loo  Choo  islands,  and  finally  the  shores  of 
America,  not  alone  but  in  company  with  a  band  of  Hamathites  or 
Amoxoaques  who  recorded  their  deeds.  No  monumental  record 
of  these  Zerethites  in  eastern  migration  has  yet  been  found  :  the 
Mexican  annals  alone  tell  their  story.  Yet  in  Siberia,  Inbazk  and 
Pumpokolsk  seem  to  be  records  of  Bimhal  and  Pasach,  the  sons 
of  Japhlet;  and  the  great  desert  of  Kobi,  that  sent  so  many 
invading  tribes  into  China  proper,  may  have  received  its  name, 
not  from  the  Mongol  but,  from  the  descendants  of  their  ancestor 
Ziph.  When  the  Japanese  arrived  in  their  islands  they  found 
them  already  occupied  by  a  peculiar  race  whom  they  called,  after 
the  Chinese,  Mozin  or  hairy  men,  but  who  are  generally  known  as 
Ainos.  With  them  the  Japanese  had  long  wars  which  lasted  into 
the  eleventh  century.  Those  who  inhabited  the  Island  of  Yedo 
were  called  Atsouma  Yebis,  a  name  which  seems  to  connect  with 
Yebis-san-ro,  the  god  of  the  sea.'*^  Yeso  is  the  present  habitation 
of  the  Ainos  and  its  name  is  native,  as  is  Nossabou,  that  of  one 
of  its  bavs.  Among'  their  islands  also  are  found  Mosiya,  Mozia, 
Masaotsi,  Motofa,  Nayakoba,  Yefaito.  Their  account  of  their 
orii^nn  is  that  an  aged  couple  came  to  the  sea  at  Yesasi  vainly 
looking  for  something  to  eat.     In  a  dream  they  were  told  to  stir 

"•"^   Titsinf(li,  Annales  ;  San  Kokf,  181,  seq. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION   IN   ASIA.  333 

the  sea  with  a  stick  or  oar.  This  they  did,  when  a  white  froth 
or  scum  rose  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  under  which  they  founrl 
multitudes  of  little  herrings  called  nisin.  Satisfied  with  these 
they  remained  in  the  island,  and  had  a  great  family  of  descen- 
dants. The  old  man  received  the  name  of  Yebis,  and  his  wife, 
that  of  Omba  Kami ;  and  over  their  tombs  temples  were  erected 
in  their  honour.'*^  This  tradition  is  valuable  as  shewing  that 
Yebis  is  a  native  name  and  not  a  mere  Japanese  title  for 
barbarians.  The  language  of  the  Ainos  is  distinctively  Kliitan, 
resembling  some  Dacotah  and  other  American  dialects,  but  also 
showing  curious  analogies  with  the  Berber  speech  of  northern 
Africa.  It  is  very  likely  that  they  are  a  mixed  race,  which  has 
degenerated  through  ages  of  privation  from  a  nobler  original,  and 
that  a  large  AmmonoHittite  element  in  the  line  of  Jabez  enters 
into  its  composition.  Their  names  for  man  ainuh,gur,  and  oikyo 
are  not  peculiar  to  them,  for  hihnah  and  ivineha  are  Dacotah, 
eniha,  anihuh  and  onhwe,  Iroquois:  ccari  is  Peruvian,  heka 
Lesghian,  agii  Circassian,  ickkiga  Loo  Chooan,  oicckotsli  Koriak. 
The  Ainos  may,  therefore,  be  regarded  as  a  branch  of  the  Zuzim 
or  Chichimecs,  and  the  leaders  in  the  eastern  migrations  of  the 
Hittite  tribes. 

Returning  to  Siberia  which  the  Eaba  and  Futa  tribes  of  the 
Khitan  inhabited  early  in  the  fifth  century,  we  acc^uirc  by 
inference  the  story  of  a  migration  for  which  the  oriental  historians 
give  very  different  dates.  The  Chinese  say  that  the  Khitan  took 
Liao-tong,  which  lies  north  and  east  of  China  proper,  in  the  year 
907  A.D.,  and  from  thence  concjucred  northern  China,  giving  to 
it  a  Khitan  dynasty  and  the  mediaeval  name  Cathay  introduced 
to  Europe  by  Marco  Polo.  That  these  Khitan  were  the  Raba 
Khita  seems  likely  from  the  fact  that  the  first  of  their  eliirfs  who 
became  a  king  of  any  note  in  China  was  Slieketang,  whose  name 
is  too  like  that  of  the  Raba  Sakata  to  be  a  mere  coincidence.'"'^ 
Japanese  history  has  naturally  nothing  to  say  of  migi-ation,  ])ut 
places  Sagateno  in  the  year  (SIO  A.l).,  and  makes  his  successor 
Otomo,  a  name  not    uidike   the    Matome    of    the    inscriptions.-'' 

"   .San  Kokf,  212. 
■'"   fhitzlaff. 
■1    TitHiiiKh. 


334  THE   HITTITES. 

Turning,  however,  to  Corean  history  we  read  that,  in  685  A.D., 
the  Khitan,  who  had  dwelt  for  some  time  in  Liao-tong,  descended 
as  an  invading  host  upon  the  Corean  kingdoms,  took  possession 
of  northern  Corea,  and  held  sway  there  with  changing  fortunes 
till  1216,  when  they  were  expelled  or  subdued.^^  The  Chinese 
historians  do  not  make  them  disappear  from  Cathay  till  1125.  If 
we  accept  the  Corean  date,  the  Khitan  must  have  been  on 
the  borders  of  China  early  in  the  seventh  century  if  not  before, 
so  that  their  stay  in  Siberia  cannot  have  extended  over  two 
centuries  at  the  utmost.  There  must  have  been  Hittite  inscrip- 
tions, Siberian  in  character,  in  northern  China,  but,  if  they  have 
come  to  light,  no  public  mention  has  been  made  of  them.  The 
Raba  Khita  cannot  yet  be  traced  in  the  histories  of  Corea  and 
Japan  as  Rabas,  but  in  America  they  seem  to  have  constituted 
part  of  that  Dacotah  family  in  which  the  Seepohskah  or  American 
Shapsuch,  the  Mandans  are  found,  as  the  Upsarokas  or  Absarooke, 
the  remotest  of  the  Abissares  or  Abiezrites.  These  Indians  generally 
known  as  the  Crows  were  among  the  handsomest  and  most 
warlike  of  the  American  aborigines.^^  The  Japanese,  and  probably 
the  Coreaus  also,  have  ancient  inscriptions,  but  they  have  not 
been  studied  in  the  light  of  modern  discovery,  Japanese  writers 
contenting  themselves  with  efforts  to  set  forth  the  modern 
equivalents  of  the  ancient  characters,  instead  of  presenting  fac- 
similes of  the  original  documents.^*  All,  therefore,  that  can  be 
asserted  at  present  is  inference  from  geographical  and  tribal 
names  in  Asia,  taken  together  with  the  recurrence  of  the  same  in 
Mexican  history,  as  to  the  successive  waves  of  Hittite  migration 
into  the  east,  and  the  dates  at  which  the  older  immigrants  into 
Japan  became,  under  pressure  of  the  younger,  emigrants  towards 
the  American  coast.  Thus  we  learn  that  the  Jephunnites,  though 
one  of  the  earliest  of  the  migrating  tribes  of  the  Khitan,  must 
liave  been  one  of  the  last  to  occupy  Corea  and  the  Japanese 
islands,  inasmuch  as  they  are  now  the  chief  inhabitants  of  the 
former,  and,  with  the  Hamathites  or  Yamato,  the  principal 
occupants  of  the  latter.     The  oldest  American  colonies  from  the 

■  ■-■   San  Kokf. 

■  ■   Ciitliii,  North  American  Indians  ;  Schoolcraft's  Indian  Tribes. 
''    Ban  Nobutomo,  on  Ancient  Alphabets. 


THE   EASTERN   MIGRATION    IN   ASIA.  335 

mainland  of  Asia  cannot  antedate  by  any  lengthened  period  the 
rise  of  Toltec  dominion  in  Mexico,  which  is  said  to  have  be^^un  in 
721  A.D.,  although  some  accounts  take  it  back  to  717.^^  If  we 
allow  as  long  an  interval  between  the  beginning  of  the  Mound 
Builder  empire  in  North  America  and  that  of  the  Toltec  monarchy, 
as  elapsed  between  the  period  of  Sekata  in  the  Yenisei  mound 
country  and  the  establishment  of  Khitan  empire  in  Liao-tong, 
China,  and  Corea,  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century  will  be  time 
enough  to  bring  the  northern  Hittites  to  America.  There  seems 
to  be  evidence  that  the  southern  or  oceanic  Hittites  of  changed 
speech  came  to  Guatemala  and  Yucatan  at  a  much  earlier  period, 
but,  as  has  already  been  indicated,  the  changed  conditions  of  these 
semitized  Hittites  so  complicate  the  story  of  migration  as  to  call 
for  separate  treatment  from  the  historian. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  western  coast  of  America,  Hittite 
tribes,  other  than  those  which  passed  into  and  through  Corea 
and  Japan,  call  for  attention.  Of  these  five  remnants  still 
remain  in  Siberia,  including  the  Yeniseians,  Yukahirians, 
Koriaks,  Tchuktchis,  and  Kamtchatdales.  All  travellers  among 
these  tribes,  who  have  had  any  knowledge  of  the  so-called  abor- 
igines of  North  America,  have  been  struck  with  the  surprising 
likeness  between  the  two  peoples  in  personal  appearance,  habits 
and  arts.''*'  A  comparison  of  the  languages  spoken  by  these 
tribes  of  central  and  eastern  Siberia  witli  those  of  the  American 
Khitan  confirms  the  connection  thus  established,  althougli  few 
comparative  philologists  have  taken  the  trouble  to  make  the  wiile 
induction  necessary  for  such  a  comparison.  The  Yeniseian 
Koleda  and  the  Iroquois  Kcnc.fa,  each  denoting  a  village,  seem 
to  be  distinct  words,  but  when  it  is  discovered  that  Die  chiei 
dialectic  changes  in  the  Khitan  languages  consist  in  tlie  permu- 
tation of  the  li(iuids,  tlie  identity  of  the  two  words  is  at  once  per- 
ceived. The  present  Yeni-seians  can  hardly  be  the  same  ])e()ple 
as  the  Raba  Kita  of  the  inscriptions  in  their  country.  Tiieir 
name  of  Kenniyeng,  and  their  original  extension  towai-dsthe  ()bi, 
seem  to  mark  them  as  Paseacb.ites  in  the  line  of  ("lianoeh,  and 
the  Asiatic  I'elatives  of   the    Ivanienke  oi'  .Moliiuvks  of   .Viiiei-iea. 

"•    ]}.  do  liourbdurg. 

■     Ki'iitiaii,  I'cnt  liiff  in  Sihi  ri;i. 


336  THE   HITTITES. 

Farther  to  the  east  and  north,  dwell  the  Yukahiri  on  the  banks 
of  the  Jana,  Indigirka,  and  Kolyma.  They  call  themselves  Adon 
or  Andon  Domni ;  their  name  for  man  is  yada  or  yad/ti ;  and 
they  have  two  words  denoting  people,  koonshi  and  toroinma. 
Their  god  is  Chail  or  Koil.  In  point  of  language  they  have 
many  affinities  to  the  Tarahumaras  of  the  Aztec  Sonora  family 
of  America.  The  god  of  the  Yukahiri  seems  to  be  the  same  as 
the  Lesghian  Saal  or  Zalla,  who  is  the  Kenite  Saul  and  Mexican 
Quetzal,  but  they  themselves  do  not  belong  to  his  tribe  or 
nation,  the  Beerothites.  They  rather  represent  the  Maachathites 
or  Massagetae,  as  descendants  of  Tirhanah,  the  second  son  of 
Maachah,  and  their  name  of  Andon  Domni  connects  with  Ma 
Dmannah  rather  than  with  Temeni.  The  distinctive  character- 
istic of  the  Yukahiri  is  that  they  are  good  tailors,  being  expert 
in  skin  and  bead  work,  so  that  the  Tungus  employ  them  to 
make  their  garments.^^  Still  farther  to  the  east  dwell  the 
Koriaks  and  the  Tchuktchis,  the  latter  extending  to  Behring's 
Sti'ait,  which  some  of  them  frequently  cross  for  hunting  and 
trading  purposes  into  America.^^  The  Tchuktchis  represent  the 
widely  dispersed  Zochethites,  and  their  name  Tshekto  is  the  same 
as  that  of  the  American  Chacta  or  Choctaws.  The  legend  of  the 
Crawfish  Band  found  among  the  Choctaws  and  some  other 
American  (Dacotah)  tribes,  is  that  large  crawfish  dwelt  in  ancient 
times  in  holes  near  the  Choctaws  and  would  not  mix  with  the 
red  men,  but  retired  to  their  underground  dwellings  as  soon  as 
they  appeared  in  sight ;  some  Choctaws  lay  in  ambush  near  their 
holes,  and  when  the  crawfish  came  out  to  look  abroad,  cut  off 
their  retreat,  upon  which  the  crustaceans  surrendered,  had  their 
claws  clipped,  were  taught  to  stand  on  their  tails  which  soon 
developed  into  feet,  and  were  finally  admitted  into  the  Choctaw 
nation.''^  This  tradition  points  to  the  reception  of  a  foreign 
people  into  the  Zochethite  tribe,  and  the  crawfish,  which  is  the 
nearest  North  American  approach  to  a  scorpion,  suggests  that 
the  Cecropian  Jerachmeelites,  the  scorpion  men  of  Babylonia,  were 

•''7   Sauer's  Billing's  Expedition  to  the  Northern  Parts  of  Russia. 

'•^  Dall,  The  Origin  of  the  Innuit,  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  North  American 
Ethnology,  vol.  i.  pp.  93,  seq. 

'■'  Catlin,  North  American  Indians  ;  Dorsey,  The  Myths  of  the  Raccoon  and  the 
Crawfish,  American  Antiquarian,  vol.  vi.  p.  237. 


THE   EASTERN    MIGRATION    IN    ASIA.  337 

the  people  thus  admitted.  Here  then  is  another  historical  founda- 
tion for  the  story  of  the  white  man  among  American  Indian 
tribes.  The  Choctaw  story  of  migration  through  a  region  of 
intense  cold,  seems  to  indicate  that  the  Tshekto  made  their  way 
into  America  b}'  Behring's  Strait,  rather  than  by  the  Aleutian 
chain  or  by  a  long  sea  voyage.  The  Schelagi  who  formed  part 
of  the  Tchuktchis  were  their  near  relations,  the  Cilicians  or 
Colchians,  descended  from  the  Charashim  of  Joab,  the  Kenezzite. 
The  so-called  Cherokees  wdio  call  themselves  Chilake,  and  whose 
language  has  its  chief  affinities  with  the  Iroquois,  probably 
represent  this  family  in  America.  In  Mexico  they  were  known 
as  the  Chalcas.  The  Koriaks,  on  the  other  hand,  worshipped 
Arioski  the  god  of  war,  who  is  the  same  as  the  Iroquois  Ares- 
koui,  and  at  the  same  time,  as  the  Greek  iVres,  and  Ma  Reshah 
the  Achashtarite.*^^  In  the  Koriaks,  therefore,  the  Georgians 
may  be  found  rather  than  the  Colchians,  and  their  name  comes 
from  Korach,  the  eldest  son  of  Hebron,  the  son  of  Ma  Reshah. 
Closely  related  to  them  in  speech  are  the  Kamtchatdales,  who 
call  themselves  Itelnion.  Their  ancestor  was  Tigil  which  is  also 
the  name  of  their  chief  river.  His  wife  was  Sidanka,  and  the 
parents  of  this  first  pair  were  Katchu  and  Katligith.'"'^  There  is 
a  strange  mixing  of  traditions  in  this  theogony,  for  Tigil  is 
Zochar  as  Taxil,  Deucal,  Tiglath  ;  Katchu  is  Cheth  :  and  Katli- 
gith  is  a  Mexican-like  fcjrai  of  Jerigoth,  the  ancestress  of  Talmai, 
whence  the  name  Itelrnen.  The  Kamtchatdales  must,  therefore, 
be  a  mixture  of  Zerethites  and  Zoharites.  Adding  to  these  two 
stocks  that  of  the  Ethnanite  Tchuktchis  it  would  appear  that 
the  sons  of  Naarah  had  driven  those  of  Helah  into  the  north. 
The  connection  of  Tigil  an<l  Itelnien  is,  however,  very  dd  going 
l)ack  to  the  time  when  Teucer  son  of  Telanion  soon  aftei-  the 
Tnjjan  war  founded  Salaniis  in  CN'pi'us.  The  ])assngt,'  from 
Kamtchatka  to  America  was  In'  the  Aleutian  chain  ending  in 
Alaska.  The  great  cause  of  emigration  iVoni  tiiat  point,  from 
iiorthein  Siberia  and  from  .Jai)an  was  tin-  prcs^iiri'  df  In  stile 
ti'il)es,  a  pressui'c  whieh  bfgan  with  tlie  ex]iulsion  ol'  ;Miti-Huil(lliist 
ti'il)es   fi'oni    India   befoi-e'   the   (  liii^tian    Mra.   but    nt'   wliicli    tin.' 

•^"    .Miickiiitu-li,  ()iii:in  '.f  rli.-  .Xmtli  Am.  rii-aii  lii'liiin-.  t',I. 
••'    l'ricli:u->l,  I'hy-icil  lli-t-ry  <il  .M.uiLinil,  n.   II'.'.  .-■.,. 
(22) 


338  THE   HITTITES. 

tide  does  not  seem  to  have  reached  the  ocean  until  the  beginning 
of  the  sixth  century.^-  This  continued  without  intermission 
down  to  the  time  of  Kublai  Khan,  far  on  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  His  great  fleet,  manned  chiefly  by  Coreans  and  the 
tribes  of  northern  China  and  Siberia,  and  consisting  of  four 
thousand  vessels,  which  he  sent  to  the  conquest  of  Japan  was 
dispersed  by  storms,  and  doubtless  contributed  an  element  to  the 
population  of  America  ;  but  the  civilized  inhabitants  of  that 
continent  must  have  gone  forth  from  Japan,  as  did  those  who 
colonized  the  Loo  Choo  and  Meia-co-Shimah  islands  as  deliber- 
ately banished  exiles  in  large  sea-worthy  junks  well  manned 
and  provisioned,  to  find  an  unoccupied  land.  Since  1782,  no 
fewer  than  forty-one  Japanese  junks  have  been  known  to  be 
wrecked  on  the  coast  of  America,  twenty-one  of  them  since  1850. 
Some  were  deserted,  but  in  most  of  them  sailors  were  found  who 
settled  in  the  neighborhood  of  their  wrecks.^^  Such  being  the 
case  in  recent  years  when  the  voyagers  had  no  intention  of  com- 
mitting themselves  to  the  eastern  current.,  how  much  more  likely 
is  it  to  have  occurred  on  a  large  scale  in  the  times  of  upheaval  in 
eastern  Asia,  when  the  hunted  Hittite,  tired  of  weary  wanderings, 
ardently  sought  a  far  off"  home  in  which  he  might  dwell  at  liberty 
and  in  peace.  The  stories  of  revolt  that  occur  frequently  in  the 
ancient  annals  of  Japan  are  generally  accompanied  by  tales  of 
expatriation,  which  could  only  take  place  by  sea,  the  very  tide 
of  which  favoured  the  exile's  cause,  and  wafted  him  rapidly  to 
the  new  world.  The  Zerethite,  it  must  also  be  remembered,  was 
a  seaman.  As  the  Cherethite  his  fleet  had  swept  the  Mediter- 
ranean from  Crete  to  Sardinia,  and  as  the  Illyrinn  Dardanian,  he 
was  the  dreaded  pirate  of  the  Italian  and  Spanish  coasts.  In 
northern  Asia,  rivers  and  lakes  must  have  kept  up  his  water 
training,  but  whe